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                 [-i pid-file] [-n] [-p listen-port] [-P local-port] [-K] [-L]
                 [-l packetlog-file] [-r seed] [-R report-file] [-v]


         The isakmpd daemon establishes security associations for encrypted and/or
         authenticated network traffic.  At this moment, and probably forever,
         this means ipsec(4) traffic.
         The way isakmpd goes about its work is by maintaining an internal config-
         uration as well as a policy database which describes what kinds of SAs to
         negotiate, and by listening for different events that trigger these nego-
         tiations.  The events that control isakmpd consist of negotiation initia-
         tions from a remote party, user input via a FIFO or by signals, upcalls
         from the kernel via a PF_KEY socket, and lastly by scheduled events trig-
         gered by timers running out.
         Most uses of isakmpd will be to implement so called "virtual private net-
         works" or VPNs for short.  The vpn(8) manual page describes how to set up
         isakmpd for a simple VPN.  For other uses, some more knowledge of IKE as
         a protocol is required.  One source of information are the RFCs mentioned
         On startup isakmpd forks into two processes for privilege separation.
         The unprivileged child jails itself with chroot(8) to /var/empty.  The
         privileged process communicates with the child, reads configuration files
         and PKI information and binds to privileged ports on its behalf.  See
         CAVEATS section below.
         The options are as follows:
         -4 | -6
                 These options control what address family (AF_INET and/or
                 AF_INET6) isakmpd will use.  The default is to use both IPv4 and
         -a      If given, isakmpd does not set up flows automatically.  This is
                 useful when flows are configured with ipsecadm(4) or by other
                 programs like bgpd(8).  Thus isakmpd only takes care of the SA
         -c config-file
                 If given, the -c option specifies an alternate configuration file
                 instead of /etc/isakmpd/isakmpd.conf.  As this file may contain
                 sensitive information, it must be readable only by the user run-
                 ning the daemon.  isakmpd will reread the configuration file when
                 sent a SIGHUP signal.
         -d      The -d option is used to make the daemon run in the foreground,
                 logging to stderr.
         -D class=level
                 Debugging class.  It's possible to specify this argument many
                       5   Sysdep
                       6   SA
                       7   Exchange
                       8   Negotiation
                       9   Policy
                       10  FIFO user interface
                       A   All
                 Currently used values for level are 0 to 99.
         -f fifo
                 The -f option specifies the FIFO (a.k.a. named pipe) where the
                 daemon listens for user requests.  If the path given is a dash
                 ('-'), isakmpd will listen to stdin instead.
         -i pid-file
                 By default the PID of the daemon process will be written to
                 /var/run/  This path can be overridden by specifying
                 another one as the argument to the -i option.
         -n      When the -n option is given, the kernel will not take part in the
                 negotiations.  This is a non-destructive mode, so to speak, in
                 that it won't alter any SAs in the IPsec stack.
         -p listen-port
                 The -p option specifies the listen port the daemon will bind to.
         -P local-port
                 On the other hand, the port specified to capital -P will be what
                 the daemon binds its local end to when acting as initiator.
         -K      When this option is given, isakmpd does not read the policy con-
                 figuration file and no keynote(4) policy check is accomplished.
                 This option can be used when policies for flows and SA establish-
                 ment are arranged by other programs like ipsecadm(8) or bgpd(8).
         -L      Enable IKE packet capture.  When this option is given, isakmpd
                 will capture to file an unencrypted copy of the negotiation pack-
                 ets it is sending and receiving.  This file can later be read by
                 tcpdump(8) and other utilities using pcap(3).
         -l packetlog-file
                 As option -L above, but capture to a specified file.
         -r seed
                 If given, a deterministic random number sequence will be used
                 internally.  This is useful for setting up regression tests.
         -R report-file
                 When you signal isakmpd a SIGUSR1, it will report its internal
                 state to a report file, normally /var/run/, but
                 this can be changed by feeding the file name as an argument to
         on the actual Certificate Authority used, and is therefore not covered
         here, other than mentioning that openssl(1) needs to be used to create a
         certificate signing request that the CA understands.  The latter case,
         however, is described here:
         1.   Create your own CA as root.
              # openssl genrsa -out /etc/ssl/private/ca.key 1024
              # openssl req -new -key /etc/ssl/private/ca.key \
                      -out /etc/ssl/private/ca.csr
              You are then asked to enter information that will be incorporated
              into your certificate request.  What you are about to enter is what
              is called a Distinguished Name (DN).  There are quite a few fields
              but you can leave some blank.  For some fields there will be a
              default value; if you enter '.', the field will be left blank.
              # openssl x509 -req -days 365 -in /etc/ssl/private/ca.csr \
                      -signkey /etc/ssl/private/ca.key \
                      -extfile /etc/ssl/x509v3.cnf -extensions x509v3_CA \
                      -out /etc/ssl/ca.crt
         2.   Create keys and certificates for your IKE peers.  This step as well
              as the next one, needs to be done for every peer.  Furthermore the
              last step will need to be done once for each ID you want the peer to
              have.  The below symbolizes that ID, in this case an IPv4
              ID, and should be changed for each invocation.  You will be asked
              for a DN for each run.  Encoding the ID in the common name is recom-
              mended, as it should be unique.
              # openssl genrsa -out /etc/isakmpd/private/local.key 1024
              # openssl req -new -key /etc/isakmpd/private/local.key \
                      -out /etc/isakmpd/private/
              Now take these certificate signing requests to your CA and process
              them like below.  You have to add a subjectAltName extension field
              to the certificate in order to make it usable by isakmpd.  There are
              two possible ways to add the extensions to the certificate.  Either
              you have to run certpatch(8) or you have to make use of an OpenSSL
              configuration file, for example /etc/ssl/x509v3.cnf.  Replace
     with the IP-address which isakmpd will use as the certifi-
              cate identity.
              To use certpatch(8), do the following
              # openssl x509 -req -days 365 -in -CA /etc/ssl/ca.crt \
                      -CAkey /etc/ssl/private/ca.key -CAcreateserial \
              # certpatch -i -k /etc/ssl/private/ca.key \
              Otherwise do
                      -out somehost.somedomain.crt
              or with certpatch(8)
              # certpatch -t fqdn -i somehost.somedomain \
                      -k /etc/ssl/private/ca.key \
                      somehost.somedomain.crt somehost.somedomain.crt
              (This assumes the previous steps were used to create a request for
              somehost.somedomain instead of
              Put the certificate (the file ending in .crt) in /etc/isakmpd/certs/
              on your local system.  Also carry over the CA cert /etc/ssl/ca.crt
              and put it in /etc/isakmpd/ca/.
         To revoke certificates, create a Certificate Revocation List (CRL) file
         and install it in the /etc/isakmpd/crls/ directory.  See openssl(1) and
         the 'crl' subcommand for more info.
         It is also possible to store trusted public keys to make them directly
         usable by isakmpd.  The keys should be saved in PEM format (see
         openssl(1)) and named and stored after this easy formula:
         For IPv4 identities   /etc/isakmpd/pubkeys/ipv4/A.B.C.D
         For IPv6 identities   /etc/isakmpd/pubkeys/ipv6/abcd:abcd::ab:bc
         For FQDN identities   /etc/isakmpd/pubkeys/fqdn/
         For UFQDN identities  /etc/isakmpd/pubkeys/ufqdn/
       The FIFO user interface
         When isakmpd starts, it creates a FIFO (named pipe) where it listens for
         user requests.  All commands start with a single letter, followed by com-
         mand-specific options.  Available commands are:
         c <name>
                 Start the named connection, if stopped or inactive.
         C set [section]:tag=value
         C set [section]:tag=value force
         C add [section]:tag=value
         C rm  [section]:tag
         C rms [section]
                 Update the running isakmpd configuration atomically.  'set' sets
                 a configuration value consisting of a section, tag and value
                 triplet.  'set' will fail if the configuration already contains a
                 section with the named tag; use the 'force' option to change this
                 behaviour.  'add' appends a configuration value to the named con-
                 figuration list tag.  'rm' removes a tag in a section.  'rms'
                 removes an entire section.
                 fied as "A", the level applies to all debug classes.  "D T" tog-
                 gles all debug classes to level zero.  Another "D T" command will
                 toggle them back to the earlier levels.
         p on[=<path>]
         p off   Enable or disable cleartext IKE packet capture.  When enabling,
                 optionally specify which file isakmpd should capture the packets
         Q       Cleanly shutdown the daemon, as when sent a SIGTERM signal.
         r       Report isakmpd internal state to a file.  See -R option.  Same as
                 when sent a SIGUSR1 signal.
         R       Reinitialize isakmpd, as when sent a SIGHUP signal.
         S       Report information on all known SAs to the
                 /var/run/isakmpd.result file.
         t <name>
                 Tear down the named connection, if active.
         T       Tear down all active connections.


         /etc/isakmpd/ca/             The directory where CA certificates can be
         /etc/isakmpd/certs/          The directory where IKE certificates can be
                                      found, both the local certificate(s) and
                                      those of the peers, if a choice to have them
                                      kept permanently has been made.
         /etc/isakmpd/crls/           The directory where CRLs can be found.
         /etc/isakmpd/isakmpd.conf    The configuration file.  As this file can
                                      contain sensitive information it must not be
                                      readable by anyone but the user running
         /etc/isakmpd/isakmpd.policy  The keynote policy configuration file.  The
                                      same mode requirements as isakmpd.conf.
                                      A local private key for certificate based
                                      authentication.  There has to be a certifi-
                                      cate for this key in the certificate direc-
                                      tory mentioned above.  The same mode
                                      requirements as isakmpd.conf.
         /etc/isakmpd/pubkeys/        Directory in which trusted public keys can
                                      be kept.  The keys must be named in the
         /usr/share/ipsec/isakmpd/    A directory containing some sample isakmpd
                                      and keynote policy configuration files.


         openssl(1), getnameinfo(3), pcap(3), ipsec(4), isakmpd.conf(5),
         isakmpd.policy(5), ssl(8), tcpdump(8), vpn(8)


         The ISAKMP/Oakley key management protocol is described in the RFCs RFC
         2407, RFC 2408 and RFC 2409.  This implementation was done 1998 by Niklas
         Hallqvist and Niels Provos, sponsored by Ericsson Radio Systems.


         When storing a trusted public key for an IPv6 identity, the most
         efficient form of address representation, i.e "::" instead of ":0:0:0:",
         must be used or the matching will fail.  isakmpd uses the output from
         getnameinfo(3) for the address-to-name translation.  The privileged pro-
         cess only allows binding to the default port 500 or unprivileged ports
         (>1024).  It is not possible to change the interfaces isakmpd listens on
         without a restart.


         The -P flag does not do what we document, rather it does nothing.

    BSD August 07, 2002 BSD


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