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           These  files  are  used by loadkeys(1) to modify the translation tables
           used by the kernel keyboard driver and generated  by  dumpkeys(1)  from
           those translation tables.
           The  format  of  these  files is vaguely similar to the one accepted by
           xmodmap(1).  The file consists of charset or key or  string  definition
           lines interspersed with comments.
           Comments are introduced with !  or # characters and continue to the end
           of the line. Anything following one of these characters on that line is
           ignored.  Note  that  comments  need  not begin from column one as with
           The syntax of keymap files is line oriented; a complete definition must
           fit on a single logical line. Logical lines can, however, be split into
           multiple physical lines by ending each subline with the backslash char-
           acter (\).


           A keymap can include other keymaps using the syntax
                  include "pathname"


           A character set definition line is of the form:
                  charset "iso-8859-x"
           It  defines  how following keysyms are to be interpreted.  For example,
           in iso-8859-1 the  symbol  mu  (or  micro)  has  code  0265,  while  in
           iso-8859-7 the letter mu has code 0354.


           Each complete key definition line is of the form:
                  keycode keynumber = keysym keysym keysym...
           keynumber  is  the  internal  identification number of the key, roughly
           equivalent to the scan code of it.  keynumber can be given in  decimal,
           octal  or hexadecimal notation.  Octal is denoted by a leading zero and
           hexadecimal by the prefix 0x.
           Each of the keysyms represent keyboard actions, of which up to 256  can
           be  bound  to  a  single  key. The actions available include outputting
           character codes or character sequences, switching consoles or  keymaps,
           booting  the machine etc. (The complete list can be obtained from dump-
           keys(1) by saying  dumpkeys -l .)
           Each keysym may be prefixed by a '+' (plus sign),  in  wich  case  this
           keysym  is  treated  as  a "letter" and therefore affected by the "Cap-
           power of two according to the following table:
                  modifier                weight
                  Shift                     1
                  AltGr                     2
                  Control                   4
                  Alt                       8
                  ShiftL                   16
                  ShiftR                   32
                  CtrlL                    64
                  CtrlR                   128
                  CapsShift               256
           The effective action of a key is found out by adding up the weights  of
           all the modifiers in effect. By default, no modifiers are in effect, so
           action number zero, i.e. the one in the first column in a  key  defini-
           tion  line,  is  taken  when  the key is pressed or released. When e.g.
           Shift and Alt modifiers are in effect, action  number  nine  (from  the
           10th column) is the effective one.
           Changing  the  state of what modifiers are in effect can be achieved by
           binding appropriate key actions to desired keys. For  example,  binding
           the  symbol  Shift to a key sets the Shift modifier in effect when that
           key is pressed and cancels the effect of that modifier when the key  is
           released. Binding AltGr_Lock to a key sets AltGr in effect when the key
           is pressed and cancels the effect when the key is pressed  again.   (By
           default Shift, AltGr, Control and Alt are bound to the keys that bear a
           similar label; AltGr may denote the right Alt key.)
           Note that you should be very careful when binding  the  modifier  keys,
           otherwise  you can end up with an unusable keyboard mapping. If you for
           example define a key to have Control in its first column and leave  the
           rest  of  the  columns  to  be  VoidSymbols, you're in trouble. This is
           because pressing the key puts Control modifier in effect and  the  fol-
           lowing  actions  are  looked  up  from  the fifth column (see the table
           above). So, when you release the key, the action from the fifth  column
           is  taken. It has VoidSymbol in it, so nothing happens. This means that
           the Control modifier is still in effect, although you have released the
           key.   Re-pressing  and releasing the key has no effect. To avoid this,
           you should always define all the columns to have the same modifier sym-
           bol. There is a handy short-hand notation for this, see below.
           keysyms  can  be  given in decimal, octal, hexadecimal, unicode or sym-
           bolic notation.  The numeric notations use  the  same  format  as  with
           keynumber.   Unicode notation is "U+" followed by four hexadecimal dig-
           its.  The symbolic notation resembles that used by xmodmap(1).  Notable
           differences  are  the number symbols. The numeric symbols '0', ..., '9'
           of xmodmap(1) are replaced with the corresponding words 'zero',  'one',
           ... 'nine' to avoid confusion with the numeric notation.
           to  indicate  that  the  lines  of  the keymap will not specify all 256
           columns, but only the indicated ones. (In the example: only the  plain,
           Shift,  AltGr,  Control,  Control+Shift, Alt and Control+Alt maps, that
           is, 7 columns instead of 256.)  When no such line is given, the keymaps
           0-M  will  be defined, where M+1 is the maximum number of entries found
           in any definition line.
           Next, you can leave off any trailing VoidSymbol entries from a key def-
           inition  line.  VoidSymbol  denotes a keyboard action which produces no
           output and has no other effects either. For example, to define key num-
           ber  30  to  output  'a'  unshifted, 'A' when pressed with Shift and do
           nothing when pressed with AltGr or other modifiers, you can write
                  keycode  30 = a     A
           instead of the more verbose
                  keycode  30 = a     A    VoidSymbol     VoidSymbol \
                            VoidSymbol VoidSymbol VoidSymbol ...
           For added convenience, you can usually get off with  still  more  terse
           definitions.  If  you enter a key definition line with only and exactly
           one action code after the equals sign, it has a special meaning. If the
           code (numeric or symbolic) is not an ASCII letter, it means the code is
           implicitly replicated through all columns being defined.   If,  on  the
           other  hand,  the  action  code is an ASCII character in the range 'a',
           ..., 'z' or 'A', ..., 'Z' in the ASCII collating sequence, the  follow-
           ing  definitions are made for the different modifier combinations, pro-
           vided these are actually being defined.  (The table lists the two  pos-
           sible  cases:  either  the  single  action code is a lower case letter,
           denoted by 'x' or an upper case letter, denoted by 'Y'.)
               modifier                symbol
               none                    x              Y
               Shift                   X              y
               AltGr                   x              Y
               Shift+AltGr             X              y
               Control                 Control_x      Control_y
               Shift+Control           Control_x      Control_y
               AltGr+Control           Control_x      Control_y
               Shift+AltGr+Control     Control_x      Control_y
               Alt                     Meta_x         Meta_Y
               Shift+Alt               Meta_X         Meta_y
               AltGr+Alt               Meta_x         Meta_Y
               Shift+AltGr+Alt         Meta_X         Meta_y
               Control+Alt             Meta_Control_x Meta_Control_y
               Shift+Control+Alt       Meta_Control_x Meta_Control_y
               AltGr+Control+Alt       Meta_Control_x Meta_Control_y
               Shift+AltGr+Control+Alt Meta_Control_x Meta_Control_y
           , e.g.,
                  plain keycode 14 = BackSpace
                  control alt keycode 83 = Boot
                  alt keycode 105 = Decr_Console
                  alt keycode 106 = Incr_Console
           Using "plain" will define only the base entry of a key  (i.e.  the  one
           with  no  modifiers  in effect) without affecting the bindings of other
           modifier combinations of that key.


           In addition to comments and key definition lines, a keymap can  contain
           string  definitions.  These  are  used to define what each function key
           action code sends. The syntax of string definitions is:
                  string keysym = "text"
           text can contain literal characters, octal character codes in the  for-
           mat  of  backslash  followed by up to three octal digits, and the three
           escape sequences \n, \\, and \",  for  newline,  backslash  and  quote,


           Then there may also be compose definitions. They have syntax
                  compose 'char' 'char' to 'char'
           and  describe  how  two  bytes are combined to form a third one (when a
           dead accent or compose key is used).  This is used to get accented let-
           ters and the like on a standard keyboard.


           Various abbreviations can be used with kbd-0.96 and later.
           strings as usual
                  Defines  the  usual values of the strings (but not the keys they
                  are bound to).
           compose as usual for "iso-8859-1"
                  Defines the usual compose combinations.
           To find out what keysyms there are available for use  in  keymaps,  use
           the command
                  dumpkeys --long-info
           Unfortunately,  there  is  currently no description of what each symbol
           does. It has to be guessed from the name or figured out from the kernel


           (Be  careful  to use a keymaps line, like the first line of 'dumpkeys',
           or "keymaps 0-15" or so.)
                  keycode  42 = Uncaps_Shift
                  keycode  54 = Uncaps_Shift
                  keycode  58 = Caps_On
           The  following  entry  sets  the layout of the edit pad in the enhanced
           keyboard to be more like that in the VT200 series terminals:
                  keycode 102 = Insert
                  keycode 104 = Remove
                  keycode 107 = Prior
                  shift keycode 107 = Scroll_Backward
                  keycode 110 = Find
                  keycode 111 = Select
                  control alt   keycode 111 = Boot
                  control altgr keycode 111 = Boot
           Here's an example to bind the string "du\ndf\n" to the key AltGr-D.  We
           use the "spare" action code F100 not normally bound to any key.
                  altgr keycode 32 = F100
                  string F100 = "du\ndf\n"


           loadkeys(1), dumpkeys(1), showkey(1), xmodmap(1)
                                     24 April 1998                      KEYMAPS(5)

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