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           gs [ options ] [ files ] ... (Unix, VMS)
           gswin32c [ options ] [ files ] ... (MS Windows)
           gswin32 [ options ] [ files ] ... (MS Windows 3.1)
           gsos2 [ options ] [ files ] ... (OS/2)


           The gs (gswin32c,  gswin32,  gsos2)  command  invokes  Ghostscript,  an
           interpreter of Adobe Systems' PostScript(tm) and Portable Document For-
           mat (PDF) languages.  gs reads "files" in sequence and executes them as
           Ghostscript programs. After doing this, it reads further input from the
           standard input stream (normally the keyboard), interpreting  each  line
           separately.  The  interpreter  exits  gracefully when it encounters the
           "quit" command (either in a file or from the keyboard), at end-of-file,
           or at an interrupt signal (such as Control-C at the keyboard).
           The  interpreter  recognizes  many  option  switches, some of which are
           described below. Please see the usage documentation for complete infor-
           mation.  Switches  may appear anywhere in the command line and apply to
           all files thereafter.  Invoking Ghostscript with the -h  or  -?  switch
           produces a message which shows several useful switches, all the devices
           known to that executable, and the search path for  fonts;  on  Unix  it
           also shows the location of detailed documentation.
           Ghostscript  may be built to use many different output devices.  To see
           which devices your executable includes, run "gs -h".  Unless you  spec-
           ify  a  particular  device, Ghostscript normally opens the first one of
           those and directs output to it, so if the first one in the list is  the
           one you want to use, just issue the command
           You   can   also  check  the  set  of  available  devices  from  within
           Ghostscript: invoke Ghostscript and type
                devicenames ==
           but the first device on the resulting  list  may  not  be  the  default
           device  you determine with "gs -h".  To specify "AbcXyz" as the initial
           output device, include the switch
           For example, for output to an Epson printer you might use the command
                gs -sDEVICE=epson
           The "-sDEVICE=" switch must precede the first  mention  of  a  file  to
           print, and only the switch's first use has any effect.
           Finally,  you  can specify a default device in the environment variable
                gs -sDEVICE=epson -r240x72.
           If you select a printer as the output device, Ghostscript  also  allows
           you  to  choose  where Ghostscript sends the output -- on Unix systems,
           usually to a temporary file.  To send the output to a  file  "",
           use the switch
           You  might  want  to  print each page separately.  To do this, send the
           output to a series of files ",, ..." using the "-sOut-
           putFile=" switch with "%d" in a filename template:
           Each resulting file receives one page of output, and the files are num-
           bered in sequence.  "%d" is a printf format specification; you can also
           use a variant like "%02d".
           On Unix and MS Windows systems you can also send output to a pipe.  For
           example, to pipe output to the "lpr" command (which, on many Unix  sys-
           tems, directs it to a printer), use the option
           Note  that the '%' characters need to be doubled on MS Windows to avoid
           mangling by the command interpreter.
           You can also send output to standard output:
           In this case you must also use the -q switch,  to  prevent  Ghostscript
           from writing messages to standard output.
           To select a specific paper size, use the command line switch
           for instance
           Most ISO and US paper sizes are recognized. See the usage documentation
           for a  full  list,  or  the  definitions  in  the  initialization  file


           -- filename arg1 ...
                  Takes  the  next argument as a file name as usual, but takes all
                  remaining arguments (even if they have  the  syntactic  form  of
                  switches)  and  defines  the name "ARGUMENTS" in "userdict" (not
                  "systemdict") as an array of those strings, before  running  the
                  file.   When  Ghostscript  finishes executing the file, it exits
                  back to the shell.
                  Define a name in "systemdict" with the  given  definition.   The
                  token must be exactly one token (as defined by the "token" oper-
                  ator) and may contain no whitespace.
           -dname Define a name in "systemdict" with value=null.
                  Define a name in "systemdict" with  a  given  string  as  value.
                  This is different from -d.  For example, -dname=35 is equivalent
                  to the program fragment
                       /name 35 def
                  whereas -sname=35 is equivalent to
                       /name (35) def
           -P     Makes Ghostscript to look first in  the  current  directory  for
                  library  files.   By default, Ghostscript no longer looks in the
                  current directory, unless, of course, the first explicitly  sup-
                  plied directory is "." in -I.  See also the INITIALIZATION FILES
                  section below, and bundled Use.htm for  detailed  discussion  on
                  search  paths and how Ghostcript finds files.  -q Quiet startup:
                  suppress normal startup messages, and also do the equivalent  of
                  Equivalent  to -dDEVICEWIDTH=number1 and -dDEVICEHEIGHT=number2.
                  This is for the benefit of devices (such as  X11  windows)  that
                  require (or allow) width and height to be specified.
                  Equivalent  to  -dDEVICEXRESOLUTION=number1 and -dDEVICEYRESOLU-
                  TION=number2.  This is for the benefit of devices such as print-
                  ers that support multiple X and Y resolutions.  If only one num-
                  ber is given, it is used for both X and Y resolutions.
                  Adds the designated list of  directories  at  the  head  of  the
                  search path for library files.


                  Causes individual character outlines to be loaded from the  disk
                  the  first  time  they  are  encountered.  (Normally Ghostscript
                  loads all the character outlines when it loads  a  font.)   This
                  may  allow loading more fonts into RAM, at the expense of slower
                  Disables character caching.  Useful only for debugging.
                  Disables the "bind" operator.  Useful only for debugging.
                  Suppresses the normal initialization of the output device.  This
                  may be useful when debugging.
                  Disables the prompt and pause at the end of each page.  This may
                  be desirable for applications where another program  is  driving
                  Disables  the  use  of fonts supplied by the underlying platform
                  (for instance X Windows). This may be  needed  if  the  platform
                  fonts look undesirably different from the scalable fonts.
                  Disables  the  "deletefile"  and  "renamefile" operators and the
                  ability to open files in any mode other  than  read-only.   This
                  strongly  recommended  for spoolers, conversion scripts or other
                  sensitive  environments  where  a  badly  written  or  malicious
                  PostScript  program  code must be prevented from changing impor-
                  tant files.
                  Leaves "systemdict" writable.  This is  necessary  when  running
                  special utility programs such as font2c and pcharstr, which must
                  bypass normal PostScript access protection.
                  Selects an alternate initial output device, as described  above.
                  Selects  an alternate output file (or pipe) for the initial out-
                  put device, as described above.


           The locations of many Ghostscript run-time files are compiled into  the
           executable  when  it  is  built.   On Unix these are typically based in
           /usr/local, but this may be different on your system.  Under  DOS  they
                  Diverse document files


           When looking for the initialization files "gs_*.ps", the files  related
           to  fonts,  or the file for the "run" operator, Ghostscript first tries
           to open the file with the name as  given,  using  the  current  working
           directory  if  no  directory is specified.  If this fails, and the file
           name doesn't specify an explicit  directory  or  drive  (for  instance,
           doesn't  contain  "/"  on  Unix  systems or "\" on MS Windows systems),
           Ghostscript tries directories in this order:
           1.  the directories specified by the -I switches in  the  command  line
               (see below), if any;
           2.  the  directories  specified  by the GS_LIB environment variable, if
           3.  the directories  specified  by  the  GS_LIB_DEFAULT  macro  in  the
               Ghostscript  makefile  when  the  executable was built.  When gs is
               built      on      Unix,      GS_LIB_DEFAULT       is       usually
               where "#.##" represents the Ghostscript version number.
           Each of these (GS_LIB_DEFAULT, GS_LIB, and -I parameter) may be  either
           a single directory or a list of directories separated by ":".


                  String  of  options  to  be  processed  before  the command line
                  Used to specify an output device
                  Path names used to search for fonts
           GS_LIB Path names for initialization files and fonts
           TEMP   Where temporary files are made


           Ghostscript, or more properly the X11 display  device,  looks  for  the
           following resources under the program name "Ghostscript":
                  The border width in pixels (default = 1).
                  The name of the border color (default = black).
           See the usage document for a more complete list of resources.   To  set
           these  resources on Unix, put them in a file such as "~/.Xresources" in
           the following form:
                Ghostscript*geometry:     612x792-0+0
                Ghostscript*xResolution: 72
                Ghostscript*yResolution: 72
           Then merge these resources into the X server's resource database:
                % xrdb -merge ~/.Xresources


           The various Ghostscript document files (above), especially Use.htm.


           See   and   the   Usenet   news    group


           This document was last revised for Ghostscript version 8.70.


           Artifex  Software,  Inc.  are  the  primary maintainers of Ghostscript.
           Russell J. Lang, gsview at, is the author  of  most  of
           the MS Windows code in Ghostscript.

    8.70 31 July 2009 GS(1)


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