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           OpenLDAP LDAP (libldap, -lldap)


           #include <ldap.h>
           LDAP *ldap_open(host, port)
           char *host;
           int port;
           LDAP *ldap_init(host, port)
           char *host;
           int port;
           int ldap_initialize(ldp, uri)
           LDAP **ldp;
           char *uri;
           int ldap_set_urllist_proc(ld, proc, params)
           LDAP *ld;
           LDAP_URLLIST_PROC *proc;
           void *params;
           int (LDAP_URLLIST_PROC)(ld, urllist, url, params);
           LDAP *ld;
           LDAPURLDesc **urllist;
           LDAPURLDesc **url;
           void *params;
           #include <ldap_pvt.h>
           int ldap_init_fd(fd, proto, uri, ldp)
           ber_socket_t fd;
           int proto;
           char *uri;
           LDAP **ldp;


           ldap_open() opens a connection to an LDAP server and allocates an  LDAP
           structure which is used to identify the connection and to maintain per-
           connection information.  ldap_init() allocates an  LDAP  structure  but
           does  not  open  an initial connection.  ldap_initialize() allocates an
           LDAP structure but does not open an initial connection.  ldap_init_fd()
           allocates  an  LDAP  structure using an existing connection on the pro-
           vided socket.  One of these routines must be called before  any  opera-
           tions are attempted.
           ldap_open()  takes  host, the hostname on which the LDAP server is run-
           ning, and port, the port number to which to connect.   If  the  default
           IANA-assigned port of 389 is desired, LDAP_PORT should be specified for
           port.  The host parameter may contain a blank-separated list  of  hosts
           ldap_initialize()  acts  like  ldap_init(),  but  it returns an integer
           indicating either success or the failure reason, and it allows to spec-
           ify  details  for the connection in the schema portion of the URI.  The
           uri parameter may be a comma- or whitespace-separated list of URIs con-
           taining  only  the  schema,  the host, and the port fields.  Apart from
           ldap, other (non-standard) recognized values of the  schema  field  are
           ldaps (LDAP over TLS), ldapi (LDAP over IPC), and cldap (connectionless
           LDAP).  If other fields are present, the behavior is undefined.
           At this time, ldap_open() and ldap_init() are deprecated  in  favor  of
           ldap_initialize(),  essentially  because the latter allows to specify a
           schema in the URI and it explicitly returns an error code.
           ldap_init_fd() allows an LDAP structure  to  be  initialized  using  an
           already-opened  connection.  The  proto  parameter  should  be  one  of
           LDAP_PROTO_TCP, LDAP_PROTO_UDP,  or  LDAP_PROTO_IPC  for  a  connection
           using TCP, UDP, or IPC, respectively. The value LDAP_PROTO_EXT may also
           be specified if user-supplied sockbuf handlers are going  to  be  used.
           Note  that  support for UDP is not implemented unless libldap was built
           with LDAP_CONNECTIONLESS defined.  The uri parameter may optionally  be
           provided for informational purposes.
           ldap_set_urllist_proc() allows to set a function proc of type LDAP_URL-
           LIST_PROC that is called when a successful  connection  can  be  estab-
           lished.   This  function  receives the list of URIs parsed from the uri
           string originally passed to ldap_initialize(), and the  one  that  suc-
           cessfully  connected.   The  function  may manipulate the URI list; the
           typical use consists in moving the successful URI to the  head  of  the
           list,  so  that subsequent attempts to connect to one of the URIs using
           the same LDAP handle will try it first.  If ld is null, proc is set  as
           a global parameter that is inherited by all handlers within the process
           that  are  created  after  the  call  to  ldap_set_urllist_proc().   By
           default,  no LDAP_URLLIST_PROC is set.  In a multithreaded environment,
           ldap_set_urllist_proc() must be called before any concurrent  operation
           using the LDAP handle is started.
           Note:  the first call into the LDAP library also initializes the global
           options for the library. As such  the  first  call  should  be  single-
           threaded or otherwise protected to insure that only one call is active.
           It is recommended that ldap_get_option() or ldap_set_option()  be  used
           in the program's main thread before any additional threads are created.
           See ldap_get_option(3).


           If an error occurs, ldap_open() and ldap_init() will  return  NULL  and
           errno    should    be   set   appropriately.    ldap_initialize()   and
           ldap_init_fd() will directly return the LDAP  code  associated  to  the
           error (or LDAP_SUCCESS in case of success); errno should be set as well
           whenever appropriate.  ldap_set_urllist_proc()  returns  LDAP_OPT_ERROR
           on error, and LDAP_OPT_SUCCESS on success.

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