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    Command:

    inotifywait

    
    
    
    

    SYNOPSIS

           inotifywait  [-hcmrq]  [-e  <event> ] [-t <seconds> ] [--format <fmt> ]
           [--timefmt <fmt> ] <file> [ ... ]
    
    
    

    DESCRIPTION

           inotifywait efficiently waits for changes to files using  Linux's  ino-
           tify(7)  interface.   It  is  suitable for waiting for changes to files
           from shell scripts.  It can either exit once an event occurs,  or  con-
           tinually execute and output events as they occur.
    
    
    

    OUTPUT

           inotifywait  will  output  diagnostic information on standard error and
           event information on standard output.  The event output can be  config-
           ured, but by default it consists of lines of the following form:
    
           watched_filename EVENT_NAMES event_filename
    
           watched_filename
                  is  the  name  of  the file on which the event occurred.  If the
                  file is a directory, a trailing slash is output.
    
           EVENT_NAMES
                  are the names of the inotify events which occurred, separated by
                  commas.
    
           event_filename
                  is  output  only  when the event occurred on a directory, and in
                  this case the name of the file within the directory which caused
                  this event is output.
    
                  By  default, any special characters in filenames are not escaped
                  in any way.  This can make the output of  inotifywait  difficult
                  to  parse  in  awk  scripts  or similar.  The --csv and --format
                  options will be helpful in this case.
    
    
    

    OPTIONS

           -h, --help
                  Output some helpful usage information.
    
           @<file>
                  When watching a directory tree recursively, exclude  the  speci-
                  fied file from being watched.  The file must be specified with a
                  relative or absolute path according to  whether  a  relative  or
                  absolute  path  is given for watched directories.  If a specific
                  path is explicitly both included and excluded, it will always be
                  watched.
    
    
           -r, --recursive
                  Watch all subdirectories of any directories passed as arguments.
                  Watches  will be set up recursively to an unlimited depth.  Sym-
                  bolic links are not  traversed.   Newly  created  subdirectories
                  will also be watched.
    
                  Warning:  If  you use this option while watching the root direc-
                  tory of a large tree, it may take quite a while until  all  ino-
                  tify watches are established, and events will not be received in
                  this time.  Also, since one inotify watch  will  be  established
                  per subdirectory, it is possible that the maximum amount of ino-
                  tify watches per user will be reached.  The default  maximum  is
                  8192;  it  can  be  increased  by  writing  to /proc/sys/fs/ino-
                  tify/max_user_watches.
    
           -q, --quiet
                  If specified once, the program will be less  verbose.   Specifi-
                  cally,  it will not state when it has completed establishing all
                  inotify watches.
    
                  If specified twice, the program  will  output  nothing  at  all,
                  except in the case of fatal errors.
    
           --exclude <pattern>
                  Do  not  process any events whose filename matches the specified
                  POSIX extended regular expression, case sensitive.
    
           --excludei <pattern>
                  Do not process any events whose filename matches  the  specified
                  POSIX extended regular expression, case insensitive.
    
           -t <seconds>, --timeout <seconds>
                  Exit  if  an appropriate event has not occurred within <seconds>
                  seconds. If <seconds> is zero (the default),  wait  indefinitely
                  for an event.
    
           -e <event>, --event <event>
                  Listen for specific event(s) only.  The events which can be lis-
                  tened for are listed in the EVENTS section.  This option can  be
                  specified  more  than once.  If omitted, all events are listened
                  for.
    
           -c, --csv
                  Output in CSV (comma-separated values) format.  This  is  useful
                  when  filenames may contain spaces, since in this case it is not
    
           %w     This will be replaced with the name of the Watched file on which
                  an event occurred.
    
           %f     When  an  event occurs within a directory, this will be replaced
                  with the name of the File which caused the event to occur.  Oth-
                  erwise, this will be replaced with an empty string.
    
           %e     Replaced with the Event(s) which occurred, comma-separated.
    
           %Xe    Replaced   with   the  Event(s)  which  occurred,  separated  by
                  whichever character is in the place of 'X'.
    
           %T     Replaced with the current Time in the format  specified  by  the
                  --timefmt  option,  which should be a format string suitable for
                  passing to strftime(3).
    
    
    

    EXIT STATUS

           0      The program executed successfully, and an event  occurred  which
                  was being listened for.
    
           1      An  error  occurred  in  execution  of  the program, or an event
                  occurred which was not being listened for.  The latter generally
                  occurs  if  something happens which forcibly removes the inotify
                  watch, such as a watched file being deleted  or  the  filesystem
                  containing a watched file being unmounted.
    
           2      The  -t option was used and an event did not occur in the speci-
                  fied interval of time.
    
    
    

    EVENTS

           The following events are valid for use with the -e option:
    
           access A watched file or a file within a  watched  directory  was  read
                  from.
    
           modify A  watched file or a file within a watched directory was written
                  to.
    
           attrib The metadata of a watched file or a file within a watched direc-
                  tory  was modified.  This includes timestamps, file permissions,
    
           close  A  watched file or a file within a watched directory was closed,
                  regardless of how it was opened.  Note  that  this  is  actually
                  implemented   simply  by  listening  for  both  close_write  and
                  close_nowrite, hence all close events received will be output as
                  one of these, not CLOSE.
    
           open   A  watched file or a file within a watched directory was opened.
    
           moved_to
                  A file or directory was moved into a  watched  directory.   This
                  event  occurs  even  if the file is simply moved from and to the
                  same directory.
    
           moved_from
                  A file or directory was moved from a  watched  directory.   This
                  event  occurs  even  if the file is simply moved from and to the
                  same directory.
    
           move   A file or directory was moved from or to  a  watched  directory.
                  Note  that  this is actually implemented simply by listening for
                  both moved_to and moved_from, hence all  close  events  received
                  will be output as one or both of these, not MOVE.
    
           move_self
                  A  watched  file  or  directory was moved. After this event, the
                  file or directory is no longer being watched.
    
           create A file or directory was created within a watched directory.
    
           delete A file or directory within a watched directory was deleted.
    
           delete_self
                  A watched file or directory was deleted.  After this  event  the
                  file  or  directory  is no longer being watched.  Note that this
                  event can occur even if it is not explicitly being listened for.
    
           unmount
                  The  filesystem on which a watched file or directory resides was
                  unmounted.  After this event the file or directory is no  longer
                  being watched.  Note that this event can occur even if it is not
                  explicitly being listened to.
    
           A short shell script to efficiently wait for httpd-related log messages
           and do something appropriate.
    
           #!/bin/sh
           while inotifywait -e modify /var/log/messages; do
             if tail -n1 /var/log/messages | grep httpd; then
               kdialog --msgbox "Apache needs love!"
             fi
           done
    
       Example 3
           A  custom  output format is used to watch '~/test'.  Meanwhile, someone
           runs 'touch ~/test/badfile; touch ~/test/goodfile;  rm  ~/test/badfile'
           in another console.
    
           % inotifywait -m -r --format '%:e %f' ~/test
           Setting up watches.  Beware: since -r was given, this may take a while!
           Watches established.
           CREATE badfile
           OPEN badfile
           ATTRIB badfile
           CLOSE_WRITE:CLOSE badfile
           CREATE goodfile
           OPEN goodfile
           ATTRIB goodfile
           CLOSE_WRITE:CLOSE goodfile
           DELETE badfile
    
    
    

    BUGS

           There  are  race  conditions  in  the recursive directory watching code
           which can cause events to be missed if they occur in a directory  imme-
           diately after that directory is created.  This is probably not fixable.
    
           It is assumed the inotify event queue will never overflow.
    
    
    

    AUTHORS

           inotifywait is written and maintained by Rohan  McGovern  <rohan@mcgov-
           ern.id.au>.
    
           inotifywait  is  part  of  inotify-tools.  The inotify-tools website is
           located at: http://inotify-tools.sourceforge.net/
    
    
    

    SEE ALSO

           inotifywatch(1), strftime(3), inotify(7)
    
    
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