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           groff -ms [ options... ] [ files... ]
           groff -m ms [ options... ] [ files... ]


           This  manual  page  describes the GNU version of the ms macros, part of
           the groff typesetting system.  The ms macros are mostly compatible with
           the  documented behavior of the 4.3 BSD Unix ms macros (see Differences
           from troff ms below for details).   The  ms  macros  are  suitable  for
           reports, letters, books, and technical documentation.


           The  ms  macro package expects files to have a certain amount of struc-
           ture.  The simplest documents can begin with a paragraph macro and con-
           sist of text separated by paragraph macros or even blank lines.  Longer
           documents have a structure as follows:
           Document type
                  If you use the RP (report) macro at the beginning of  the  docu-
                  ment,  groff  prints the cover page information on its own page;
                  otherwise it prints the information on the first page with  your
                  document  text  immediately  following.   Other document formats
                  found in AT&T troff are specific to AT&T or  Berkeley,  and  are
                  not supported in groff ms.
           Format and layout
                  By setting number registers, you can change your document's type
                  (font and size), margins,  spacing,  headers  and  footers,  and
                  footnotes.   See  Document  control  registers  below  for  more
           Cover page
                  A cover page consists of a title, and  optionally  the  author's
                  name and institution, an abstract, and the date.  See Cover page
                  macros below for more details.
           Body   Following the cover page is your document.  It consists of para-
                  graphs, headings, and lists.
           Table of contents
                  Longer  documents usually include a table of contents, which you
                  can add by placing the TC macro at the end of your document.
       Document control registers
           The following table lists the document control number  registers.   For
           the sake of consistency, set registers related to margins at the begin-
           ning of your document, or just after the RP macro.
           Margin settings
                  Reg.          Definition         Effective    Default
                   PS     Point size               next para.   10p
                   VS     Line spacing (leading)   next para.   12p
           Paragraph settings
                  Reg.          Definition          Effective    Default
                   PI    Initial indent             next para.   5n
                   PD    Space between paragraphs   next para.   0.3v
                   QI    Quoted paragraph indent    next para.   5n
           Footnote settings
                  Reg.     Definition        Effective     Default
                   FL    Footnote length   next footnote   LL*5/6
                   FI    Footnote indent   next footnote   2n
                   FF    Footnote format   next footnote   0
           Other settings
                   Reg.          Definition         Effective   Default
                   MINGW    Minimum width between   next page   2n
       Cover page macros
           Use the following macros to create a cover page for  your  document  in
           the order shown.
           .RP [no]
                  Specifies  the report format for your document.  The report for-
                  mat creates a separate cover page.   With  no  RP  macro,  groff
                  prints a subset of the cover page on page 1 of your document.
                  If  you  use the optional no argument, groff prints a title page
                  but does not repeat any of the title  page  information  (title,
                  author, abstract, etc.) on page 1 of the document.
           .P1    (P-one) Prints the header on page 1.  The default is to suppress
                  the header.
           .DA [xxx]
                  (optional) Print the current date, or the arguments to the macro
                  if  any,  on  the  title page (if specified) and in the footers.
                  This is the default for nroff.
           .ND [xxx]
           .AB [no]
                  Begins the abstract.  The default is to print the word ABSTRACT,
                  centered  and  in  italics, above the text of the abstract.  The
                  option no suppresses this heading.
           .AE    End the abstract.
           Use the PP macro to create indented paragraphs, and  the  LP  macro  to
           create paragraphs with no initial indent.
           The  QP  macro  indents  all  text at both left and right margins.  The
           effect is identical to the HTML <BLOCKQUOTE> element.  The  next  para-
           graph or heading returns margins to normal.
           The  XP  macro  produces  an exdented paragraph.  The first line of the
           paragraph begins at the left margin, and subsequent lines are  indented
           (the opposite of PP).
           Use headings to create a hierarchical structure for your document.  The
           ms macros print headings in bold using the same font family  and  point
           size as the body text.
           The following heading macros are available:
           .NH xx Numbered  heading.  The argument xx is either a numeric argument
                  to indicate the level of the heading, or S xx xx "..."   to  set
                  the  section  number  explicitly.  If you specify heading levels
                  out of sequence, such  as  invoking  .NH 3  after  .NH 1,  groff
                  prints a warning on standard error.
           .SH    Unnumbered subheading.
           The  ms  macros  provide a variety of methods to highlight or emphasize
           .B [txt [post [pre]]]
                  Sets its first argument in bold type.  If you specify  a  second
                  argument,  groff  prints  it in the previous font after the bold
                  text, with no intervening space (this allows you to set punctua-
                  tion after the highlighted text without highlighting the punctu-
                  ation).  Similarly, it prints the third argument (if any) in the
                  previous font before the first argument.  For example,
                         .B foo ) (
                  prints (foo).
                  If  you give this macro no arguments, groff prints all text fol-
                  lowing in bold until the next highlighting, paragraph, or  head-
           .BI [txt [post [pre]]]
                  Sets its first argument in bold italic type.  It operates  simi-
                  larly to the B macro otherwise.
           .BX [txt]
                  Prints  its  argument and draws a box around it.  If you want to
                  box a string that contains spaces, use a digit-width space (\0).
           .UL [txt [post]]
                  Prints  its  first argument with an underline.  If you specify a
                  second argument, groff prints it in the previous font after  the
                  underlined text, with no intervening space.
           .LG    Prints  all  text following in larger type (2 points larger than
                  the current point size) until the next font size,  highlighting,
                  paragraph,  or heading macro.  You can specify this macro multi-
                  ple times to enlarge the point size as needed.
           .SM    Prints all text following in smaller type (2 points smaller than
                  the  current point size) until the next type size, highlighting,
                  paragraph, or heading macro.  You can specify this macro  multi-
                  ple times to reduce the point size as needed.
           .NL    Prints all text following in the normal point size (that is, the
                  value of the PS register).
                  Print the enclosed text as a superscript.
           You may need to indent sections of text.  A typical use for indents  is
           to create nested lists and sublists.
           Use  the  RS and RE macros to start and end a section of indented text,
           respectively.  The PI register controls the amount of indent.
           You can nest indented sections as deeply as needed by  using  multiple,
           nested pairs of RS and RE.
           The IP macro handles duties for all lists.  Its syntax is as follows:
           .IP [marker [width]]
                  The  marker  is  usually  a  bullet character \(bu for unordered
                  lists, a number (or auto-incrementing number register) for  num-
                  bered  lists,  or a word or phrase for indented (glossary-style)
                  The width specifies the indent for the body of each  list  item.
                  Once  specified,  the indent remains the same for all list items
                  in the document until specified again.
                    With keep      No keep
                  .DS L            .LD       Left-justified.
                  .DS I [indent]   .ID       Indented (default indent in
                                             the DI register).
                  .DS B            .BD       Block-centered (left-justi-
                                             fied, longest line centered).
                  .DS C            .CD       Centered.
                  .DS R            .RD       Right-justified.
           Use the DE macro to end any display type.
           To  keep  text together on a page, such as a paragraph that refers to a
           table (or list, or other item) immediately following, use the KS and KE
           macros.   The  KS  macro  begins a block of text to be kept on a single
           page, and the KE macro ends the block.
           You can specify a floating keep using the KF and  KE  macros.   If  the
           keep  cannot  fit  on the current page, groff holds the contents of the
           keep and allows text following the keep (in the source file) to fill in
           the remainder of the current page.  When the page breaks, whether by an
           explicit bp request or by reaching the end of the  page,  groff  prints
           the  floating  keep  at  the  top  of the new page.  This is useful for
           printing large graphics or tables that do not need  to  appear  exactly
           where specified.
       Tables, figures, equations, and references
           The -ms macros support the standard groff preprocessors: tbl, pic, eqn,
           and refer.  Mark text meant for preprocessors by enclosing it in  pairs
           of tags as follows:
           .TS [H] and .TE
                  Denotes  a  table, to be processed by the tbl preprocessor.  The
                  optional H argument instructs groff to create a  running  header
                  with  the  information  up  to  the  TH macro.  Groff prints the
                  header at the beginning of the table; if  the  table  runs  onto
                  another  page, groff prints the header on the next page as well.
           .PS and .PE
                  Denotes a graphic, to be processed by the pic preprocessor.  You
                  can  create a pic file by hand, using the AT&T pic manual avail-
                  able on the Web as a reference, or by using a  graphics  program
                  such as xfig.
           .EQ [align] and .EN
                  Denotes  an  equation,  to be processed by the eqn preprocessor.
                  The optional align argument can be C, L, or  I  to  center  (the
                  default), left-justify, or indent the equation.
           .[ and .]
                  Denotes  a reference, to be processed by the refer preprocessor.
           of the FF register as follows:
                  0      Prints  the footnote number as a superscript; indents the
                         footnote (default).
                  1      Prints the number followed by  a  period  (like  1.)  and
                         indents the footnote.
                  2      Like 1, without an indent.
                  3      Like 1, but prints the footnote number as a hanging para-
           You can use footnotes safely within keeps and displays, but avoid using
           numbered  footnotes  within  floating  keeps.  You can set a second \**
           between a \** and its corresponding .FS; as long  as  each  .FS  occurs
           after  the corresponding \** and the occurrences of .FS are in the same
           order as the corresponding occurrences of \**.
       Headers and footers
           There are two ways to define headers and footers:
           ?  Use the strings LH, CH, and RH to set the left,  center,  and  right
              headers; use LF, CF, and RF to set the left, center, and right foot-
              ers.  This works best for documents that do not distinguish  between
              odd and even pages.
           ?  Use  the  OH  and  EH  macros to define headers for the odd and even
              pages; and OF and EF macros to define footers for the odd  and  even
              pages.   This is more flexible than defining the individual strings.
              The syntax for these macros is as follows:
                     .OH 'left'center'right'
              You can replace the quote (') marks with any character not appearing
              in the header or footer text.
           You control margins using a set of number registers.  The following ta-
           ble lists the register names and defaults:
                  Reg.          Definition         Effective    Default
                   PO     Page offset (left mar-   next page    1i
                   LL     Line length              next para.   6i
                   LT     Header/footer length     next para.   6i
                   HM     Top (header) margin      next page    1i
                   FM     Bottom (footer) margin   next page    1i
           Note  that  there  is no right margin setting.  The combination of page
           .MC [width [gutter]]
                  Multi-column  mode.   If you specify no arguments, it is equiva-
                  lent to the 2C macro.  Otherwise, width is  the  width  of  each
                  column  and gutter is the space between columns.  The MINGW num-
                  ber register is the default gutter width.
       Creating a table of contents
           Wrap text that you want to appear in the table of contents in XS and XE
           macros.   Use the TC macro to print the table of contents at the end of
           the document, resetting the page number to i (Roman numeral 1).
           You can manually create a table of contents by specifying a page number
           as  the  first  argument  to  XS.   Add subsequent entries using the XA
           macro.  For example:
                  .XS 1
                  .XA 2
                  A Brief History of the Universe
                  .XA 729
                  Details of Galactic Formation
           Use the PX macro to print a manually-generated table of contents  with-
           out resetting the page number.
           If you give the argument no to either PX or TC, groff suppresses print-
           ing the title specified by the \*[TOC] string.


           The groff ms macros are a complete re-implementation, using no original
           AT&T  code.   Since  they  take  advantage  of the extended features in
           groff, they cannot be used with AT&T troff.  Other differences include:
           ?  The  internals  of  groff  ms  differ from the internals of Unix ms.
              Documents that depend upon implementation details of Unix ms may not
              format properly with groff ms.
           ?  The  error-handling  policy  of  groff  ms  is  to detect and report
              errors, rather than silently to ignore them.
           ?  Bell Labs localisms are not implemented.
           ?  Berkeley localisms, in particular the TM  and  CT  macros,  are  not
           ?  Groff  ms  does  not  work  in  compatibility mode (e.g. with the -C
           ?  There is no support for typewriter-like devices.
           ?  The number register GS is set to 1 by the groff ms  macros,  but  is
              not  used  by  the Unix ms macros.  Documents that need to determine
              whether they are being formatted with Unix ms or groff ms should use
              this number register.
           You  can redefine the following strings to adapt the groff ms macros to
           languages other than English:
                                 String        Default Value
                               REFERENCES    References
                               ABSTRACT      ABSTRACT
                               TOC           Table of Contents
                               MONTH1        January
                               MONTH2        February
                               MONTH3        March
                               MONTH4        April
                               MONTH5        May
                               MONTH6        June
                               MONTH7        July
                               MONTH8        August
                               MONTH9        September
                               MONTH10       October
                               MONTH11       November
                               MONTH12       December
           The \*- string produces an em dash -- like this.
       Text Settings
           The FAM string sets the default font family.  If this string  is  unde-
           fined at initialization, it is set to Times.
           The point size, vertical spacing, and inter-paragraph spacing for foot-
           notes are controlled by the number registers FPS, FVS, and FPD; at ini-
           tialization  these  are  set to \n(PS-2, \n[FPS]+2, and \n(PD/2 respec-
           tively.  If any of these registers are defined  before  initialization,
           the initialization macro does not change them.
           The  hyphenation  flags  (as set by the hy request) are set from the HY
           register; the default is 14.
           Improved accent marks (as originally defined in Berkeley's ms  version)
           are available by specifying the AM macro at the beginning of your docu-
           ment.  You can place an accent over most characters by  specifying  the
           string  defining the accent directly after the character.  For example,
           n\*~ produces an n with a tilde over it.


           ?  name does not have a module prefix.
           ?  Constructed   names  used  to  implement  arrays  are  of  the  form
           Thus the groff ms macros reserve the following names:
           ?  Names containing the characters *, @, and :.
           ?  Names containing only uppercase letters and digits.


           /usr/share/groff/ (a wrapper file for s.tmac)


           groff(1), troff(1), tbl(1), pic(1), eqn(1), refer(1),  Groff:  The  GNU
           Implementation of troff by Trent Fisher and Werner Lemberg.


           Original  manual  page  by James Clark et al; rewritten by Larry Kollar

    Groff Version 09 March 2002 GROFF_MS(7)


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