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         #include <sys/socket.h>
         #include <netinet/in.h>
         socket(AF_INET, SOCK_RAW, proto);


         ICMP is the error and control message protocol used by IP and the Inter-
         net protocol family.  It may be accessed through a "raw socket" for net-
         work monitoring and diagnostic functions.  The proto parameter to the
         socket call to create an ICMP socket is obtained from getprotobyname(3).
         ICMP sockets are connectionless, and are normally used with the sendto(2)
         and recvfrom(2) calls, though the connect(2) call may also be used to fix
         the destination for future packets (in which case the read(2) or recv(2)
         and write(2) or send(2) system calls may be used).
         Outgoing packets automatically have an IP header prepended to them (based
         on the destination address).  Incoming packets are received with the IP
         header and options intact.
         ICMP messages are classified according to the type and code fields
         present in the ICMP header.  The abbreviations for the types and codes
         may be used in rules in pf.conf(5).  The following types are defined:
               Num  Abbrev.         Description
               0    echorep         Echo reply
               3    unreach         Destination unreachable
               4    squench         Packet loss, slow down
               5    redir           Shorter route exists
               6    althost         Alternate host address
               8    echoreq         Echo request
               9    routeradv       Router advertisement
               10   routersol       Router solicitation
               11   timex           Time exceeded
               12   paramprob       Invalid IP header
               13   timereq         Timestamp request
               14   timerep         Timestamp reply
               15   inforeq         Information request
               16   inforep         Information reply
               17   maskreq         Address mask request
               18   maskrep         Address mask reply
               30   trace           Traceroute
               31   dataconv        Data conversion problem
               32   mobredir        Mobile host redirection
               33   ipv6-where      IPv6 where-are-you
               34   ipv6-here       IPv6 i-am-here
               35   mobregreq       Mobile registration request
               36   mobregrep       Mobile registration reply
               39   skip            SKIP
               40   photuris        Photuris
               10   host-prohib     unreach     Host administratively prohibited
               11   net-tos         unreach     Invalid TOS for network
               12   host-tos        unreach     Invalid TOS for host
               13   filter-prohib   unreach     Prohibited access
               14   host-preced     unreach     Precedence violation
               15   cutoff-preced   unreach     Precedence cutoff
               0    redir-net       redir       Shorter route for network
               1    redir-host      redir       Shorter route for host
               2    redir-tos-net   redir       Shorter route for TOS and network
               3    redir-tos-host  redir       Shorter route for TOS and host
               0    normal-adv      routeradv   Normal advertisement
               16   common-adv      routeradv   Selective advertisement
               0    transit         timex       Time exceeded in transit
               1    reassemb        timex       Time exceeded in reassembly
               0    badhead         paramprob   Invalid option pointer
               1    optmiss         paramprob   Missing option
               2    badlen          paramprob   Invalid length
               1    unknown-ind     photuris    Unknown security index
               2    auth-fail       photuris    Authentication failed
               3    decrypt-fail    photuris    Decryption failed
       MIB Variables
         The ICMP protocol implements a number of variables in the net.inet.icmp
         branch of the sysctl(3) MIB.
         maskrepl        (boolean) Enable/disable replies to ICMP Address Mask
                         Request packets.  Defaults to false.
         maskfake        (unsigned integer) When maskrepl is set and this value is
                         non-zero, it will be used instead of the real address
                         mask when the system replies to an ICMP Address Mask
                         Request packet.  Defaults to 0.
         icmplim         (integer) Bandwidth limit for ICMP replies in pack-
                         ets/second.  Used when icmplim_output is non-zero.
                         Defaults to 200.
         icmplim_output  (boolean) Enable/disable bandwidth limiting of ICMP
                         replies.  Defaults to true.
         drop_redirect   (boolean) Enable/disable dropping of ICMP Redirect pack-
                         ets.  Defaults to false.
         log_redirect    (boolean) Enable/disable logging of ICMP Redirect pack-
                         ets.  Defaults to false.
         bmcastecho      (boolean) Enable/disable ICMP replies received via broad-
                         cast or multicast.  Defaults to false.
         reply_src       (str) An interface name used for the ICMP reply source in
                         response to packets which are not directly addressed to
                         at least 8 bytes (per RFC792) and at most the maximal
                         space left in the ICMP reply mbuf.


         A socket operation may fail with one of the following errors returned:
         [EISCONN]          when trying to establish a connection on a socket
                            which already has one, or when trying to send a data-
                            gram with the destination address specified and the
                            socket is already connected;
         [ENOTCONN]         when trying to send a datagram, but no destination
                            address is specified, and the socket has not been con-
         [ENOBUFS]          when the system runs out of memory for an internal
                            data structure;
         [EADDRNOTAVAIL]    when an attempt is made to create a socket with a net-
                            work address for which no network interface exists.


         recv(2), send(2), inet(4), intro(4), ip(4), pf.conf(5)


         The icmp protocol appeared in 4.3BSD.

    BSD February 9, 2007 BSD


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