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    Command:

    ip

    
    
    

    SYNOPSIS

           ip [ OPTIONS ] OBJECT { COMMAND | help }
    
           OBJECT := { link | addr | addrlabel | route | rule | neigh | tunnel |
                   maddr | mroute | monitor }
    
           OPTIONS := { -V[ersion] | -s[tatistics] | -r[esolve] | -f[amily] { inet
                   | inet6 | ipx | dnet | link } | -o[neline] }
    
           ip link set DEVICE { up | down | arp { on | off } |
                   promisc { on | off } |
                   allmulticast { on | off } |
                   dynamic { on | off } |
                   multicast { on | off } |
                   txqueuelen PACKETS |
                   name NEWNAME |
                   address LLADDR | broadcast LLADDR |
                   mtu MTU |
                   netns PID |
                   alias NAME |
                   vf NUM [ mac LLADDR ] [ vlan VLANID [ qos VLAN-QOS ] ] [ rate
                   TXRATE ] [ spoofchk { on | off } ] |  }
    
           ip link show [ DEVICE ]
    
           ip addr { add | del } IFADDR dev STRING
    
           ip addr { show | flush } [ dev STRING ] [ scope SCOPE-ID ] [ to PREFIX
                   ] [ FLAG-LIST ] [ label PATTERN ]
    
           IFADDR := PREFIX | ADDR peer PREFIX [ broadcast ADDR ] [ anycast ADDR ]
                   [ label STRING ] [ scope SCOPE-ID ]
    
           SCOPE-ID := [ host | link | global | NUMBER ]
    
           FLAG-LIST := [ FLAG-LIST ] FLAG
    
           FLAG := [ permanent | dynamic | secondary | primary | tentative | dep-
                   recated ]
    
           ip addrlabel { add | del } prefix PREFIX [ dev DEV ] [ label NUMBER ]
    
           ip addrlabel { list | flush }
    
           ip route { list | flush } SELECTOR
    
           ip route get ADDRESS [ from ADDRESS iif STRING  ] [ oif STRING ] [ tos
                   TOS ]
    
           OPTIONS := FLAGS [ mtu NUMBER ] [ advmss NUMBER ] [ rtt TIME ] [ rttvar
                   TIME ] [ window NUMBER ] [ cwnd NUMBER ] [ initcwnd NUMBER ] [
                   ssthresh REALM ] [ realms REALM ] [ rto_min TIME ] [ initrwnd
                   NUMBER ]
    
           TYPE := [ unicast | local | broadcast | multicast | throw | unreachable
                   | prohibit | blackhole | nat ]
    
           TABLE_ID := [ local| main | default | all | NUMBER ]
    
           SCOPE := [ host | link | global | NUMBER ]
    
           FLAGS := [ equalize ]
    
           NHFLAGS := [ onlink | pervasive ]
    
           RTPROTO := [ kernel | boot | static | NUMBER ]
    
           ip rule  [ list | add | del | flush ] SELECTOR ACTION
    
           SELECTOR := [ from PREFIX ] [ to PREFIX ] [ tos TOS ] [ fwmark
                   FWMARK[/MASK] ] [ dev STRING ] [ pref NUMBER ]
    
           ACTION := [ table TABLE_ID ] [ nat ADDRESS ] [ prohibit | reject |
                   unreachable ] [ realms [SRCREALM/]DSTREALM ]
    
           TABLE_ID := [ local | main | default | NUMBER ]
    
           ip neigh { add | del | change | replace } { ADDR [ lladdr LLADDR ] [
                   nud { permanent | noarp | stale | reachable } ] | proxy ADDR }
                   [ dev DEV ]
    
           ip neigh { show | flush } [ to PREFIX ] [ dev DEV ] [ nud STATE ]
    
           ip tunnel { add | change | del | show | prl } [ NAME ]
                   [ mode MODE ] [ remote ADDR ] [ local ADDR ]
                   [ [i|o]seq ] [ [i|o]key KEY ] [ [i|o]csum ] ]
                   [ encaplimit ELIM ] [ ttl TTL ]
                   [ tos TOS ] [ flowlabel FLOWLABEL ]
                   [ prl-default ADDR ] [ prl-nodefault ADDR ] [ prl-delete ADDR ]
                   [ [no]pmtudisc ] [ dev PHYS_DEV ] [ dscp inherit ]
    
           MODE :=  { ipip | gre | sit | isatap | ip6ip6 | ipip6 | any }
    
           ADDR := { IP_ADDRESS | any }
    
           TOS := { NUMBER | inherit }
    
           ELIM := { none | 0..255 }
    
           TTL := { 1..255 | inherit }
    
           XFRM_OBJECT := { state | policy | monitor }
    
           ip xfrm state { add | update } ID [ XFRM_OPT ]  [ mode MODE ]
                    [ reqid REQID ]  [ seq SEQ ]  [ replay-window SIZE ]
                    [ flag FLAG-LIST ]  [ encap ENCAP ]  [ sel SELECTOR ]
                    [ LIMIT-LIST ]
    
           ip xfrm state allocspi ID  [ mode MODE ]  [ reqid REQID ]  [ seq SEQ ]
                   [ min SPI max SPI ]
    
           ip xfrm state { delete | get } ID
    
           ip xfrm state { deleteall | list } [ ID ]  [ mode MODE ]
                    [ reqid REQID ]  [ flag FLAG_LIST ]
    
           ip xfrm state flush [ proto XFRM_PROTO ]
    
           ip xfrm state count
    
           ID :=  [ src ADDR ]  [ dst ADDR ]  [ proto XFRM_PROTO ]  [ spi SPI ]
    
           XFRM_PROTO :=  [ esp | ah | comp | route2 | hao ]
    
           MODE :=  [ transport | tunnel | ro | beet ] (default=transport)
    
           FLAG-LIST :=  [ FLAG-LIST ] FLAG
    
           FLAG :=  [ noecn | decap-dscp | wildrecv ]
    
           ENCAP := ENCAP-TYPE SPORT DPORT OADDR
    
           ENCAP-TYPE := espinudp  | espinudp-nonike
    
           ALGO-LIST := [ ALGO-LIST ] | [ ALGO ]
    
           ALGO := ALGO_TYPE ALGO_NAME ALGO_KEY
    
           ALGO_TYPE :=  [ enc | auth | comp ]
    
           SELECTOR := src ADDR[/PLEN] dst ADDR[/PLEN]  [ UPSPEC ]  [ dev DEV ]
    
           UPSPEC := proto PROTO [[ sport PORT ]  [ dport PORT ] |
                    [ type NUMBER ]  [ code NUMBER ]]
    
           LIMIT-LIST := [ LIMIT-LIST ] |  [ limit LIMIT ]
    
           LIMIT :=  [ [time-soft|time-hard|time-use-soft|time-use-hard] SECONDS ]
                   | [ [byte-soft|byte-hard] SIZE ] |
                    [ [packet-soft|packet-hard] COUNT ]
    
           ip xfrm policy { add | update }  dir DIR SELECTOR [ index INDEX ]
                    [ ptype PTYPE ]  [ action ACTION ]  [ priority PRIORITY ]
    
           DIR :=  [ in | out | fwd ]
    
           SELECTOR := src ADDR[/PLEN] dst ADDR[/PLEN] [ UPSPEC  ] [ dev DEV ]
    
           UPSPEC := proto PROTO [  [ sport PORT ]  [ dport PORT ] |
                    [ type NUMBER ]  [ code NUMBER ] ]
    
           ACTION :=  [ allow | block ] (default=allow)
    
           LIMIT-LIST :=  [ LIMIT-LIST ] |  [ limit LIMIT ]
    
           LIMIT :=  [ [time-soft|time-hard|time-use-soft|time-use-hard] SECONDS ]
                   |  [ [byte-soft|byte-hard] SIZE ] |
                   [packet-soft|packet-hard] NUMBER ]
    
           TMPL-LIST :=  [ TMPL-LIST ] |  [ tmpl TMPL ]
    
           TMPL := ID [ mode MODE ]  [ reqid REQID ]  [ level LEVEL ]
    
           ID :=  [ src ADDR ]  [ dst ADDR ]  [ proto XFRM_PROTO ]  [ spi SPI ]
    
           XFRM_PROTO :=  [ esp | ah | comp | route2 | hao ]
    
           MODE :=  [ transport | tunnel | beet ] (default=transport)
    
           LEVEL :=  [ required | use ] (default=required)
    
           ip xfrm monitor [ all | LISTofOBJECTS ]
    
           ip token { COMMAND | help }
    
           ip token { set } TOKEN dev DEV
    
           ip token { get } dev DEV
    
           ip token { list }
    
    
    

    OPTIONS

           -V, -Version
                  print the version of the ip utility and exit.
    
           -s, -stats, -statistics
                  output more information.  If the option appears twice  or  more,
                  the amount of information increases.  As a rule, the information
                  is statistics or some time values.
    
           -h, -human, -human-readable
                  output statistics with human readable values number followed  by
    
    
    

    -4

    
    

    shortcut for -family inet.

    
    
    

    -6

    
    

    shortcut for -family inet6.

    
    
    

    -0

    
    

    shortcut for -family link.

    
    
    

    -o, -oneline

    
    

    output each record on a single line, replacing line feeds with the '\? charac-

    
    

    ter. This is convenient when you want to count records with wc(1)

     or to grep(1) the output.
    
    
    

    -r, -resolve

    
    

    use the system's name resolver to print DNS names instead of host addresses.

    
    
    

    IP - COMMAND SYNTAX

       OBJECT
           link   - network device.
    
           address
                  - protocol (IP or IPv6) address on a device.
    
           addrlabel
                  - label configuration for protocol address selection.
    
           neighbour
                  - ARP or NDISC cache entry.
    
           route  - routing table entry.
    
           rule   - rule in routing policy database.
    
           maddress
                  - multicast address.
    
           mroute - multicast routing cache entry.
    
           delete and show (or list ) objects, but some objects do not  allow  all
           of these operations or have some additional commands.  The help command
           is available for all objects.  It prints out a list of  available  com-
           mands and argument syntax conventions.
    
           If no command is given, some default command is assumed.  Usually it is
           list or, if the objects of this class cannot be listed, help.
    
    
    

    ip link - network device configuration

           link is a network device and the  corresponding  commands  display  and
           change the state of devices.
    
       ip link set - change device attributes
           dev NAME (default)
                  NAME  specifies  network  device to operate on. When configuring
                  SR-IOV Virtual Fuction (VF) devices, this keyword should specify
                  the associated Physical Function (PF) device.
    
           up and down
                  change the state of the device to UP or DOWN.
    
           arp on or arp off
                  change the NOARP flag on the device.
    
           multicast on or multicast off
                  change the MULTICAST flag on the device.
    
           dynamic on or dynamic off
                  change the DYNAMIC flag on the device.
    
           name NAME
                  change  the  name  of  the device.  This operation is not recom-
                  mended if the device is running or has  some  addresses  already
                  configured.
    
           txqueuelen NUMBER
    
           txqlen NUMBER
                  change the transmit queue length of the device.
    
           mtu NUMBER
                  change the MTU of the device.
    
           netns PID
                  move the device to the network  namespace  associated  with  the
                  process PID.
    
           alias NAME
                  give the device a symbolic name for easy reference.
    
           vf NUM specify  a Virtual Function device to be configured. The associ-
                  ated PF device must be specified using the dev parameter.
    
                          mac LLADDRESS - change the station address for the spec-
                          ified VF. The vf parameter must be specified.
    
                          vlan VLANID - change the assigned VLAN for the specified
                          VF. When specified, all traffic sent from the VF will be
                          tagged with the specified VLAN ID. Incoming traffic will
                          be filtered for the specified VLAN ID, and will have all
                          VLAN  tags  stripped before being passed to the VF. Set-
                          ting this parameter to 0 disables VLAN tagging and  fil-
                          tering. The vf parameter must be specified.
    
                          qos  VLAN-QOS  - assign VLAN QOS (priority) bits for the
                          VLAN tag. When specified, all VLAN tags  transmitted  by
                          the  VF  will include the specified priority bits in the
                          VLAN tag. If not specified, the value is assumed  to  be
                          0.  Both  the  vf and vlan parameters must be specified.
                          Setting both vlan and qos as 0 disables VLAN tagging and
                          filtering for the VF.
    
                          rate  TXRATE - change the allowed transmit bandwidth, in
                          Mbps, for the specified VF.  Setting this parameter to 0
                          disables  rate limiting. The vf parameter must be speci-
                          fied.
    
                          spoofchk on|off - turn packet spoof checking on  or  off
                          for the specified VF.
    
           Warning: If multiple parameter changes are requested, ip aborts immedi-
           ately after any of the changes have failed.  This is the only case when
           ip  can  move the system to an unpredictable state.  The solution is to
           avoid changing several parameters with one ip link set call.
    
       ip link show - display device attributes
           dev NAME (default)
    
           The ip addr command displays addresses and their properties,  adds  new
           addresses and deletes old ones.
    
       ip address add - add new protocol address.
           dev NAME
                  the name of the device to add the address to.
    
           local ADDRESS (default)
                  the  address of the interface. The format of the address depends
                  on the protocol. It is a dotted quad for IP and  a  sequence  of
                  hexadecimal halfwords separated by colons for IPv6.  The ADDRESS
                  may be followed by a slash and a decimal  number  which  encodes
                  the network prefix length.
    
           peer ADDRESS
                  the  address  of the remote endpoint for pointopoint interfaces.
                  Again, the ADDRESS may be followed by a slash and a decimal num-
                  ber,  encoding  the network prefix length.  If a peer address is
                  specified, the local address cannot have a prefix  length.   The
                  network  prefix is associated with the peer rather than with the
                  local address.
    
           broadcast ADDRESS
                  the broadcast address on the interface.
    
                  It is possible to use the special symbols '+' and '-' instead of
                  the  broadcast  address.  In this case, the broadcast address is
                  derived by setting/resetting the host bits of the interface pre-
                  fix.
    
           label NAME
                  Each  address  may  be  tagged with a label string.  In order to
                  preserve compatibility with Linux-2.0 net aliases,  this  string
                  must  coincide  with  the name of the device or must be prefixed
                  with the device name followed by colon.
    
           scope SCOPE_VALUE
                  the scope of the area where this address is valid.   The  avail-
                  able  scopes are listed in file /etc/iproute2/rt_scopes.  Prede-
                  fined scope values are:
    
                          global - the address is globally valid.
    
                          site - (IPv6 only) the address is site local, i.e. it is
                          valid inside this site.
    
           dev NAME (default)
                  name of device.
    
           scope SCOPE_VAL
                  only list addresses with this scope.
    
           to PREFIX
                  only list addresses matching this prefix.
    
           label PATTERN
                  only list addresses with labels matching the  PATTERN.   PATTERN
                  is a usual shell style pattern.
    
           dynamic and permanent
                  (IPv6  only)  only  list  addresses  installed  due to stateless
                  address configuration  or  only  list  permanent  (not  dynamic)
                  addresses.
    
           tentative
                  (IPv6  only)  only  list  addresses which did not pass duplicate
                  address detection.
    
           deprecated
                  (IPv6 only) only list deprecated addresses.
    
           primary and secondary
                  only list primary (or secondary) addresses.
    
       ip address flush - flush protocol addresses
           This command flushes the protocol addresses selected by some  criteria.
    
           This command has the same arguments as show.  The difference is that it
           does not run when no arguments are given.
    
           Warning: This command (and other flush  commands  described  below)  is
           pretty  dangerous.   If you make a mistake, it will not forgive it, but
           will cruelly purge all the addresses.
    
           With the -statistics option, the command becomes verbose. It prints out
           the  number of deleted addresses and the number of rounds made to flush
           the address list.  If this option is given twice, ip  addr  flush  also
           dev DEV
                  the outgoing interface.
    
           label NUMBER
                  the label for the prefix.  0xffffffff is reserved.
    
       ip addrlabel del - delete an address label
           the command deletes an address label entry in the  kernel.   Arguments:
           coincide  with  the  arguments  of  ip  addrlabel  add but label is not
           required.
    
       ip addrlabel list - list address labels
           the command show contents of address labels.
    
       ip addrlabel flush - flush address labels
           the command flushes the contents of address  labels  and  it  does  not
           restore default settings.
    
    
    

    ip neighbour - neighbour/arp tables management.

           neighbour  objects  establish  bindings  between protocol addresses and
           link layer addresses  for  hosts  sharing  the  same  link.   Neighbour
           entries are organized into tables. The IPv4 neighbour table is known by
           another name - the ARP table.
    
           The corresponding commands display neighbour bindings and their proper-
           ties, add new neighbour entries and delete old ones.
    
       ip neighbour add - add a new neighbour entry
       ip neighbour change - change an existing entry
       ip neighbour replace - add a new entry or change an existing one
           These commands create new neighbour records or update existing ones.
    
           to ADDRESS (default)
                  the  protocol  address of the neighbour. It is either an IPv4 or
                  IPv6 address.
    
           dev NAME
                  the interface to which this neighbour is attached.
    
           lladdr LLADDRESS
                  the link layer address of the neighbour.  LLADDRESS can also  be
                  null.
    
           nud NUD_STATE
                  the  state  of  the neighbour entry.  nud is an abbreviation for
                  'Neigh bour Unreachability Detection'.  The state can  take  one
    
                          stale  -  the  neighbour  entry is valid but suspicious.
                          This option to ip neigh does not  change  the  neighbour
                          state  if it was valid and the address is not changed by
                          this command.
    
       ip neighbour delete - delete a neighbour entry
           This command invalidates a neighbour entry.
    
           The arguments are the same as with ip neigh add, except that lladdr and
           nud are ignored.
    
           Warning: Attempts to delete or manually change a noarp entry created by
           the kernel may result in unpredictable  behaviour.   Particularly,  the
           kernel  may try to resolve this address even on a NOARP interface or if
           the address is multicast or broadcast.
    
       ip neighbour show - list neighbour entries
           This commands displays neighbour tables.
    
           to ADDRESS (default)
                  the prefix selecting the neighbours to list.
    
           dev NAME
                  only list the neighbours attached to this device.
    
           unused only list neighbours which are not currently in use.
    
           nud NUD_STATE
                  only list neighbour entries in this state.  NUD_STATE takes val-
                  ues  listed  below  or  the  special  value  all which means all
                  states.  This option may occur more than once.  If  this  option
                  is absent, ip lists all entries except for none and noarp.
    
       ip neighbour flush - flush neighbour entries
           This  command  flushes  neighbour tables, selecting entries to flush by
           some criteria.
    
           This command has the same arguments as show.  The differences are  that
           it  does  not  run  when  no  arguments are given, and that the default
           neighbour states to be flushed do not include permanent and noarp.
    
                   tions covered by the route prefix.
    
                   unreachable  - these destinations are unreachable.  Packets are
                   discarded and the ICMP message host unreachable  is  generated.
                   The local senders get an EHOSTUNREACH error.
    
                   blackhole  -  these  destinations are unreachable.  Packets are
                   discarded silently.  The local senders get an EINVAL error.
    
                   prohibit - these destinations  are  unreachable.   Packets  are
                   discarded  and  the ICMP message communication administratively
                   prohibited is generated.   The  local  senders  get  an  EACCES
                   error.
    
                   local  - the destinations are assigned to this host.  The pack-
                   ets are looped back and delivered locally.
    
                   broadcast - the  destinations  are  broadcast  addresses.   The
                   packets are sent as link broadcasts.
    
                   throw  -  a  special  control  route  used together with policy
                   rules. If such a route is selected, lookup  in  this  table  is
                   terminated  pretending that no route was found.  Without policy
                   routing it is equivalent to the absence of  the  route  in  the
                   routing  table.   The  packets are dropped and the ICMP message
                   net unreachable is generated.  The local senders get an ENETUN-
                   REACH error.
    
                   nat  - a special NAT route.  Destinations covered by the prefix
                   are considered  to  be  dummy  (or  external)  addresses  which
                   require  translation to real (or internal) ones before forward-
                   ing.  The addresses to  translate  to  are  selected  with  the
                   attribute  Warning:  Route  NAT is no longer supported in Linux
                   2.6.
    
                   via.
    
                   anycast  -  not  implemented  the  destinations   are   anycast
                   addresses assigned to this host.  They are mainly equivalent to
                   local with one difference: such addresses are invalid when used
                   as the source address of any packet.
    
                   multicast  -  a special type used for multicast routing.  It is
    
           even look at it.
    
           The multiple routing tables enter the game when policy routing is used.
    
       ip route add - add new route
       ip route change - change route
       ip route replace - change or add new one
           to TYPE PREFIX (default)
                  the  destination  prefix  of  the route.  If TYPE is omitted, ip
                  assumes type unicast.  Other values of TYPE  are  listed  above.
                  PREFIX  is  an IP or IPv6 address optionally followed by a slash
                  and the prefix length.  If the length of the prefix is  missing,
                  ip  assumes  a  full-length host route.  There is also a special
                  PREFIX default - which is equivalent to IP 0/0 or to IPv6  ::/0.
    
           tos TOS
    
           dsfield TOS
                  the  Type Of Service (TOS) key.  This key has no associated mask
                  and the longest match is understood as: First, compare  the  TOS
                  of the route and of the packet.  If they are not equal, then the
                  packet may still match a route with a zero TOS.  TOS  is  either
                  an   8   bit   hexadecimal   number   or   an   identifier  from
                  /etc/iproute2/rt_dsfield.
    
           metric NUMBER
    
           preference NUMBER
                  the preference value of the route.  NUMBER is an arbitrary 32bit
                  number.
    
           table TABLEID
                  the  table  to  add this route to.  TABLEID may be a number or a
                  string from the file /etc/iproute2/rt_tables.  If this parameter
                  is  omitted,  ip  assumes  the main table, with the exception of
                  local , broadcast and nat routes, which are put into  the  local
                  table by default.
    
           dev NAME
                  the output device name.
    
           via ADDRESS
                  the  address of the nexthop router.  Actually, the sense of this
                  field depends on the route type.  For normal unicast  routes  it
                  is  either  the true next hop router or, if it is a direct route
                  installed in BSD compatibility mode, it can be a  local  address
    
           mtu MTU
    
           mtu lock MTU
                  the MTU along the path to the destination.  If the modifier lock
                  is  not  used,  the MTU may be updated by the kernel due to Path
                  MTU Discovery.  If the modifier lock is used, no path  MTU  dis-
                  covery  will  be  tried, all packets will be sent without the DF
                  bit in IPv4 case or fragmented to MTU for IPv6.
    
           window NUMBER
                  the maximal window for TCP to advertise to  these  destinations,
                  measured  in  bytes.  It limits maximal data bursts that our TCP
                  peers are allowed to send to us.
    
           rtt TIME
                  the initial RTT ('Round Trip Time') estimate. If  no  suffix  is
                  specified  the units are raw values passed directly to the rout-
                  ing code to maintain compatability with previous releases.  Oth-
                  erwise  if a suffix of s, sec or secs is used to specify seconds
                  and ms, msec or msecs to specify milliseconds.
    
           rttvar TIME (2.3.15+ only)
                  the initial RTT variance estimate. Values are specified as  with
                  rtt above.
    
           rto_min TIME (2.6.23+ only)
                  the minimum TCP Retransmission TimeOut to use when communicating
                  with this destination.  Values are specified as with rtt  above.
    
           ssthresh NUMBER (2.3.15+ only)
                  an estimate for the initial slow start threshold.
    
           cwnd NUMBER (2.3.15+ only)
                  the clamp for congestion window.  It is ignored if the lock flag
                  is not used.
    
           initcwnd NUMBER
                  the maximum initial congestion window (cwnd) size in  MSS  of  a
                  TCP connection.
    
           initrwnd NUMBER (2.6.33+ only)
                  the initial receive window size for connections to this destina-
                  tion.  Actual window size is this value multiplied by the MSS of
                  the  connection.  The default value is zero, meaning to use Slow
                  net/ipv4/tcp_reordering.
    
           nexthop NEXTHOP
                  the nexthop of a multipath route.  NEXTHOP is  a  complex  value
                  with its own syntax similar to the top level argument lists:
    
                          via ADDRESS - is the nexthop router.
    
                          dev NAME - is the output device.
    
                          weight NUMBER - is a weight for this element of a multi-
                          path route reflecting its relative bandwidth or quality.
    
           scope SCOPE_VAL
                  the  scope  of  the  destinations  covered  by the route prefix.
                  SCOPE_VAL  may  be  a  number  or  a  string   from   the   file
                  /etc/iproute2/rt_scopes.   If  this  parameter  is  omitted,  ip
                  assumes scope global for all  gatewayed  unicast  routes,  scope
                  link  for direct unicast and broadcast routes and scope host for
                  local routes.
    
           protocol RTPROTO
                  the routing protocol identifier of this route.  RTPROTO may be a
                  number  or  a  string from the file /etc/iproute2/rt_protos.  If
                  the routing protocol ID is not given, ip assumes  protocol  boot
                  (i.e.  it  assumes  the  route  was added by someone who doesn't
                  understand what they are doing).  Several protocol values have a
                  fixed interpretation.  Namely:
    
                          redirect  - the route was installed due to an ICMP redi-
                          rect.
    
                          kernel - the route was installed by  the  kernel  during
                          autoconfiguration.
    
                          boot  -  the  route  was  installed  during  the  bootup
                          sequence.  If a routing daemon starts, it will purge all
                          of them.
    
                          static - the route was installed by the administrator to
                          override dynamic routing. Routing  daemon  will  respect
                          them and, probably, even advertise them to its peers.
    
                  out this modifier, the route will be frozen to one selected nex-
                  thop, so that load splitting will only occur on  per-flow  base.
                  equalize only works if the kernel is patched.
    
       ip route delete - delete route
           ip  route  del has the same arguments as ip route add, but their seman-
           tics are a bit different.
    
           Key values (to, tos, preference and table) select the route to  delete.
           If optional attributes are present, ip verifies that they coincide with
           the attributes of the route to delete.  If no route with the given  key
           and attributes was found, ip route del fails.
    
       ip route show - list routes
           the command displays the contents of the routing tables or the route(s)
           selected by some criteria.
    
           to SELECTOR (default)
                  only select routes from the given range of destinations.  SELEC-
                  TOR  consists of an optional modifier (root, match or exact) and
                  a prefix.  root PREFIX selects routes with prefixes not  shorter
                  than  PREFIX.   F.e.  root 0/0 selects the entire routing table.
                  match PREFIX selects routes with prefixes not longer  than  PRE-
                  FIX.   F.e.  match 10.0/16 selects 10.0/16, 10/8 and 0/0, but it
                  does not select 10.1/16 and 10.0.0/24.   And  exact  PREFIX  (or
                  just  PREFIX)  selects routes with this exact prefix. If neither
                  of these options are present, ip assumes root 0/0 i.e. it  lists
                  the entire table.
    
           tos TOS
                  dsfield TOS only select routes with the given TOS.
    
           table TABLEID
                  show  the  routes from this table(s).  The default setting is to
                  show tablemain.  TABLEID may either be the ID of a real table or
                  one of the special values:
    
                          all - list all of the tables.
    
                          cache - dump the routing cache.
    
           cloned
    
           cached list  cloned  routes  i.e.  routes which were dynamically forked
                  from other routes because some route attribute  (f.e.  MTU)  was
                  updated.  Actually, it is equivalent to table cache.
    
           type TYPE
                  only list routes of this type.
    
           dev NAME
                  only list routes going via this device.
    
           via PREFIX
                  only  list routes going via the nexthop routers selected by PRE-
                  FIX.
    
           src PREFIX
                  only list routes with preferred  source  addresses  selected  by
                  PREFIX.
    
           realm REALMID
    
           realms FROMREALM/TOREALM
                  only list routes with these realms.
    
       ip route flush - flush routing tables
           this command flushes routes selected by some criteria.
    
           The arguments have the same syntax and semantics as the arguments of ip
           route show, but routing tables are not listed  but  purged.   The  only
           difference  is  the  default action: show dumps all the IP main routing
           table but flush prints the helper page.
    
           With the -statistics option, the command becomes verbose. It prints out
           the number of deleted routes and the number of rounds made to flush the
           routing table. If the option is given twice, ip route flush also  dumps
           all  the deleted routes in the format described in the previous subsec-
           tion.
    
       ip route get - get a single route
           this command gets a single route to a destination and prints  its  con-
           tents exactly as the kernel sees it.
    
           to ADDRESS (default)
                  the destination address.
    
           oif NAME
                  force the output device on which this packet will be routed.
    
           connected
                  if no source address (option from) was given, relookup the route
                  with the source set to the preferred address received  from  the
                  first  lookup.  If policy routing is used, it may be a different
                  route.
    
           Note that this operation is not equivalent  to  ip  route  show.   show
           shows  existing  routes.   get  resolves them and creates new clones if
           necessary.  Essentially, get is equivalent to sending  a  packet  along
           this  path.   If  the  iif  argument is not given, the kernel creates a
           route to output packets towards the  requested  destination.   This  is
           equivalent  to  pinging  the  destination with a subsequent ip route ls
           cache, however, no packets are actually sent.  With the  iif  argument,
           the  kernel  pretends  that  a  packet  arrived from this interface and
           searches for a path to forward the packet.
    
    
    

    ip rule - routing policy database management

           Rules in the routing policy database control the route selection  algo-
           rithm.
    
           Classic  routing algorithms used in the Internet make routing decisions
           based only on the destination address of packets (and  in  theory,  but
           not in practice, on the TOS field).
    
           In  some  circumstances  we want to route packets differently depending
           not only on destination addresses, but also  on  other  packet  fields:
           source  address,  IP  protocol, transport protocol ports or even packet
           payload.  This task is called 'policy routing'.
    
           To solve this task, the conventional destination based  routing  table,
           ordered  according to the longest match rule, is replaced with a 'rout-
           ing policy database' (or RPDB), which selects routes by executing  some
           set of rules.
    
           Each  policy  routing  rule consists of a selector and an action predi-
           cate.  The RPDB is scanned in the order  of  increasing  priority.  The
           selector  of  each  rule  is  applied  to  {source address, destination
           address, incoming interface, tos, fwmark} and, if the selector  matches
           the  packet,  the action is performed.  The action predicate may return
           with success.  In this case, it will either give  a  route  or  failure
           indication  and the RPDB lookup is terminated. Otherwise, the RPDB pro-
           gram continues on the next rule.
    
                  Rule 0 is special. It cannot be deleted or overridden.
    
           2.     Priority:  32766, Selector: match anything, Action: lookup rout-
                  ing table main (ID 254).  The main table is the  normal  routing
                  table containing all non-policy routes. This rule may be deleted
                  and/or overridden with other ones by the administrator.
    
           3.     Priority: 32767, Selector: match anything, Action: lookup  rout-
                  ing  table default (ID 253).  The default table is empty.  It is
                  reserved for some post-processing if no previous  default  rules
                  selected the packet.  This rule may also be deleted.
    
           Each  RPDB  entry  has  additional  attributes.   F.e.  each rule has a
           pointer to some routing table.  NAT  and  masquerading  rules  have  an
           attribute  to  select  new IP address to translate/masquerade.  Besides
           that, rules have some optional attributes, which  routes  have,  namely
           realms.   These  values  do not override those contained in the routing
           tables.  They are only used if the route did not select any attributes.
    
           The RPDB may contain rules of the following types:
    
                   unicast  - the rule prescribes to return the route found in the
                   routing table referenced by the rule.
    
                   blackhole - the rule prescribes to silently drop the packet.
    
                   unreachable - the rule prescribes to  generate  a  'Network  is
                   unreachable' error.
    
                   prohibit  -  the  rule prescribes to generate 'Communication is
                   administratively prohibited' error.
    
                   nat - the rule prescribes to translate the  source  address  of
                   the IP packet into some other value.
    
       ip rule add - insert a new rule
       ip rule delete - delete a rule
           type TYPE (default)
                  the type of this rule.  The list of valid types was given in the
                  previous subsection.
    
           from PREFIX
                  select the source prefix to match.
    
                  select the TOS value to match.
    
           fwmark MARK
                  select the fwmark value to match.
    
           priority PREFERENCE
                  the priority of this rule.  Each rule should have an  explicitly
                  set unique priority value.  The options preference and order are
                  synonyms with priority.
    
           table TABLEID
                  the routing table identifier to  lookup  if  the  rule  selector
                  matches.  It is also possible to use lookup instead of table.
    
           realms FROM/TO
                  Realms  to  select  if  the  rule  matched and the routing table
                  lookup succeeded.  Realm TO is only used if the  route  did  not
                  select any realm.
    
           nat ADDRESS
                  The  base  of  the  IP  address  block  to translate (for source
                  addresses).  The ADDRESS may be either the start of the block of
                  NAT  addresses  (selected by NAT routes) or a local host address
                  (or even zero).  In the last case the router does not  translate
                  the packets, but masquerades them to this address.  Using map-to
                  instead of nat means the same thing.
    
                  Warning: Changes to the RPDB made with  these  commands  do  not
                  become  active  immediately.   It is assumed that after a script
                  finishes a batch of updates, it flushes the routing  cache  with
                  ip route flush cache.
    
       ip rule flush - also dumps all the deleted rules.
           This command has no arguments.
    
       ip rule show - list rules
           This  command  has  no arguments.  The options list or lst are synonyms
           with show.
    
    
    

    ip maddress - multicast addresses management

           maddress objects are multicast addresses.
    
       ip maddress show - list multicast addresses
    
           dev NAME
                  the device to join/leave this multicast address.
    
    
    

    ip mroute - multicast routing cache management

           mroute  objects  are  multicast routing cache entries created by a user
           level mrouting daemon (f.e.  pimd or mrouted ).
    
           Due to the limitations of the current interface to the multicast  rout-
           ing engine, it is impossible to change mroute objects administratively,
           so we may only display them.  This limitation will be  removed  in  the
           future.
    
       ip mroute show - list mroute cache entries
           to PREFIX (default)
                  the  prefix  selecting  the  destination  multicast addresses to
                  list.
    
           iif NAME
                  the interface on which multicast packets are received.
    
           from PREFIX
                  the prefix selecting the IP source addresses  of  the  multicast
                  route.
    
    
    

    ip tunnel - tunnel configuration

           tunnel  objects  are  tunnels,  encapsulating packets in IP packets and
           then sending them over the IP  infrastructure.   The  encapulating  (or
           outer)  address  family  is specified by the -f option.  The default is
           IPv4.
    
       ip tunnel add - add a new tunnel
       ip tunnel change - change an existing tunnel
       ip tunnel delete - destroy a tunnel
           name NAME (default)
                  select the tunnel device name.
    
           mode MODE
                  set the tunnel mode. Available modes depend on the encapsulating
                  address family.
                  Modes  for  IPv4  encapsulation available: ipip, sit, isatap and
                  gre.
                  Modes for IPv6 encapsulation available: ip6ip6, ipip6 and any.
    
    
           tos T
    
           dsfield T
    
           tclass T
                  set a fixed TOS (or traffic class in IPv6) T on  tunneled  pack-
                  ets.  The default value is: inherit.
    
           dev NAME
                  bind the tunnel to the device NAME so that tunneled packets will
                  only be routed via this device and will not be able to escape to
                  another device when the route to endpoint changes.
    
           nopmtudisc
                  disable  Path  MTU  Discovery  on this tunnel.  It is enabled by
                  default.  Note that  a  fixed  ttl  is  incompatible  with  this
                  option: tunnelling with a fixed ttl always makes pmtu discovery.
    
           key K
    
           ikey K
    
           okey K ( only GRE tunnels ) use keyed GRE with key K.  K  is  either  a
                  number  or  an  IP  address-like dotted quad.  The key parameter
                  sets the key to use in  both  directions.   The  ikey  and  okey
                  parameters set different keys for input and output.
    
           csum, icsum, ocsum
                  (  only  GRE  tunnels  ) generate/require checksums for tunneled
                  packets.  The  ocsum  flag  calculates  checksums  for  outgoing
                  packets.   The  icsum  flag requires that all input packets have
                  the correct checksum.  The csum flag is equivalent to the combi-
                  nation icsum ocsum.
    
           seq, iseq, oseq
                  (  only  GRE tunnels ) serialize packets.  The oseq flag enables
                  sequencing of outgoing packets.  The iseq flag requires that all
                  input packets are serialized.  The seq flag is equivalent to the
                  combination iseq oseq.  It isn't work. Don't use it.
    
           dscp inherit
                  ( only IPv6 tunnels ) Inherit DS field between inner  and  outer
                  header.
    
           prl-default ADDR
    
           prl-nodefault ADDR
    
           prl-delete ADDR
                  Add or delete ADDR as a potential router or default router.
    
       ip tunnel show - list tunnels
           This command has no arguments.
    
    
    

    ip monitor and rtmon - state monitoring

           The ip utility can monitor the state of devices, addresses  and  routes
           continuously.   This  option  has a slightly different format.  Namely,
           the monitor command is the first in  the  command  line  and  then  the
           object list follows:
    
           ip monitor [ all | LISTofOBJECTS ]
    
           OBJECT-LIST  is  the  list of object types that we want to monitor.  It
           may contain link, address and route.  If no file argument is given,  ip
           opens  RTNETLINK,  listens  on it and dumps state changes in the format
           described in previous sections.
    
           If a file name is given, it does not listen on RTNETLINK, but opens the
           file  containing  RTNETLINK  messages  saved in binary format and dumps
           them.  Such a history file can be generated  with  the  rtmon  utility.
           This utility has a command line syntax similar to ip monitor.  Ideally,
           rtmon should be started before the first network configuration  command
           is issued. F.e. if you insert:
    
                   rtmon file /var/log/rtmon.log
    
           in a startup script, you will be able to view the full history later.
    
           Certainly,  it is possible to start rtmon at any time.  It prepends the
           history with the state snapshot dumped at the moment of starting.
    
    
    

    ip xfrm - setting xfrm

           xfrm is an IP framework, which can transform format of the datagrams,
           i.e. encrypt the packets with some  algorithm.  xfrm  policy  and  xfrm
           state  are  associated  through templates TMPL_LIST.  This framework is
           used as a part of IPsec protocol.
    
       ip xfrm state add - add new state into xfrm
                  port SPORT, destination port DPORT and OADDR.
    
           ENCAP-TYPE
                  could be set to espinudp or espinudp-nonike.
    
           ALGO-LIST
                  contains one or more algorithms ALGO which depend on the type of
                  algorithm set by ALGO_TYPE.  It can be used these algoritms enc,
                  auth or comp.
    
       ip xfrm policy add - add a new policy
       ip xfrm policy update - update an existing policy
       ip xfrm policy delete - delete existing policy
       ip xfrm policy get - get existing policy
       ip xfrm policy deleteall - delete all existing xfrm policy
       ip xfrm policy list - print out the list of xfrm policy
       ip xfrm policy flush - flush policies
           It can be flush all policies or only those specified with ptype.
    
           dir DIR
                  directory could be one of these: inp, out or fwd.
    
           SELECTOR
                  selects for which addresses will  be  set  up  the  policy.  The
                  selector is defined by source and destination address.
    
           UPSPEC is defined by source port sport, destination port dport, type as
                  number and code also number.
    
           dev DEV
                  specify network device.
    
           index INDEX
                  the number of indexed policy.
    
           ptype PTYPE
                  type is set as default on main, could be switch on sub.
    
           action ACTION
                  is set as default on allow.  It could be switch on block.
    
    
           XFRM_PROTO
                  values: esp, ah, comp, route2 or hao.
    
           MODE   is set as default on transport, but it could be set on tunnel or
                  beet.
    
           LEVEL  is set as default on required and the other choice is use.
    
           UPSPEC is specified by sport, dport, type and code (NUMBER).
    
       ip xfrm monitor - is used for listing all objects or defined group of them.
           The  xfrm  monitor  can monitor the policies for all objects or defined
           group of them.
    
    
    

    ip token

           IPv6 tokenized interface identifer support is used for assigning  well-
           known host-part addresses to nodes whilst still obtaining a global net-
           work prefix from Router advertisements. The  primary  target  for  tok-
           enized  identifiers  are  server  platforms where addresses are usually
           manually configured, rather than using DHCPv6 or SLAAC. By  using  tok-
           enized  identifiers,  hosts can still determine their network prefix by
           use of SLAAC, but more readily be automatically renumbered should their
           network  prefix change [1]. Tokenized IPv6 Identifiers are described in
           the draft [1]: <draft-chown-6man-tokenised-ipv6-identifiers-02>.
    
       ip token set - set an interface token
           set the interface token to the kernel. Once a token is set,  it  cannot
           be removed from the interface, only overwritten.
    
           TOKEN  the interface identifer token address.
    
           dev DEV
                  the networking interface.
    
       ip token get - get the interface token from the kernel
           show a tokenized interface identifer of a particular networking device.
           Arguments: coincide with the arguments of ip token set  but  the  TOKEN
           must be left out.
    
       ip token list - list all interface tokens
           list  all  tokenized interface identifers for the networking interfaces
           from the kernel.
    
    
    
    

    iproute2 17 January 2002 IP(8)

    
    
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