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           groff [-abcegilpstzCEGNRSUVXZ] [-d cs] [-f fam] [-F dir] [-I dir]
                 [-L arg] [-m name] [-M dir] [-n num] [-o list] [-P arg] [-r cn]
                 [-T dev] [-w name] [-W name] [file ...]
           groff -h | --help
           groff -v | --version [option ...]
           The  command line is parsed according to the usual GNU convention.  The
           whitespace between a command line option and its argument is  optional.
           Options can be grouped behind a single - (minus character).  A filename
           of - (minus character) denotes the standard input.


           This document describes the groff program, the main front-end  for  the
           groff document formatting system.  The groff program and macro suite is
           the implementation of a roff(7) system within the free software collec-
           tion  GNU  <>.   The groff system has all features of
           the classical roff, but adds many extensions.
           The groff program allows to control the whole groff system  by  command
           line  options.   This  is  a  great simplification in comparison to the
           classical case (which uses pipes only).


           As groff is a wrapper program for troff both programs share  a  set  of
           options.  But the groff program has some additional, native options and
           gives a new meaning to some troff options.  On the other hand, not  all
           troff options can be fed into groff.
       Native groff Options
           The  following options either do not exist for troff or are differently
           interpreted by groff.
           -e     Preprocess with eqn.
           -g     Preprocess with grn.
           -G     Preprocess with grap.
           -h --help
                  Print a help message.
           -I dir Add search directory for soelim(1).  This option implies the  -s
           -l     Send  the output to a spooler program for printing.  The command
                  that should be used for this is specified by the  print  command
                  in the device description file, see groff_font(5).  If this com-
                  mand is not present, the output is piped into the lpr(1) program
                  by default.  See options -L and -X.
           -L arg Pass  arg  to  the spooler program.  Several arguments should be
                  it to the postprocessor.  For example, to pass a  title  to  the
                  gxditview postprocessor, the shell command
                  sh# groff -X -P -title -P 'groff it' foo
                  is equivalent to
                  sh# groff -X -Z foo | gxditview -title 'groff it' -
           -R     Preprocess with refer.  No mechanism is provided for passing ar-
                  guments to refer because most refer options have equivalent lan-
                  guage  elements  that can be specified within the document.  See
                  refer(1) for more details.
           -s     Preprocess with soelim.
           -S     Safer mode.  Pass the -S option to pic and disable the following
                  troff requests: .open, .opena, .pso, .sy, and .pi.  For security
                  reasons, safer mode is enabled by default.
           -t     Preprocess with tbl.
           -T dev Set output device to dev.  The  possible  values  in  groff  are
                  ascii,  cp1047,  dvi, html, latin1, lbp, lj4, ps, utf8, X75, and
                  X100.  Additionally, X75-12 and X100-12 are available for  docu-
                  ments which use 12pt as the base document size.  The default de-
                  vice is ps.
           -U     Unsafe mode.  Reverts to the (old) unsafe behaviour; see  option
           -v --version
                  Output version information of groff and of all programs that are
                  run by it; that is, the given command line is parsed in the usu-
                  al way, passing -v to all subprograms.
           -V     Output  the  pipeline  that  would be run by groff (as a wrapper
                  program), but do not execute it.
           -X     Use gxditview  instead  of  using  the  usual  postprocessor  to
                  (pre)view a document.  The printing spooler behavior as outlined
                  with options -l and -L is carried over to gxditview(1) by deter-
                  mining an argument for the -printCommand option of gxditview(1).
                  This sets the default Print action and  the  corresponding  menu
                  entry  to  that value.  -X only produces good results with -Tps,
                  -TX75, -TX75-12, -TX100, and -TX100-12.  The default  resolution
                  for  previewing  -Tps  output  is  75dpi; this can be changed by
                  passing the -resolution option to gxditview, for example
                  sh# groff -X -P-resolution -P100 -man foo.1
           -z     Suppress output generated by troff.  Only error messages will be
           -c     disable color output.
           -C     enable compatibility mode.
           -d cs
           -d name=s
                  define string.
           -E     disable troff error messages.
           -f fam set default font family.
           -F dir set path for font DESC files.
           -i     process standard input after the specified input files.
           -m name
                  include   macro   file   name.tmac   (or;  see  also
           -M dir path for macro files.
           -n num number the first page num.
           -o list
                  output only pages in list.
           -r cn
           -r name=n
                  set number register.
           -w name
                  enable warning name.
           -W name
                  disable warning name.


           The groff system implements the infrastructure of classical  roff;  see
           roff(7) for a survey on how a roff system works in general.  Due to the
           front-end programs available within the groff system,  using  groff  is
           much easier than classical roff.  This section gives an overview of the
           parts that constitute the groff system.  It  complements  roff(7)  with
           groff-specific  features.   This  section can be regarded as a guide to
           the documentation around the groff system.
           The groff program is a wrapper around the troff(1) program.  It  allows
           to  specify the preprocessors by command line options and automatically
           runs the postprocessor that is appropriate  for  the  selected  device.
           Doing  so,  the sometimes tedious piping mechanism of classical roff(7)
           grn(1) for including gremlin(1) pictures,
           pic(1) for drawing diagrams,
                  for bibliographic references,
                  for including macro files from standard locations,
           tbl(1) for tables.
           Besides these, there are some internal preprocessors that are automati-
           cally run with some devices.  These aren't visible to the user.
       Macro Packages
           Macro  packages  can be included by option -m.  The groff system imple-
           ments and extends all classical macro packages in a compatible way  and
           adds  some packages of its own.  Actually, the following macro packages
           come with groff:
           man    The traditional man page format; see groff_man(7).   It  can  be
                  specified on the command line as -man or -m man.
           mandoc The  general  package for man pages; it automatically recognizes
                  whether the documents uses  the  man  or  the  mdoc  format  and
                  branches  to  the corresponding macro package.  It can be speci-
                  fied on the command line as -mandoc or -m mandoc.
           mdoc   The BSD-style man page format; see  groff_mdoc(7).   It  can  be
                  specified on the command line as -mdoc or -m mdoc.
           me     The  classical  me  document format; see groff_me(7).  It can be
                  specified on the command line as -me or -m me.
           mm     The classical mm document format; see groff_mm(7).   It  can  be
                  specified on the command line as -mm or -m mm.
           ms     The  classical  ms  document format; see groff_ms(7).  It can be
                  specified on the command line as -ms or -m ms.
           www    HTML-like macros for inclusion in arbitrary groff documents; see
           Details  on  the naming of macro files and their placement can be found
           in groff_tmac(5).
       Programming Language
           General concepts common to all roff programming languages are described
           There is a shell script nroff(1) that emulates the behavior of  classi-
           cal  nroff.   It tries to automatically select the proper output encod-
           ing, according to the current locale.
           The formatter program generates intermediate output; see  groff_out(7).
           In  roff,  the  output  targets  are called devices.  A device can be a
           piece of hardware, e.g. a printer, or a software file format.  A device
           is specified by the option -T.  The groff devices are as follows.
           ascii  Text output using the ascii(7) character set.
           cp1047 Text  output  using the EBCDIC code page IBM cp1047 (e.g. OS/390
           nippon Text output using the Japanese-EUC character set.
           dvi    TeX DVI format.
           html   HTML output.
           ascii8 For typewriter-like devices.  Unlike ascii, this device is 8 bit
                  clean.   This  device  is intended to be used for codesets other
                  than ASCII and ISO-8859-1.
           latin1 Text output using the ISO Latin-1 (ISO  8859-1)  character  set;
                  see iso_8859_1(7).
           lbp    Output  for  Canon  CAPSL printers (LBP-4 and LBP-8 series laser
           lj4    HP LaserJet4-compatible (or other PCL5-compatible) printers.
           ps     PostScript output; suitable for  printers  and  previewers  like
           utf8   Text  output  using  the  Unicode (ISO 10646) character set with
                  UTF-8 encoding; see unicode(7).
           X75    75dpi  X  Window  System  output  suitable  for  the  previewers
                  xditview(1x)  and  gxditview(1).   A variant for a 12pt document
                  base font is X75-12.
           X100   100dpi X  Window  System  output  suitable  for  the  previewers
                  xditview(1x)  and  gxditview(1).   A variant for a 12pt document
                  base font is X100-12.
           The postprocessor to be used for a device is specified by  the  postpro
           command in the device description file; see groff_font(5).  This can be
                  for text output using various encodings, e.g.  on  text-oriented
                  terminals or line-printers.
           Today,  most  printing  or drawing hardware is handled by the operating
           system, by device drivers, or by software interfaces, usually accepting
           PostScript.  Consequently, there isn't an urgent need for more hardware
           device postprocessors.
           The groff software devices for conversion into other document file for-
           mats are
                  for the DVI format,
                  for HTML format,
                  for PostScript.
           Combined  with  the  many existing free conversion tools this should be
           sufficient to convert a troff document into virtually any existing data
           The following utility programs around groff are available.
                  Add  information  to  troff  font description files for use with
                  Create font description files for PostScript device.
                  General viewer program for groff files and man pages.
                  The groff X viewer, the GNU version of xditview.
                  Create font description files for lj4 device.
                  Make inverted index for bibliographic databases.
                  Search bibliographic databases.
                  Interactively search bibliographic databases.
                  This search path, followed by $PATH, will be used  for  commands
                  that are executed by groff.  If it is not set then the directory
                  where the groff binaries were installed is prepended to PATH.
                  When there is a need to run different  roff  implementations  at
                  the same time groff provides the facility to prepend a prefix to
                  most of its programs that could provoke name  clashings  at  run
                  time  (default  is to have none).  Historically, this prefix was
                  the character g, but it can be anything.   For  example,  gtroff
                  stood  for groff's troff, gtbl for the groff version of tbl.  By
                  setting GROFF_COMMAND_PREFIX to different values, the  different
                  roff installations can be addressed.  More exactly, if it is set
                  to prefix xxx then groff as a wrapper  program  will  internally
                  call  xxxtroff  instead of troff.  This also applies to the pre-
                  processors eqn, grn, pic, refer, tbl, soelim, and to the  utili-
                  ties  indxbib  and  lookbib.  This feature does not apply to any
                  programs different from the ones above (most notably  groff  it-
                  self) since they are unique to the groff package.
                  A  list of directories in which to search for the devname direc-
                  tory  in  addition  to  the  default  ones.   See  troff(1)  and
                  groff_font(5) for more details.
                  A  list of directories in which to search for macro files in ad-
                  dition  to  the   default   directories.    See   troff(1)   and
                  groff_tmac(5) for more details.
                  The directory in which temporary files will be created.  If this
                  is not set but the environment variable TMPDIR  instead,  tempo-
                  rary  files will be created in the directory $TMPDIR.  Otherwise
                  temporary  files  will  be  created  in  /tmp.   The   refer(1),
                  groffer(1),  grohtml(1),  and  grops(1)  commands  use temporary
                  Preset the default device.  If this is not set the ps device  is
                  used  as default.  This device name is overwritten by the option


           There are some directories in which groff  installs  all  of  its  data
           files.   Due  to  different  installation habits on different operating
           systems, their locations are not absolutely fixed, but  their  function
           is clearly defined and coincides on all systems.
       groff Macro Directory
           This  contains  all  information  related to macro packages.  Note that
                  Macro file for macro package name.
       groff Font Directory
           This contains all information related to  output  devices.   Note  that
           more than a single directory is searched for those files; see troff(1).
           For the groff installation corresponding to this document, it is locat-
           ed at /usr/share/groff/  The following files contained in
           the groff font directory have a special meaning:
                  Device description file for device name, see groff_font(5).
                  Font file for font F of device name.


           The following example illustrates the power of the groff program  as  a
           wrapper around troff.
           To  process  a roff file using the preprocessors tbl and pic and the me
           macro set, classical troff had to be called by
           sh# pic | tbl | troff -me -Tlatin1 | grotty
           Using groff, this pipe can be shortened to the equivalent command
           sh# groff -p -t -me -T latin1
           An even easier way to call this is to use grog(1) to guess the  prepro-
           cessor and macro options and execute the generated command (by specify-
           ing shell left quotes)
           sh# 'grog -Tlatin1'
           The simplest way is to view the contents in an automated way by calling
           sh# groffer


           On  EBCDIC  hosts  (e.g.  OS/390 Unix), output devices ascii and latin1
           aren't available.  Similarly, output for EBCDIC code page cp1047 is not
           available on ASCII based operating systems.
           Report  bugs  to  Include a complete, self-contained
           example that will allow the bug to be reproduced, and say which version
           of groff you are using.


           Information on how to get groff and related information is available at
           the GNU website <>.  The  most  recent
           Details on CVS access and much more can be found in the file README  at
           the top directory of the groff source package.
           There is a free implementation of the grap preprocessor, written by Ted
           Faber <>.  The actual version can  be  found  at  the
           grap   website   <>.
           This is the only grap version supported by groff.


           Copyright (C) 1989, 2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
           This document is distributed under the terms of the FDL (GNU Free Docu-
           mentation  License)  version  1.1 or later.  You should have received a
           copy of the FDL on your system, it is also available on-line at the GNU
           copyleft site <>.
           This  document is based on the original groff man page written by James
           Clark <>.  It was rewritten, enhanced, and put under  the
           FDL  license  by  Bernd  Warken <>.  It is maintained by
           Werner Lemberg <>.
           groff is a GNU free software project.  All parts of the  groff  package
           are  protected  by  GNU copyleft licenses.  The software files are dis-
           tributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License (GPL), while
           the  documentation  files mostly use the GNU Free Documentation License


           The groff info file contains all information on the groff system within
           a  single document.  Beneath the detailed documentation of all aspects,
           it provides examples and background information.  See info(1) on how to
           read it.
           Due  to  its  complex  structure,  the groff system has many man pages.
           They can be read with man(1) or groffer(1).
           Introduction, history and further readings:
           Viewer for groff files:
                  groffer(1), gxditview(1), xditview(1x).
           Wrapper programs for formatters:
                  groff(1), grog(1).
           Roff preprocessors:
                  eqn(1), grn(1), pic(1), refer(1), soelim(1), tbl(1), grap(1).
           Roff language with the groff extensions:
                  groff(7), groff_char(7), groff_diff(7), groff_font(5).
                  groff_www(7), mmroff(7).
           The following utilities are available:
                  addftinfo(1),     afmtodit(1),     eqn2graph(1),     groffer(1),
                  gxditview(1), hpftodit(1), indxbib(1),  lookbib(1),  pfbtops(1),
                  pic2graph(1), tfmtodit(1).

    Groff Version 11 November 2010 GROFF(1)


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