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           grops [ -glmv ] [ -bn ] [ -cn ] [ -Fdir ] [ -ppapersize ]
                 [ -Pprologue ] [ -wn ] [ files... ]
           It is possible to have whitespace between a command line option and its


           grops translates the output of GNU troff to PostScript.  Normally grops
           should be invoked by using  the  groff  command  with  a  -Tps  option.
           (Actually,  this  is  the  default  for groff.)  If no files are given,
           grops will read the standard input.  A filename of -  will  also  cause
           grops  to read the standard input.  PostScript output is written to the
           standard output.  When grops is run by groff options can be  passed  to
           grops using the groff -P option.


           -bn    Workaround  broken spoolers and previewers.  Normally grops pro-
                  duces output that conforms the Document Structuring  Conventions
                  version  3.0.   Unfortunately some spoolers and previewers can't
                  handle such output.  The value of n controls what grops does  to
                  its output acceptable to such programs.  A value of 0 will cause
                  grops not to employ any workarounds.  Add 1 if  no  %%BeginDocu-
                  mentSetup  and  %%EndDocumentSetup comments should be generated;
                  this is needed for early versions of TranScript  that  get  con-
                  fused  by anything between the %%EndProlog comment and the first
                  %%Page comment.  Add 2 if lines in included files beginning with
                  %!   should  be  stripped out; this is needed for Sun's pageview
                  previewer.  Add 4 if %%Page, %%Trailer and %%EndProlog  comments
                  should  be  stripped  out  of included files; this is needed for
                  spoolers that don't understand the %%BeginDocument and %%EndDoc-
                  ument  comments.  Add 8 if the first line of the PostScript out-
                  put should be %!PS-Adobe-2.0 rather than %!PS-Adobe-3.0; this is
                  needed  when  using Sun's Newsprint with a printer that requires
                  page reversal.  The default value can be specified by a
                         broken n
                  command in the DESC file.  Otherwise the default value is 0.
           -cn    Print n copies of each page.
           -Fdir  Prepend directory dir/devname to the search path  for  prologue,
                  font,  and  device  description  files;  name is the name of the
                  device, usually ps.
           -g     Guess the page length.   This  generates  PostScript  code  that
                  guesses  the page length.  The guess will be correct only if the
                  imageable area is vertically centered on the page.  This  option
                  allows  you  to  generate  documents that can be printed both on
                  letter (8.5x11) paper and on A4 paper without change.
           -wn    Lines should be drawn using a thickness of n thousandths  of  an
                  em.  If this option is not given, the line thickness defaults to
                  0.04 em.
           -v     Print the version number.


           There are styles called R, I, B, and BI mounted  at  font  positions  1
           to  4.  The fonts are grouped into families A, BM, C, H, HN, N, P and T
           having members in each of these styles:
                  AR     AvantGarde-Book
                  AI     AvantGarde-BookOblique
                  AB     AvantGarde-Demi
                  ABI    AvantGarde-DemiOblique
                  BMR    Bookman-Light
                  BMI    Bookman-LightItalic
                  BMB    Bookman-Demi
                  BMBI   Bookman-DemiItalic
                  CR     Courier
                  CI     Courier-Oblique
                  CB     Courier-Bold
                  CBI    Courier-BoldOblique
                  HR     Helvetica
                  HI     Helvetica-Oblique
                  HB     Helvetica-Bold
                  HBI    Helvetica-BoldOblique
                  HNR    Helvetica-Narrow
                  HNI    Helvetica-Narrow-Oblique
                  HNB    Helvetica-Narrow-Bold
                  HNBI   Helvetica-Narrow-BoldOblique
                  NR     NewCenturySchlbk-Roman
                  TR     Times-Roman
                  TI     Times-Italic
                  TB     Times-Bold
                  TBI    Times-BoldItalic
           There is also the following font which is not a member of a family:
                  ZCMI   ZapfChancery-MediumItalic
           There are also some special fonts called SS and S.   Zapf  Dingbats  is
           available  as  ZD  and a reversed version of ZapfDingbats (with symbols
           pointing in the opposite direction) is available as ZDR;  most  charac-
           ters in these fonts are unnamed and must be accessed using \N.
           The  default  color  for  \m and \M is black; for colors defined in the
           'rgb' color space, setrgbcolor is used, for 'cmy' and  'cmyk'  setcmyk-
           color, and for 'gray' setgray.
           grops  understands  various  X  commands  produced  using the \X escape
           sequence; grops will only interpret commands that begin with a ps: tag.
           \X'ps: exec code'
                  This  executes  the  arbitrary PostScript commands in code.  The
                  PostScript currentpoint will be set to the position  of  the  \X
                  command  before  executing  code.  The origin will be at the top
                  left corner of the page, and y coordinates  will  increase  down
                  the  page.   A  procedure  u will be defined that converts groff
                  units to the coordinate system in effect.  For example,
                         .nr x 1i
                         \X'ps: exec \nx u 0 rlineto stroke'
                  will draw a horizontal  line  one  inch  long.   code  may  make
                  changes to the graphics state, but any changes will persist only
                  to the end of the page.  A dictionary containing the definitions
                  specified  by  the def and mdef will be on top of the dictionary
                  stack.  If your code adds definitions to  this  dictionary,  you
                  should allocate space for them using \X'ps mdef n'.  Any defini-
                  tions will persist only until the end of the page.  If  you  use
                  the \Y escape sequence with an argument that names a macro, code
                  can extend over multiple lines.  For example,
                         .nr x 1i
                         .de y
                         ps: exec
                         \nx u 0 rlineto
                  pushed on the dictionary stack when an exec command is executed.
                  If  you use the \Y escape sequence with an argument that names a
                  macro, code can extend over multiple lines.
           \X'ps: mdef n code'
                  Like def, except that code may  contain  up  to  n  definitions.
                  grops  needs  to know how many definitions code contains so that
                  it can create an appropriately sized  PostScript  dictionary  to
                  contain them.
           \X'ps: import file llx lly urx ury width [ height ]'
                  Import  a PostScript graphic from file.  The arguments llx, lly,
                  urx, and ury give the bounding box of the graphic in the default
                  PostScript  coordinate  system; they should all be integers; llx
                  and lly are the x and y coordinates of the lower left corner  of
                  the  graphic;  urx  and  ury  are the x and y coordinates of the
                  upper right corner of the graphic; width and height are integers
                  that  give  the  desired  width and height in groff units of the
                  graphic.  The graphic will be scaled so that it has  this  width
                  and  height  and translated so that the lower left corner of the
                  graphic is located at the position associated with  \X  command.
                  If the height argument is omitted it will be scaled uniformly in
                  the x and y directions so that it has the specified width.  Note
                  that  the  contents  of  the  \X  command are not interpreted by
                  troff; so vertical space for the graphic  is  not  automatically
                  added,  and  the  width  and height arguments are not allowed to
                  have attached scaling indicators.  If the PostScript  file  com-
                  plies  with  the Adobe Document Structuring Conventions and con-
                  tains a %%BoundingBox comment, then  the  bounding  box  can  be
                  automatically  extracted  from  within  groff  by using the psbb
                  The -mps macros (which are automatically loaded  when  grops  is
                  run  by  the groff command) include a PSPIC macro which allows a
                  picture to be easily imported.  This has the format
                         .PSPIC [-L|-R|-I n] file [width [height]]
                  file is the name of the file containing the illustration;  width
                  and  height  give  the  desired width and height of the graphic.
                  The width and  height  arguments  may  have  scaling  indicators
                  attached;  the  default scaling indicator is i.  This macro will
                  scale the graphic uniformly in the x and y directions so that it
                  is  no  more  than  width wide and height high.  By default, the
                  graphic will be horizontally centered.  The -L and -R cause  the
                  graphic  to be left-aligned and right-aligned respectively.  The
                  -I option causes the graphic to be indented by n.
           \X'ps: invis'
           \X'ps: endinvis'
                  No output will be generated for text and drawing  commands  that
                  are  bracketed  with  these  \X  commands.   These  commands are
                  In this case, gxditview will be unable to display the \(em char-
                  acter  and will draw the line, whereas grops will print the \(em
                  character and ignore the line.
           The input to grops must be in the format output by troff(1).   This  is
           described in groff_out(5).  In addition the device and font description
           files for the device used must meet certain requirements.   The  device
           and  font  description  files  supplied  for  ps  device meet all these
           requirements.  afmtodit(1) can be used to create font  files  from  AFM
           files.   The  resolution  must  be  an integer multiple of 72 times the
           sizescale.  The ps device uses a resolution of 72000 and a sizescale of
           1000.  The device description file should contain a command
                  paperlength n
           which says that output should be generated which is suitable for print-
           ing on a page whose length is  n  machine  units.   Common  values  are
           792000  for  letter  paper and 841890 for paper in A4 format.  Alterna-
           tively, it can contain
                  papersize string
           to specify a paper size; see groff_font(5) for more information.   Each
           font description file must contain a command
                  internalname psname
           which says that the PostScript name of the font is psname.  It may also
           contain a command
                  encoding enc_file
           which says that the PostScript  font  should  be  reencoded  using  the
           encoding  described in enc_file; this file should consist of a sequence
           of lines of the form:
                  pschar code
           where pschar is the PostScript name of the character, and code  is  its
           position  in the encoding expressed as a decimal integer.  Lines start-
           ing with # and blank lines are ignored.  The code  for  each  character
           given in the font file must correspond to the code for the character in
           encoding file, or to the code in the default encoding for the  font  if
           the PostScript font is not to be reencoded.  This code can be used with
           the \N escape sequence in troff to select the character,  even  if  the
           character does not have a groff name.  Every character in the font file
           must exist in the PostScript font, and the widths  given  in  the  font
           file  must  match  the  widths used in the PostScript font.  grops will
           assume that a character with a groff name of space is blank  (makes  no
           marks  on  the  page);  it can make use of such a character to generate
           more efficient and compact PostScript output.
           is used.
           If the file containing a downloadable font or  imported  document  con-
           forms  to  the  Adobe Document Structuring Conventions, then grops will
           interpret any comments in the files sufficiently to ensure that its own
           output  is  conforming.   It will also supply any needed font resources
           that are listed in the  download  file  as  well  as  any  needed  file
           resources.  It is also able to handle inter-resource dependencies.  For
           example, suppose that you have a downloadable font called Garamond, and
           also a downloadable font called Garamond-Outline which depends on Gara-
           mond (typically it would be defined to copy Garamond's font dictionary,
           and  change  the  PaintType),  then  it is necessary for Garamond to be
           appear before Garamond-Outline in the PostScript document.  grops  will
           handle  this automatically provided that the downloadable font file for
           Garamond-Outline indicates its dependence on Garamond by means  of  the
           Document  Structuring  Conventions,  for  example by beginning with the
           following lines
                  %!PS-Adobe-3.0 Resource-Font
                  %%DocumentNeededResources: font Garamond
                  %%IncludeResource: font Garamond
           In this case both Garamond and Garamond-Outline would need to be listed
           in  the  download file.  A downloadable font should not include its own
           name in a %%DocumentSuppliedResources comment.
           grops will not interpret %%DocumentFonts comments.  The %%DocumentNeed-
           edResources, %%DocumentSuppliedResources, %%IncludeResource, %%BeginRe-
           source and %%EndResource comments (or possibly the old  %%DocumentNeed-
           edFonts, %%DocumentSuppliedFonts, %%IncludeFont, %%BeginFont and %%End-
           Font comments) should be used.
       TrueType fonts
           TrueType fonts can be used with grops if converted  first  to  Type  42
           format,  an  especial  PostScript  wrapper equivalent to the PFA format
           mentioned in pfbtops(1).  There are several different methods to gener-
           ate  a  type42 wrapper and most of them involve the use of a PostScript
           interpreter such as Ghostscript -- see gs(1).  Yet, the  easiest  method
           involves  the  use  of  the  application  ttftot42.   This program uses
           freetype(3) (version 1.3.1) to generate type42 font wrappers and  well-
           formed  AFM  files  that can be fed to the afmtodit(1) script to create
           appropriate metric files.  The resulting font wrappers should be  added
           to  the  download  file.   ttftot42  source code can be downloaded from


                  If  this is set to foo, then grops will use the file foo (in the
                  font path) instead of the default prologue file  prologue.   The
                  option -P overrides this environment variable.
                  Macros for use with grops; automatically loaded by troffrc
                  Definition of PSPIC macro, automatically loaded by ps.tmac.
                  Macros  to  disable  use  of  characters  not  present  in older
                  PostScript printers (e.g. 'eth' or 'thorn').
                  Temporary file.


           afmtodit(1), groff(1), troff(1), psbb(1), groff_out(5),  groff_font(5),

    Groff Version 16 August 2002 GROPS(1)


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