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  • LINUX man pages
  • Linux Man Page Viewer


    The following form allows you to view linux man pages.

    Command:

    hier

    
    
    

    DESCRIPTION

           A typical Linux system has, among others, the following directories:
    
           /      This  is  the  root  directory.   This  is  where the whole tree
                  starts.
    
           /bin   This directory contains executable programs which are needed  in
                  single user mode and to bring the system up or repair it.
    
           /boot  Contains static files for the boot loader.  This directory holds
                  only the files which are needed during the  boot  process.   The
                  map  installer  and  configuration  files should go to /sbin and
                  /etc.
    
           /dev   Special or device files, which refer to physical  devices.   See
                  mknod(1).
    
           /etc   Contains  configuration  files  which  are local to the machine.
                  Some larger software packages, like X11, can have their own sub-
                  directories  below  /etc.   Site-wide configuration files may be
                  placed here  or  in  /usr/etc.   Nevertheless,  programs  should
                  always  look  for these files in /etc and you may have links for
                  these files to /usr/etc.
    
           /etc/opt
                  Host-specific  configuration  files  for   add-on   applications
                  installed in /opt.
    
           /etc/sgml
                  This directory contains the configuration files for SGML and XML
                  (optional).
    
           /etc/skel
                  When a new user account is created, files  from  this  directory
                  are usually copied into the user's home directory.
    
           /etc/X11
                  Configuration files for the X11 window system (optional).
    
           /home  On  machines  with home directories for users, these are usually
                  beneath this directory, directly or not.  The structure of  this
                  directory depends on local administration decisions.
    
           /lib   This  directory should hold those shared libraries that are nec-
                  essary to boot the system and to run the commands  in  the  root
                  filesystem.
    
           /media This directory contains mount points for removable media such as
                  CD and DVD disks or USB sticks.
    
           /mnt   This directory is  a  mount  point  for  a  temporarily  mounted
                  filesystem.  In some distributions, /mnt contains subdirectories
                  tem, but which are usually not executed by normal users.
    
           /srv   This directory contains site-specific data  that  is  served  by
                  this system.
    
           /tmp   This  directory  contains  temporary  files which may be deleted
                  with no notice, such as by a regular job or at system boot up.
    
           /usr   This directory is usually mounted from a separate partition.  It
                  should  hold  only  sharable,  read-only data, so that it can be
                  mounted by various machines running Linux.
    
           /usr/X11R6
                  The X-Window system, version 11 release 6 (optional).
    
           /usr/X11R6/bin
                  Binaries which belong to the X-Window system; often, there is  a
                  symbolic link from the more traditional /usr/bin/X11 to here.
    
           /usr/X11R6/lib
                  Data files associated with the X-Window system.
    
           /usr/X11R6/lib/X11
                  These contain miscellaneous files needed to run X;  Often, there
                  is a symbolic link from /usr/lib/X11 to this directory.
    
           /usr/X11R6/include/X11
                  Contains include files needed for compiling programs  using  the
                  X11  window  system.   Often,  there  is  a  symbolic  link from
                  /usr/include/X11 to this directory.
    
           /usr/bin
                  This is the primary directory  for  executable  programs.   Most
                  programs executed by normal users which are not needed for boot-
                  ing or for repairing the system  and  which  are  not  installed
                  locally should be placed in this directory.
    
           /usr/bin/X11
                  is  the traditional place to look for X11 executables; on Linux,
                  it usually is a symbolic link to /usr/X11R6/bin.
    
           /usr/dict
                  Replaced by /usr/share/dict.
    
           /usr/doc
                  Replaced by /usr/share/doc.
    
           /usr/etc
                  Site-wide configuration  files  to  be  shared  between  several
                  machines  may  be  stored  in this directory.  However, commands
                  should always reference those files using  the  /etc  directory.
                  Links  from  files in /etc should point to the appropriate files
                  to be a symbolic link to /usr/src/linux/include/asm.
    
           /usr/include/linux
                  This contains information which may change from  system  release
                  to   system   release   and  used  to  be  a  symbolic  link  to
                  /usr/src/linux/include/linux to get at operating-system-specific
                  information.
    
                  (Note  that  one  should have include files there that work cor-
                  rectly with the current libc and in user space.  However,  Linux
                  kernel  source is not designed to be used with user programs and
                  does not know anything about the libc you are using.  It is very
                  likely  that  things  will break if you let /usr/include/asm and
                  /usr/include/linux point at a random kernel tree.   Debian  sys-
                  tems don't do this and use headers from a known good kernel ver-
                  sion, provided in the libc*-dev package.)
    
           /usr/include/g++
                  Include files to use with the GNU C++ compiler.
    
           /usr/lib
                  Object libraries, including dynamic libraries,  plus  some  exe-
                  cutables  which  usually are not invoked directly.  More compli-
                  cated programs may have whole subdirectories there.
    
           /usr/lib/X11
                  The usual place for data files associated with X  programs,  and
                  configuration  files for the X system itself.  On Linux, it usu-
                  ally is a symbolic link to /usr/X11R6/lib/X11.
    
           /usr/lib/gcc-lib
                  contains executables and include files for the GNU  C  compiler,
                  gcc(1).
    
           /usr/lib/groff
                  Files for the GNU groff document formatting system.
    
           /usr/lib/uucp
                  Files for uucp(1).
    
           /usr/local
                  This is where programs which are local to the site typically go.
    
           /usr/local/bin
                  Binaries for programs local to the site.
    
           /usr/local/doc
                  Local documentation.
    
           /usr/local/etc
                  Configuration files associated with locally installed  programs.
    
    
           /usr/local/sbin
                  Locally installed programs for system administration.
    
           /usr/local/share
                  Local application data that can be shared among different archi-
                  tectures of the same OS.
    
           /usr/local/src
                  Source code for locally installed software.
    
           /usr/man
                  Replaced by /usr/share/man.
    
           /usr/sbin
                  This directory contains program binaries for system  administra-
                  tion  which are not essential for the boot process, for mounting
                  /usr, or for system repair.
    
           /usr/share
                  This directory contains subdirectories with specific application
                  data,  that  can  be shared among different architectures of the
                  same OS.  Often one finds  stuff  here  that  used  to  live  in
                  /usr/doc or /usr/lib or /usr/man.
    
           /usr/share/dict
                  Contains the word lists used by spell checkers.
    
           /usr/share/doc
                  Documentation about installed programs.
    
           /usr/share/games
                  Static data files for games in /usr/games.
    
           /usr/share/info
                  Info pages go here.
    
           /usr/share/locale
                  Locale information goes here.
    
           /usr/share/man
                  Manual pages go here in subdirectories according to the man page
                  sections.
    
           /usr/share/man/<locale>/man[1-9]
                  These directories contain manual pages for the  specific  locale
                  in  source  code  form.  Systems which use a unique language and
                  code set for all manual pages may omit the <locale> substring.
    
           /usr/share/misc
                  Miscellaneous data that can be shared among different  architec-
                  tures of the same OS.
                  Files for timezone information.
    
           /usr/src
                  Source  files  for  different parts of the system, included with
                  some packages for reference purposes.  Don't work here with your
                  own  projects,  as  files  below /usr should be read-only except
                  when installing software.
    
           /usr/src/linux
                  This was the traditional place for the kernel source.  Some dis-
                  tributions put here the source for the default kernel they ship.
                  You should probably use another directory when building your own
                  kernel.
    
           /usr/tmp
                  Obsolete.   This  should  be  a  link to /var/tmp.  This link is
                  present only for compatibility reasons and shouldn't be used.
    
           /var   This directory contains files which may change in size, such  as
                  spool and log files.
    
           /var/adm
                  This  directory  is  superseded by /var/log and should be a sym-
                  bolic link to /var/log.
    
           /var/backups
                  Reserved for historical reasons.
    
           /var/cache
                  Data cached for programs.
    
           /var/catman/cat[1-9] or /var/cache/man/cat[1-9]
                  These directories contain preformatted manual pages according to
                  their  man  page section.  (The use of preformatted manual pages
                  is deprecated.)
    
           /var/cron
                  Reserved for historical reasons.
    
           /var/lib
                  Variable state information for programs.
    
           /var/local
                  Variable data for /usr/local.
    
           /var/lock
                  Lock files are placed in this directory.  The naming  convention
                  for  device  lock  files  is LCK..<device> where <device> is the
                  device's name in the filesystem.  The format used is that of HDU
                  UUCP  lock files, that is, lock files contain a PID as a 10-byte
                  ASCII decimal number, followed by a newline character.
    
    
           /var/run
                  Run-time variable files, like files holding process  identifiers
                  (PIDs) and logged user information (utmp).  Files in this direc-
                  tory are usually cleared when the system boots.
    
           /var/spool
                  Spooled (or queued) files for various programs.
    
           /var/spool/at
                  Spooled jobs for at(1).
    
           /var/spool/cron
                  Spooled jobs for cron(8).
    
           /var/spool/lpd
                  Spooled files for printing.
    
           /var/spool/mail
                  Replaced by /var/mail.
    
           /var/spool/mqueue
                  Queued outgoing mail.
    
           /var/spool/news
                  Spool directory for news.
    
           /var/spool/rwho
                  Spooled files for rwhod(8).
    
           /var/spool/smail
                  Spooled files for the smail(1) mail delivery program.
    
           /var/spool/uucp
                  Spooled files for uucp(1).
    
           /var/tmp
                  Like /tmp, this directory holds temporary files  stored  for  an
                  unspecified duration.
    
           /var/yp
                  Database files for NIS.
    
    
    

    CONFORMING TO

           The Filesystem Hierarchy Standard, Version 2.2
    
    
    

    BUGS

           This  list  is not exhaustive; different systems may be configured dif-
           ferently.
    
    
    

    SEE ALSO

           find(1), ln(1), proc(5), mount(8)
    
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