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  • LINUX man pages
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    The following form allows you to view linux man pages.

    Command:

    groff_mm

    
    
    

    SYNOPSIS

           groff -mm [ options...  ] [ files...  ]
    
    
    

    DESCRIPTION

           The  groff  mm  macros  are  intended  to be compatible with the DWB mm
           macros with the following limitations:
    
           ?      no Bell Labs localisms implemented.
    
           ?      the macros OK and PM are not implemented.
    
           ?      groff mm does not support cut marks
    
           mm is intended to be international.  Therefore it is possible to  write
           short  national  macrofiles  which  change all english text to the pre-
           ferred language.  Use mmse as an example.
    
           A file called locale or lang_locale is read after the initiation of the
           global variables.  It is therefore possible to localize the macros with
           companyname and so on.
    
           In this manual square brackets is used to show optional arguments.
    
           Number registers and strings
           Many macros can be controlled by number registers and strings.  A  num-
           ber register is assigned with the nr command:
           .nr XXX [+-]n [i]
           XXX  is  the name of the register, n is the value to be assigned, and i
           is increment value for auto-increment.  n can have a plus or minus sign
           as  prefix if an increment or decrement of the current value is wanted.
           (Auto-increment or decrement occurs if the number register is used with
           a plus or minus sign, \n+[XXX] or \n-[XXX].)
    
           Strings is defined with ds.
           .ds YYY string
           The  string is assigned everything to the end of the line, even blanks.
           Initial blanks in  string  should  be  prefixed  with  a  double-quote.
           (Strings are used in the text as \*[YYY].)
    
           Special formatting of number registers
           A  number  register is printed with normal digits if no format has been
           given.  Set the format with af:
           .af R c
           R is the name of the register, c is the format.
           Form Sequence
           1    0, 1, 2, 3, ...
           001  000, 001, 002, 003, ...
           i    0, i, ii, iii, iv, ...
           I    0, I, II, III, IV, ...
           a    0, a, b, c, ..., z, aa, ab, ...
           2C     Begin two column processing.  Splits the page  in  two  columns.
                  It is a special case of MC.  See also 1C.
    
           AE     Abstract end, see AS.
    
           AF [name of firm]
                  Authors firm, should be called before AU, see also COVER.
    
           AL [type [text-indent [1]]]
                  Start  autoincrement list.  Items are numbered beginning on one.
                  The type argument controls the type of numbers.
                  Arg  Description
                  1    Arabic (the default)
                  A    Upper-case letters (A-Z)
                  a    Lower-case letters (a-z)
                  I    Upper-case roman
                  i    Lower-case roman
                  Text-indent sets the indent and overrides Li.  A third  argument
                  will prohibit printing of a blank line before each item.
    
           APP name text
                  Begin  an  appendix  with name name.  Automatic naming occurs if
                  name is "".  The appendixes starts with A if auto is  used.   An
                  new page is ejected, and a header is also produced if the number
                  variable Aph is non-zero.  This is the  default.   The  appendix
                  always appear in the 'List of contents' with correct pagenumber.
                  The name APPENDIX can be changed by setting the  string  App  to
                  the  desired  text.   The  string  Apptxt  contains  the current
                  appendix text.
    
           APPSK name pages text
                  Same as .APP, but the pagenr is incremented with pages.  This is
                  used when diagrams or other non-formatted documents are included
                  as appendixes.
    
           AS [arg [indent]]
                  Abstract start.  Indent is specified in 'ens',  but  scaling  is
                  allowed.  Argument arg controls where the abstract is printed.
                  Arg  Placement
                  0    Abstract  will  be printed on page 1 and on the cover sheet
                       if used in the released-paper style (MT  4),  otherwise  it
                       will be printed on page 1 without a cover sheet.
                  1    Abstract  will  only  be  printed  on the cover sheet (MT 4
                       only).
                  2    Abstract will be printed only on  the  cover  sheet  (other
                       than  MT  4 only).  The cover sheet is printed without need
                       for CS.
                  Abstract is not printed at all in external letters (MT 5).   The
                  indent  controls the indentation of both margins, otherwise will
                  normal text indent be used.
    
           AST [title]
           AV [name [1]]
                  Approval signature, generates an approval line  with  place  for
                  signature  and  date.   The string APPROVED: can be changed with
                  variable Letapp, and the string Date in Letdate.
    
           AVL [name]
                  Letter signature, generates a line with place for signature.
    
           B [bold-text [prev-font-text [bold...]]]
                  Begin boldface.  No limit on the number of arguments.  All argu-
                  ments  will be concatenated to one word, the first, third and so
                  on will be printed in boldface.
    
           B1     Begin box (as the ms macro).  Draws a box around the text.   The
                  text  will  be indented one character, and the right margin will
                  be one character shorter.
    
           B2     End box.  Finish the box started by B1.
    
           BE     End bottom block, see BS.
    
           BI [bold-text [italic-text [bold-text [...]]]]
                  Bold-italic.  No limit on the number of arguments, see B.
    
           BL [text-indent [1]]
                  Start bullet list, initialize a list with a bullet and  a  space
                  in  the beginning of each list item (see LI).  Text-indent over-
                  rides the default indentation of the list items  set  by  number
                  register Pi.  A third argument will prohibit printing of a blank
                  line before each item.
    
           BR [bold-text [roman-text [bold-text [...]]]]
                  Bold-roman.  No limit on the number of arguments.
    
           BS     Bottom block start.  Begins the definition of a text block which
                  is printed at the bottom of each page.  Block ends with BE.
    
           BVL text-indent [mark-indent [1]]
                  Start  of  broken variable-item list.  Broken variable-item list
                  has no fixed mark, it assumes that every LI has a mark  instead.
                  The  text  will  always  begin  at the next line after the mark.
                  Text-indent sets the indent to the  text,  and  mark-indent  the
                  distance  from the current indent to the mark.  A third argument
                  will prohibit printing of a blank line before each item.
    
           COVER [arg]
                  COVER begins a coversheet  definition.   It  is  important  that
                  .COVER appears before any normal text.  .COVER uses arg to build
                  the filename /usr/share/groff/1.18.1.4/tmac/mm/arg.cov.   There-
                  fore  it  is  possible to create unlimited types of coversheets.
                  ms.cov is supposed to  look  like  the  ms  coversheet.   .COVER
                  requires  a  .COVEND  at the end of the coverdefinition.  Always
    
           DE     Display end.  Ends a block of text, display, that begins with DS
                  or DF.
    
           DF [format [fill [rindent]]]
                  Begin floating display (no nesting allowed).  A floating display
                  is  saved  in a queue and is printed in the order entered.  For-
                  mat, fill and rindent is the same as in DS.   Floating  displays
                  are controlled by the two number registers De and Df.
    
                  De register
                  0    Nothing special, this is the default.
                  1    A  page eject will occur after each printed display, giving
                       only one display per page and no text following it.
    
                  Df register
                  0    Displays are printed at the end of each section (when  sec-
                       tion-page  numbering  is active) or at the end of the docu-
                       ment.
                  1    A new display will be printed on the current page if  there
                       is enough space, otherwise it will be printed at the end of
                       the document.
                  2    One display will be printed at the top of each page or col-
                       umn (in multi-column mode).
                  3    Print  one  display if there is enough space for it, other-
                       wise it will be printed at the top of the next page or col-
                       umn.
                  4    Print  as many displays that will fit in a new page or col-
                       umn.  A page break will occur between each display if De is
                       not zero.
                  5    Fill  the current page with displays and the rest beginning
                       at a new page or column.  (This is the  default.)   A  page
                       break will occur between each display if De is not zero.
    
           DL [text-indent [1 [1]]]
                  Dash list start.  Begins a list where each item is printed after
                  a dash.  Text-indent changes the default indentation of the list
                  items set by number register Pi.  A second argument prevents the
                  empty line between each list item to be  printed.   See  LI.   A
                  third  argument  will  prohibit  printing of a blank line before
                  each item.
    
           DS [format [fill [rindent]]]
                  Static display start.  Begins collection of text until DE.   The
                  text  is  printed together on the same page, unless it is longer
                  than the height of the page.  DS can be nested  to  a  unlimited
                  depth (reasonably :-).
    
                  format
                  ""   No indentation.
                  none No indentation.
                  L    No indentation.
                  I    Indent text with the value of number register Si.
                  N and F can also be specified as 0 or 1.   An  empty  line  will
                  normally  be  printed  before  and  after  the display.  Setting
                  number register Ds to 0 will prevent this.  Rindent shortens the
                  line length by that amount.
    
           EC [title [override [flag [refname]]]]
                  Equation  title.   Sets  a  title for an equation.  The override
                  argument change the numbering.
    
                  flag
                  none override is a prefix to the number.
                  0    override is a prefix to the number.
                  1    override is a suffix to the number.
                  2    override replaces the number.
                  EC uses the number register Ec as counter.  It  is  possible  to
                  use  .af to change the format of the number.  If number register
                  Of is 1, then the format of title will use a dash instead  of  a
                  dot after the number.
                  The  string  Le  controls  the  title  of the List of Equations,
                  default is LIST OF EQUATIONS.  The List of Equations  will  only
                  be  printed  if  number register Le is 1, default 0.  The string
                  Liec contains the word Equation, wich is printed before the num-
                  ber.  If refname is used, then the equation number is saved with
                  .SETR, and can be retrieved with .GETST refname.
                  Special handling of the title will occur if EC  is  used  inside
                  DS/DE, it will not be affected by the format of DS.
    
           EF [arg]
                  Even-page  footer,  printed just above the normal page footer on
                  even pages, see PF.
    
           EH [arg]
                  Even-page header, printed just below the normal page  header  on
                  even pages, see PH.
    
           EN     Equation end, see EQ.
    
           EOP    End  of  page  user-defined  macro.   This  macro will be called
                  instead of the normal printing of the footer.  The macro will be
                  executed  in  a  separate  environment, without any trap active.
                  See TP.
    
                  Strings available to EOP
                  EOPf Argument from PF.
                  EOPefArgument from EF.
                  EOPofArgument from OF.
    
           EPIC [-L] width height [name]
                  EPIC draws a box with the given width and height, it  will  also
                  print  the  text  name or a default string if name is not speci-
                  fied..  This is used to include external pictures, just give the
                  size  of  the  picture.   -L  will  leftadjust  the picture, the
                  default 1.  The string Liex contains the word Exhibit, which  is
                  printed before the number.  If refname is used, then the exhibit
                  number is saved with .SETR, and can  be  retrieved  with  .GETST
                  refname.
                  Special  handling  of  the title will occur if EX is used inside
                  DS/DE, it will not be affected by the format of DS.
    
           FC [closing]
                  Prints Yours very truly, as a formal closing of a letter or mem-
                  orandum.  The argument replaces the defualt string.  The default
                  is stored in string variable Letfc.
    
           FD [arg [1]]
                  Footnote default format.   Controls  the  hyphenation  (hyphen),
                  right  margin  justification  (adjust),  indentation of footnote
                  text (indent).  It  can  also  change  the  label  justification
                  (ljust).
    
                  arg  hyphen  adjust  indent  ljust
                  0    no      yes     yes     left
                  1    yes     yes     yes     left
                  2    no      no      yes     left
                  3    yes     no      yes     left
                  4    no      yes     no      left
                  5    yes     yes     no      left
                  6    no      no      no      left
                  7    yes     no      no      left
                  8    no      yes     yes     right
                  9    yes     yes     yes     right
                  10   no      no      yes     right
                  11   yes     no      yes     right
    
                  Argument  greater  than  or  equal to 11 is considered as arg 0.
                  Default for mm is 10.
    
           FE     Footnote end.
    
           FG [title [override [flag [refname]]]]
                  Figure title, arguments are the same as for  EC.   FG  uses  the
                  number register Fg as counter.  The string Lf controls the title
                  of the List of Figures, default is LIST OF FIGURES.  The List of
                  Figures will only be printed if number register Lf is 1, default
                  1.  The string Lifg contains the word Figure,  wich  is  printed
                  before  the  number.  If refname is used, then the figure number
                  is saved with .SETR, and can be retrieved with .GETST refname.
                  Special handling of the title will occur if FG  is  used  inside
                  DS/DE, it will not be affected by the format of DS.
    
           FS [label]
                  Footnote start.  The footnote is ended by FE.  Footnotes is nor-
                  mally automatically numbered, the number is available in  string
                  F.   Just  add \*F in the text.  By adding label, it is possible
                  used, GETPN sets the stringvariable varname to the pagenumber.
    
           GETR refname
                  Combines GETHN and GETPN with the text 'chapter' and  ',  page'.
                  The string Qrf contains the text for reference:
                       .ds Qrf See chapter \\*[Qrfh], page \\*[Qrfp].
                  Qrf may be changed to support other languages.  Strings Qrfh and
                  Qrfp are set by GETR and contains the page and headernumber.
    
           GETST refname [varname]
                  Includes the string saved with the  second  argument  to  .SETR.
                  Will  be  dummystring in pass 1.  If varname is used, GETST sets
                  the stringvariable varname to the saved string.  See INITR.
    
           H level [heading-text [heading-suffix]]
                  Numbered section heading.  Section  headers  can  have  a  level
                  between 1 and 7, level 1 is the top level.  The text is given in
                  heading-text, and must be surrounded by double quotes if it con-
                  tains spaces.  Heading-suffix is added to the header in the text
                  but not in the table of contents.  This  is  normally  used  for
                  footnote  marks  and  similar things.  Don't use \*F in heading-
                  suffix, it won't work.  A manual label must be used, see FS.
    
                  An eventual paragraph, P, directly after H will be ignored, H is
                  taking care of spacing and indentation.
    
                  Page ejection before heading
                  Number  register  Ej  controls page ejection before the heading.
                  Normally, a level one heading gets two blank  lines  before  it,
                  higher  levels gets only one.  A new page is ejected before each
                  first-level heading if number register  Ej  is  1.   All  levels
                  below  or  equal the value of Ej gets a new page.  Default value
                  for Ej is 0.
    
                  Heading break level
                  A line break occurs after the heading if the  heading  level  is
                  less or equal to number register Hb.  Default value 2.
    
                  Heading space level
                  A  blank line is inserted after the heading if the heading level
                  is less or equal to number register Hs.  Default value 2.
    
                  Text will follow the heading on the same line if  the  level  is
                  greater than both Hb and Hs.
    
                  Post-heading indent
                  Indentation  of the text after the heading is controlled by num-
                  ber register Hi, default value 0.
    
                  Hi
                  0    The text will be left-justified.
                  1    Indentation of the text will follow  the  value  of  number
                  sumed to be a 1.
    
                  Point size control.
                  String HP controls the pointsize of each heading,  in  the  same
                  way  as  HF controls the font.  A value of 0 selects the default
                  point size.  Default value is 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.  Beware  that  only
                  the point size changes, not the vertical size.  That can be con-
                  trolled by the user specified macro HX and/or HZ.
    
                  Heading counters
                  Seven number registers, named H1 thru H7  contains  the  counter
                  for  each  heading  level.   The values are printed using arabic
                  numerals, this can be changed with the  macro  HM  (see  below).
                  All  marks are concatenated before printing.  To avoid this, set
                  number register Ht to 1.  That will only print the current head-
                  ing counter at each heading.
    
                  Automatic table of contents
                  All headings whose level is equal or below number register Cl is
                  saved to be printed in the table  of  contents.   Default  value
                  is 2.
    
                  Special control of the heading, user-defined macros.
                  These  macros  can be defined by the user to get a finer control
                  of vertical spacing, fonts or other features.  Argument level is
                  the level-argument to H, but 0 for unnumbered headings (see HU).
                  Argument rlevel is the real level, it is set to number  register
                  Hu  for  unnumbered headings.  Argument heading-text is the text
                  argument to H and HU.
    
                  HX level rlevel heading-text
                  HX is called just before the printing of the heading.  The  fol-
                  lowing  register  is  available for HX.  HX may alter }0, }2 and
                  ;3.
                  string }0
                       Contains the heading mark plus two spaces if rlevel is non-
                       zero, otherwise empty.
                  register ;0
                       Contains  the  position  of  the text after the heading.  0
                       means that the text should follow the heading on  the  same
                       line,  1  means  that  a line break should occur before the
                       text and 2 means that a  blank  line  should  separate  the
                       heading and the text.
                  string }2
                       Contains  two  spaces  if  register ;0 is 0.  It is used to
                       separate the heading from the text.  The string is empty if
                       ;0 is non-zero.
                  register ;3
                       Contains  the  needed  space  in  units  after the heading.
                       Default is 2v.
    
                       Can be used to change things like numbering (}0),  vertical
    
                  off by setting number register Hy to 0 in the beginning  of  the
                  file.
    
           HM [arg1 [arg2 [... [arg7]]]]
                  Heading  mark  style.  Controls the type of marking for printing
                  of the heading counters.  Default is 1 for all levels.
    
                  Argument
                  1    Arabic numerals.
                  0001 Arabic numerals with leading zeroes, one or more.
                  A    Upper-case alphabetic
                  a    Lower-case alphabetic
                  I    Upper-case roman numerals
                  i
                       lower-case roman numerals
                  emptyArabic numerals.
    
           HU heading-text
                  Unnumbered section header.  HU behavies like H at the  level  in
                  number register Hu.  See H.
    
           HX dlevel rlevel heading-text
                  Userdefined  heading  exit.   Called  just  before  printing the
                  header.  See H.
    
           HY dlevel rlevel heading-text
                  Userdefined heading  exit.   Called  just  before  printing  the
                  header.  See H.
    
           HZ dlevel rlevel heading-text
                  Userdefined  heading  exit.   Called  just  after  printing  the
                  header.  See H.
    
           I [italic-text [prev-font-text [italic-text [...]]]]
                  Italic.  Changes the font to italic if called without arguments.
                  With  one  argument  it  will  set the word in italic.  With two
                  argument it will concatenate them and  set  the  first  word  in
                  italic  and  the second in the previous font.  There is no limit
                  on the number of argument, all will be concatenated.
    
           IA [addressee-name [title]]
                  Begins specification of the addressee and addressee's address in
                  letter  style.  Several names can be specified with empty IA/IE-
                  pairs, but only one address.  See LT.
    
           IB [italic-text [bold-text [italic-text [...]]]]
                  Italic-bold.  Even arguments is printed in italic, odd in  bold-
                  face.  See I.
    
           IE     Ends the address-specification after IA.
    
           INITI type filename [macro]
                  Initialize  the  refencemacros.   References  will be written to
                  stderr and is supposed to be written to filename.qrf.   Requires
                  two  passes  with  groff,  this is handled by a separate program
                  called mmroff, the reason is that groff is often installed with-
                  out  the unsafe operations that INITR requiered.  The first pass
                  looks for references and the second one  includes  them.   INITR
                  can  be  used several times, but it is only the first occurrence
                  of INITR that is active.
    
                  See also SETR, GETPN and GETHN.
    
           IND arg1 [arg2 [...]]
                  IND writes a line in the index file selected by INITI  with  all
                  arguments  and the page number or header mark separated by tabs.
                       Examples
                       arg1\tpage number
                       arg1\targ2\tpage number
                       arg1\theader mark
                       arg1\tpage number\theader mark
    
           INDP   INDP prints the index by running the command specified by string
                  variable Indcmd, normally sort -t\t.  INDP reads the output from
                  the command to form the index, normally in two columns  (can  be
                  changed  by  defining  TYIND).  The index is printed with string
                  variable Index as header, default is INDEX.  One-column process-
                  ing is returned after the list.  INDP will call the user-defined
                  macros TXIND, TYIND and  TZIND  if  defined.   TXIND  is  called
                  before  printing  INDEX,  TYIND  is  called  instead of printing
                  INDEX.  TZIND is called after the printing and should take  care
                  of restoring to normal operation again.
    
           ISODATE [0]
                  ISODATE  changes the predefined date string in DT to ISO-format,
                  ie YYYY-MM-DD.  This can also be done by adding -rIso=1  on  the
                  command line.  Reverts to old date format if argument is 0.
    
           IR [italic-text [roman-text [italic-text [...]]]]
                  Italic-roman.   Even  arguments  is  printed  in  italic, odd in
                  roman.  See I.
    
           LB text-indent mark-indent pad type [mark [LI-space [LB-space]]]
                  List begin macro.  This is the common macro used for all  lists.
                  Text-indent  is the number of spaces to indent the text from the
                  current indent.
    
                  Pad and mark-indent controls where to put the mark.  The mark is
                  placed  within the mark area, and mark-indent sets the number of
                  spaces before this area.  It is normally 0.  The mark area  ends
                  where  the  text  begins.   The  start of the text is still con-
                  trolled by text-indent.
    
                  The mark is left justified whitin the mark area if pad is 0.  If
                   3    (x)
                   4    [x]
                   5    <x>
                   6    {x}
    
                  Every  item  in the list will get LI-space number of blank lines
                  before them.  Default is 1.
    
                  LB itself will print LB-space blank lines.  Default is 0.
    
           LC [list-level]
                  List-status clear.  Terminates all current active lists down  to
                  list-level,  or 0 if no argmuent is given.  This is used by H to
                  clear any active list.
    
           LE [1] List end.  Terminate the current list.  LE outputs a blank  line
                  if an argument is given.
    
           LI [mark [1]]
                  List  item  precedes  every item in a list.  Without argument LI
                  will print the mark determined by the  current  list  type.   By
                  giving  LI  one  argument, it will use that as the mark instead.
                  Two arguments to LI will make mark a prefix to the current mark.
                  There  will  be  no  separating space between the prefix and the
                  mark if the second argument is 2 instead of 1.   This  behaviour
                  can  also  be achieved by setting number register Limsp to zero.
                  A zero length mark will make a hanging indent instead.
    
                  A blank line is normally printed before  the  list  item.   This
                  behaviour  can be controlled by number register Ls.  Pre-spacing
                  will occur for  each  list-level  less  than  or  equal  to  Ls.
                  Default value is 99.  (Nesting of lists is unlimited. :-)
    
                  The indentation can be changed thru number register Li.  Default
                  is 6.
    
                  All lists begins with a list initialization  macro,  LB.   There
                  are, however, seven predefined listtypes to make lists easier to
                  use.  They all call LB with different default values.
                  AL   Automatically Incremented List
                  ML   Marked List
                  VL   Variable-Item List
                  BL   Bullet List
                  DL   Dash List
                  RL   Reference List
                  BVL  Broken Varable List.
                  These lists are described at other places in this  manual.   See
                  also LB.
    
           LT [arg]
                  Formats  a  letter  in one of four different styles depending on
                  the argument.  See also INTERNALS.
                  CN   Confidential notation.  Prints CONFIDENTIAL on  the  second
                       line  below the date line.  Any argument replaces CONFIDEN-
                       TIAL.  See also string variable LetCN.
                  RN   Reference notation.  Prints In reference to: and the  argu-
                       ment  two lines below the date line.  See also string vari-
                       able LetRN.
                  AT   Attention.  Prints ATTENTION: and the  argument  below  the
                       inside address.  See also string variable LetAT.
                  SA   Salutation.  Prints To Whom It May Concern: or the argument
                       if it was present.  The salutation  is  printed  two  lines
                       below  the inside address.  See also string variable LetSA.
                  SJ   Subject line.  Prints the argument as subject prefixed with
                       SUBJECT: two lines below the inside address, except in let-
                       ter type SP.  Then the subject is  printed  in  all-captial
                       without any prefix.  See also string variable LetSJ.
    
           MC column-size [column-separation]
                  Begin multiple columns.  Return to normal with 1C.  MC will cre-
                  ate as many columns as the current line length permits.  Column-
                  size  is  the width of each column, and column-separation is the
                  space between two columns.  Default separation  is  the  column-
                  size/15.  See also 1C.
    
           ML mark [text-indent [1]]
                  Marked  list  start.   The  mark argument will be printed before
                  each list item.  Text-indent sets the indent and  overrides  Li.
                  A  third  argument will prohibit printing of a blank line before
                  each item.
    
           MT [arg [addressee]]
                  Memorandum  type.   The  arg  is   part   of   a   filename   in
                  /usr/share/groff/1.18.1.4/tmac/mm/*.MT.   Memorandum type 0 thru
                  5 are supported, including  "string".   Addressee  just  sets  a
                  variable, used in the AT&T macros.
                  arg
                  0    Normal memorandum, no type printed
                  1    Memorandum with MEMORANDUM FOR FILE printed
                  2    Memorandum with PROGRAMMER'S NOTES printed
                  3    Memorandum with ENGINEER'S NOTES printed
                  4    Released paper style
                  5    External letter style
                  See also COVER/COVEND, a more flexible type of front page.
    
           MOVE y-pos [x-pos [line-length]]
                  Move  to a position, pageoffset set to x-pos.  If line-length is
                  not given, the difference between current and new pageoffset  is
                  used.  Use PGFORM without arguments to return to normal.
    
           MULB cw1 space1 [cw2 space2 [cw3 ...]]
                  Begin  a special multi-column mode.  Every columns width must be
                  specified.  Also the space between the columns  must  be  speci-
                  fied.  The last column does not need any space-definition.  MULB
    
           NS [arg [1]]
                  Prints different  types  of  notations.   The  argument  selects
                  between  the  predefined type of notations.  If the second argu-
                  ment is available, then the argument becomes  the  entire  nota-
                  tion.   If the argument doesn't exist in the predefined, it will
                  be printed as Copy (arg) to.  It is possible to add  more  stan-
                  dard notations, see the string variable Letns and Letnsdef.
                  Arg  Notation
                  none Copy To
                  ""   Copy To
                  1    Copy To (with att.) to
                  2    Copy To (without att.) to
                  3    Att.
                  4    Atts.
                  5    Enc.
                  6    Encs.
                  7    Under separate cover
                  8    Letter to
                  9    Memorandum to
                  10   Copy (with atts.) to
                  11   Copy (without atts.) to
                  12   Abstract Only to
                  13   Complete Memorandum to
                  14   CC
    
           ND new-date
                  New  date.   Override  the current date.  Date is not printed if
                  new-date is an empty string.
    
           OF [arg]
                  Odd-page footer, a line printed just above  the  normal  footer.
                  See EF and PF.
    
           OH [arg]
                  Odd-page  header,  a  line printed just below the normal header.
                  See EH and PH.
    
           OP     Make sure that the following text is printed at the  top  of  an
                  odd-numbered  page.   Will not output an empty page if currently
                  at the top of an odd page.
    
           P [type]
                  Begin new paragraph.  P without argument will produce left  jus-
                  tified  text, even the first line of the paragraph.  This is the
                  same as setting type to 0.  If the argument is 1, then the first
                  line  of  text  following  P  will  be indented by the number of
                  spaces in number register Pi, normally 5.
    
                  Instead of giving 1 as argument to P it is possible to  set  the
                  paragraph type in number register Pt.  Using 0 and 1 will be the
                  same as adding that value to P.  A value of 2  will  indent  all
                  arguments  to  change  linelength,  pagelength  and   pageoffset
                  instead.  Sorry.)
    
           PGNH   No  header  is printed on the next page.  Used to get rid of the
                  header in letters or other special texts.  This  macro  must  be
                  used  before  any  text  to  inhibit the pageheader on the first
                  page.
    
           PIC [-L] [-C] [-R] [-I n] filename [width [height]]
                  PIC includes a Postscript  file  in  the  document.   The  macro
                  depends  on  mmroff  and INITR.  -L, -C, -R and -I n adjusts the
                  picture or indents it.  The optionally width and height can also
                  be given to resize the picture.
    
           PE     Picture end.  Ends a picture for pic, see the manual for pic.
    
           PF [arg]
                  Page  footer.   PF  sets the line to be printed at the bottom of
                  each page.  Normally empty.  See PH for the argument  specifica-
                  tion.
    
           PH [arg]
                  Page  header, a line printed at the top of each page.  The argu-
                  ment  should  be  specified  as   "'left-part'center-part'right-
                  part'", where left-, center- and right-part is printed left-jus-
                  tified, centered  and  right  justified.   The  character  %  is
                  changed  to the current page number.  The default page-header is
                  "''- % -''", the page number between two dashes.
    
           PS     Picture start (from pic).  Begins a picture  for  pic,  see  the
                  manual.
    
           PX     Page-header  user-defined  exit.   PX  is  called just after the
                  printing of the page header in no-space mode.
    
           R      Roman.  Return to roman font, see also I.
    
           RB [roman-text [bold-text [roman-text [...]]]]
                  Roman-bold.  Even arguments is printed in roman,  odd  in  bold-
                  face.  See I.
    
           RD [prompt [diversion [string]]]
                  Read  from  standard input to diversion and/or string.  The text
                  will be saved in a diversion named diversion.  Recall  the  text
                  by  writing  the  name  of the diversion after a dot on an empty
                  line.  A string will also be defined if string is given.  Diver-
                  sion and/or prompt can be empty ("").
    
           RF     Reference  end.  Ends a reference definition and returns to nor-
                  mal processing.  See RS.
    
           RI [roman-text [italic-text [roman-text [...]]]]
    
                  Arg2 tells RP whether to eject a page or not.
                  Arg2
                  0    The  reference  page  will  be  printed on a separate page.
                       This is the default.
                  1    Do not eject page after the list.
                  2    Do not eject page before the list.
                  3    Do not eject page before and after the list.
                  The reference items will be separated by a blank line.   Setting
                  number register Ls to 0 will suppress the line.
    
                  The  string Rp contains the reference page title and is normally
                  set to REFERENCES.
    
           RS [string-name]
                  RS begins an automatically numbered reference  definition.   Put
                  the  string  \*(Rf  where the reference mark should be and write
                  the reference between RS/RF at next new line after the reference
                  mark.  The reference number is stored in number register :R.  If
                  string-name is given, a string with that name  will  be  defined
                  and  contain the current reference mark.  The string can be ref-
                  erenced as \*[string-name] later in the text.
    
           S [size [spacing]]
                  Set point size and vertical spacing.  If any argument  is  equal
                  'P',  then  the  previous  value  is  used.  A 'C' means current
                  value, and 'D' default value.  If '+' or '-' is used before  the
                  value,  then increment or decrement of the current value will be
                  done.
    
           SA [arg]
                  Set  right-margin  justification.   Justification  is   normally
                  turned  on.   No  argumenent  or  0 turns off justification, a 1
                  turns on justification.
    
           SETR refname [string]
                  Remember the current header and page-number as  refname.   Saves
                  string  if  string is defined.  string is retrieved with .GETST.
                  See INITR.
    
           SG [arg [1]]
                  Signature line.  Prints the authors  name(s)  after  the  formal
                  closing.   The  argument will be appended to the reference data,
                  printed at either the first or last author.  The reference  data
                  is the location, department and initials specified with .AU.  It
                  will be printed at the first author if the  second  argument  is
                  given, otherwise at the last.  No reference data will be printed
                  if the author(s) is specifed thru .WA/.WE.  See INTERNALS.
    
           SK [pages]
                  Skip pages.  If pages is 0 or omitted, a skip to the  next  page
                  will occur unless it is already at the top of a page.  Otherwise
    
           TAB    reset tabs to every 5n.  Normally used  to  reset  any  previous
                  tabpositions.
    
           TB [title [override [flag [refname]]]]
                  Table title, arguments are the same as for EC.  TB uses the num-
                  ber register Tb as counter.  The string Lt controls the title of
                  the  List  of  Tables,  default  is LIST OF TABLES.  The List of
                  Tables will only be printed if number register Lt is 1,  default
                  1.   The  string  Litb  contains the word TABLE, wich is printed
                  before the number.
                  Special handling of the title will occur if TB  is  used  inside
                  DS/DE, it will not be affected by the format of DS.
    
           TC [slevel [spacing [tlevel [tab [h1 [h2 [h3 [h4 [h5]]]]]]]]]
                  Table of contents.  This macro is normally used at the last line
                  of the document.  It generates a table of contents with headings
                  up  to the level controlled by number register Cl.  Note that Cl
                  controls the saving of headings, it has nothing to do  with  TC.
                  Headings  with level less than or equal to slevel will get spac-
                  ing number of lines before them.  Headings with level less  than
                  or  equal to tlevel will have their page numbers right justified
                  with dots or spaces separating the text  and  the  page  number.
                  Spaces  is  used  if  tab  is greater than zero, otherwise dots.
                  Other headings will have the page number directly at the end  of
                  the heading text (ragged right).
    
                  The  rest of the arguments will be printed, centered, before the
                  table of contents.
    
                  The user-defined macros TX and TY are used if TC is called  with
                  at  most  four  arguments.   TX is called before the printing of
                  CONTENTS, and TY is called instead of printing CONTENTS.
    
                  Equivalent macros can be defined for list  of  figures,  tables,
                  equations and excibits by defining TXxx or TYxx, where xx is Fg,
                  TB, EC or EX.
    
                  String Ci can be set to control the indentations for each  head-
                  ing-level.   It must be scaled, like .ds Ci .25i .5i .75i 1i 1i.
                  The indentation is normally controlled by the maxlength of head-
                  ings in each level.
    
                  All  texts  can  be  redefined,  new stringvariables Lifg, Litb,
                  Liex, Liec  and  Licon  contain  "Figure",  "TABLE",  "Exhibit",
                  "Equation" and "CONTENTS".  These can be redefined to other lan-
                  guages.
    
           TE     Table end.  See TS.
    
           TH [N] Table header.  See TS.  TH ends the header of the  table.   This
                  header will be printed again if a page-break occurs.  Argument N
                  isn't implemented yet.
    
           TS [H] Table start.  This is the start of a table specification to tbl.
                  See separate manual for tbl.  TS ends with TE.  Argument H tells
                  mm that the table has a header.  See TH.
    
           TX     Userdefined table of contents exit.  This macro is  called  just
                  before TC prints the word CONTENTS.  See TC.
    
           TY     Userdefined  table of contents exit (no "CONTENTS").  This macro
                  is called instead of printing CONTENTS.  See TC.
    
           VERBON [flag [pointsize [font]]]
                  Begin verbatim output using courier font.  Usually for  printing
                  programs.   All character has equal width.  The pointsize can be
                  changed with the second argument.  By specifying the  font-argu-
                  ment  it  is  possible  to  use another font instead of courier.
                  flag controls several special features.  It contains the sum  of
                  all wanted features.
                  ValueDescription
                  1    Disable  the escape-character (\).  This is normally turned
                       on during verbose output.
                  2    Add an empty line before the verbose text.
                  4    Add an empty line after the verbose text.
                  8    Print the verbose text with numbered lines.  This adds four
                       digitsized  spaces  in  the  beginning of each line.  Finer
                       control is available with the string-variable  Verbnm.   It
                       contains  all  arguments to the troff-command .nm, normally
                       '1'.
                  16   Indent the verbose text with  five  'n':s.   This  is  con-
                       trolled by the number-variable Verbin (in units).
    
           VERBOFF
                  End verbatim output.
    
           VL text-indent [mark-indent [1]]
                  Variable-item  list  has no fixed mark, it assumes that every LI
                  have a mark instead.  Text-indent sets the indent to  the  text,
                  and  mark-indent  the  distance  from  the current indent to the
                  mark.  A third argument will prohibit printing of a  blank  line
                  before each item.
    
           VM [-T] [top [bottom]]
                  Vertical  margin.  Adds  extra  vertical  top  and margin space.
                  Option -T set the total space instead.  No argument  resets  the
                  margin  to  zero  or  the  default (7v 5v) if -T was used. It is
                  higly recommended that macro TP and/or EOP are defined if  using
                  -T  and  setting  top  and/or  bottom  margin  to  less than the
                  default.
    
           WA [writer-name [title]]
                  Begins specification of the writer and writer's  address.   Sev-
                  eral names can be specified with empty WA/WE-pairs, but only one
                  -WD  Normal display width, follow column mode.
                  FB   Floating  displays  generates  a line break when printed on
                       the current page.
                  -FB  Floating displays does not generate line break.
    
           Strings used in mm:
    
           App    A string containing the word "APPENDIX".
    
           Apptxt
    
           The current appendix text.
                  EM Em dash string
    
           H1txt  Will be updated by .H and .HU to the current heading text.  Also
                  updated in table of contents & friends.
    
           HF     Fontlist  for  headings,  normally  "2 2 2 2 2 2 2".  Nonnumeric
                  fontnames may also be used.
    
           HP     Pointsize list for headings.  Normally "0 0 0 0 0 0 0" which  is
                  the same as "10 10 10 10 10 10 10".
    
           Index
    
           Contains INDEX.
                  Indcmd
    
           Contains the index command, sort -t\t.
                  Lifg String containing Figure.
    
           Litb   String containing TABLE.
    
           Liex   String containing Exhibit.
    
           Liec   String containing Equation.
    
           Licon  String containing CONTENTS.
    
           Lf     Contains "LIST OF FIGURES".
    
           Lt     Contains "LIST OF TABLES".
    
           Lx     Contains "LIST OF EXHIBITS".
    
           Le     Contains "LIST OF EQUATIONS".
    
           Letfc  Contains "Yours very truly,", used in .FC.
           LetRN  Contains "In reference to:", used in .LO RN.
    
           Letns  is an array containing the different strings used in .NS.  It is
                  really a number of stringvariables prefixed with Letns!.  If the
                  argument  doesn't  exist,  it  will  be included between () with
                  Letns!copy as prefix and Letns!to as suffix.  Observe the  space
                  after copy and before to.
                  Name           Value
                  Letns!0        Copy to
                  Letns!1        Copy (with att.) to
                  Letns!2        Copy (without att.) to
                  Letns!3        Att.
                  Letns!4        Atts.
                  Letns!5        Enc.
                  Letns!6        Encs.
                  Letns!7        Under separate cover
                  Letns!8        Letter to
                  Letns!9        Memorandum to
                  Letns!10       Copy (with atts.) to
                  Letns!11       Copy (without atts.) to
                  Letns!12       Abstract Only to
                  Letns!13       Complete Memorandum to
                  Letns!14       CC
                  Letns!copy     Copy "
                  Letns!to       " to
    
           Letnsdef
                  Defines  the standard-notation used when no argument is given to
                  .NS.  Default is 0.
    
           MO1 - MO12
                  Strings containing January thru December.
    
           Qrf    String containing "See chapter \\*[Qrfh], page \\n[Qrfp].".
    
           Rp     Contains "REFERENCES".
    
           Tcst   Contains current status of table of contents and list  of  XXXX.
                  Empty outside .TC.  Useful in user-defined macros like .TP.
                  Value          Meaning
                  co             Table of contents
                  fg             List of figures
                  tb             List of tables
                  ec             List of equations
                  ex             List of exhibits
                  ap             Appendix
    
           Tm     Contains \(tm, trade mark.
    
           Verbnm Argument to .nm in .VERBON, default: 1.
    
           Number variables used in mm:
    
           De     Eject after floating display is output [0:1], default 0.
    
           Dsp    Controls  the  space  output before and after static displays if
                  defined.  Otherwise is the value of Lsp used.
    
           Df     Floating keep output [0:5], default 5.
    
           Ds     Lsp space before and after display if == 1 [0:1], default 1.
    
           Ej     Eject page, default 0.
    
           Eq     Equation lable adjust 0=left, 1=right.  Default 0.
    
           Fs     Footnote spacing, default 1.
    
           H1-H7  Heading counters
    
           H1dot  Append a dot after the level one heading number if > 0.  Default
                  is 1.
    
           H1h
    
           Copy of number register H1, but it is incremented
                  just  before  the  page  break.   Useful  in user defined header
                  macros.  Hb Heading break level [0:7], default 2.
    
           Hc     Heading centering level, [0:7].  Default 0.
    
           Hi     Heading temporary indent [0:2], default 1.
                  0 -> 0 indent, left margin
                  1 -> indent to right , like .P 1
                  2 -> indent to line up with text part of preceding heading
    
           Hps    Numbervariable with the heading pre-space level.  If  the  head-
                  ing-level is less than or equal to Hps, then two lines will pre-
                  cede the section heading instead of one.  Default is first level
                  only.   The  real amount of lines is controlled by the variables
                  Hps1 and Hps2.
    
           Hps1   This is the number of lines preceding .H when the  heading-level
                  is greater than Hps.  Value is in units, normally 0.5.
    
           Hps2   This  is the number of lines preceding .H when the heading-level
                  is less than or equal to Hps.  Value is in units, normally 1.
    
           Hs     Heading space level [0:7], default 2.
    
           Hss    This is the number of lines that follows .H  when  the  heading-
                  level  is  less  than  or  equal to Hs.  Value is in units, nor-
                  mally 1.
    
           Letwam Max lines in return-address, used in .WA/.WE.  Default 14.
    
           Lf, Lt, Lx, Le
                  Enables  (1)  or  disables  (0) the printing of List of figures,
                  List  of  tables,  List  of  exhibits  and  List  of  equations.
                  Default: Lf=1, Lt=1, Lx=1, Le=0.
    
           Li     List indent, used by .AL, default 6.
    
           Limsp  Flag for space between prefix and mark in automatic lists (.AL).
                  0 == no space
                  1 == space
    
           Ls     List space, if current listlevel > Ls then no spacing will occur
                  around lists.  Default 99.
    
           Lsp    The  size of an empty line.  Normally 0.5v, but it is 1v if n is
                  set (.nroff).
    
           N      Numbering style [0:5], default 0.
                  0 == (default) normal header for all pages.
                  1 == header replaces footer on first page, header is empty.
                  2 == page header is removed on the first page.
                  3 == "section-page" numbering enabled.
                  4 == page header is removed on the first page.
                  5 == "section-page" and "section-figure" numbering enabled.  See
                  also the number-register Sectf and Sectp.
    
           Np     Numbered paragraphs, default 0.
                  0 == not numbered
                  1 == numbered in first level headings.
    
           O      Page offset, only for command line settings.
    
           Of     Format of figure,table,exhibit,equation titles, default 0.
                  0 = ". "
                  1 = " - "
    
           P      Current  page-number,  normally  the  same as % unless "section-
                  page" numbering is enabled.
    
           Pi     paragraph indent, default 5.
    
           Pgps   Controls whether header and footer pointsize should  follow  the
                  current  setting  or  just  change when the header and footer is
                  defined.
                  ValueDescription
                  0    Pointsize will only change to the current setting when .PH,
                       .PF, .OH, .EH, .OF or .OE is executed.
                  1    Pointsize will change after every .S.  This is the default.
    
           Ps     paragraph spacing, default 1.
           Verbin Indent for .VERBON, default 5n.
    
           W      Line length, only for command line settings.
    
           .mgm   Always 1.
    
    
    

    INTERNALS

           The letter macros is using different submacros depending on the  letter
           type.   The  name of the submacro has the letter type as suffix.  It is
           therefore possible to define other letter types, either in the national
           macro-file,  or  as local additions.  .LT will set the number variables
           Pt and Pi to 0 and 5.  The following strings and macros must be defined
           for a new letter type:
    
           let@init_type
                  This  macro  is  called directly by .LT.  It is supposed to ini-
                  tialize variables and other stuff.
    
           let@head_type
                  This macro prints the letter head, and is called instead of  the
                  normal  page  header.   It  is  supposed  to  remove  the  alias
                  let@header, otherwise it will be called for all pages.
    
           let@sg_type name title n flag [arg1 [arg2 [...]]]
                  .SG is calling this macro only for letters, memorandums has  its
                  own processing.  name and title is specified thru .WA/.WB.  n is
                  the counter, 1-max, and flag is true for  the  last  name.   Any
                  other argument to .SG is appended.
    
           let@fc_type closing
                  This macro is called by .FC, and has the formal closing as argu-
                  ment.
    
           .LO is implemented as a  general  option-macro.   .LO  demands  that  a
           string  named  Lettype  is defined, where type is the letter type.  .LO
           will then assign the argument to the string variable let*lo-type.
    
    
    

    AUTHOR

           Jorgen Hagg, Lund, Sweden <jh@axis.se>.
    
    
    

    FILES

           /usr/share/groff/1.18.1.4/tmac/tmac.m
    
           /usr/share/groff/1.18.1.4/tmac/mm/*.cov
    
           /usr/share/groff/1.18.1.4/tmac/mm/*.MT
    
           /usr/share/groff/1.18.1.4/tmac/mm/locale
    
    
    

    SEE ALSO

    
    
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