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    Command:

    gprof

    
    
    

    SYNOPSIS

           gprof [ -[abcDhilLrsTvwxyz] ] [ -[ACeEfFJnNOpPqQZ][name] ]
            [ -I dirs ] [ -d[num] ] [ -k from/to ]
            [ -m min-count ] [ -R map_file ] [ -t table-length ]
            [ --[no-]annotated-source[=name] ]
            [ --[no-]exec-counts[=name] ]
            [ --[no-]flat-profile[=name] ] [ --[no-]graph[=name] ]
            [ --[no-]time=name] [ --all-lines ] [ --brief ]
            [ --debug[=level] ] [ --function-ordering ]
            [ --file-ordering map_file ] [ --directory-path=dirs ]
            [ --display-unused-functions ] [ --file-format=name ]
            [ --file-info ] [ --help ] [ --line ] [ --min-count=n ]
            [ --no-static ] [ --print-path ] [ --separate-files ]
            [ --static-call-graph ] [ --sum ] [ --table-length=len ]
            [ --traditional ] [ --version ] [ --width=n ]
            [ --ignore-non-functions ] [ --demangle[=STYLE] ]
            [ --no-demangle ] [--external-symbol-table=name]
            [ image-file ] [ profile-file ... ]
    
    
    

    DESCRIPTION

           "gprof" produces an execution profile of C, Pascal, or Fortran77
           programs.  The effect of called routines is incorporated in the profile
           of each caller.  The profile data is taken from the call graph profile
           file (gmon.out default) which is created by programs that are compiled
           with the -pg option of "cc", "pc", and "f77".  The -pg option also
           links in versions of the library routines that are compiled for
           profiling.  "Gprof" reads the given object file (the default is
           "a.out") and establishes the relation between its symbol table and the
           call graph profile from gmon.out.  If more than one profile file is
           specified, the "gprof" output shows the sum of the profile information
           in the given profile files.
    
           "Gprof" calculates the amount of time spent in each routine.  Next,
           these times are propagated along the edges of the call graph.  Cycles
           are discovered, and calls into a cycle are made to share the time of
           the cycle.
    
           Several forms of output are available from the analysis.
    
           The flat profile shows how much time your program spent in each
           function, and how many times that function was called.  If you simply
           want to know which functions burn most of the cycles, it is stated
           concisely here.
    
           The call graph shows, for each function, which functions called it,
           which other functions it called, and how many times.  There is also an
           estimate of how much time was spent in the subroutines of each
           function.  This can suggest places where you might try to eliminate
           function calls that use a lot of time.
    
           The annotated source listing is a copy of the program's source code,
           labeled with the number of times each line of the program was executed.
               The -A option causes "gprof" to print annotated source code.  If
               symspec is specified, print output only for matching symbols.
    
           "-b"
           "--brief"
               If the -b option is given, "gprof" doesn't print the verbose blurbs
               that try to explain the meaning of all of the fields in the tables.
               This is useful if you intend to print out the output, or are tired
               of seeing the blurbs.
    
           "-C[symspec]"
           "--exec-counts[=symspec]"
               The -C option causes "gprof" to print a tally of functions and the
               number of times each was called.  If symspec is specified, print
               tally only for matching symbols.
    
               If the profile data file contains basic-block count records,
               specifying the -l option, along with -C, will cause basic-block
               execution counts to be tallied and displayed.
    
           "-i"
           "--file-info"
               The -i option causes "gprof" to display summary information about
               the profile data file(s) and then exit.  The number of histogram,
               call graph, and basic-block count records is displayed.
    
           "-I dirs"
           "--directory-path=dirs"
               The -I option specifies a list of search directories in which to
               find source files.  Environment variable GPROF_PATH can also be
               used to convey this information.  Used mostly for annotated source
               output.
    
           "-J[symspec]"
           "--no-annotated-source[=symspec]"
               The -J option causes "gprof" not to print annotated source code.
               If symspec is specified, "gprof" prints annotated source, but
               excludes matching symbols.
    
           "-L"
           "--print-path"
               Normally, source filenames are printed with the path component
               suppressed.  The -L option causes "gprof" to print the full
               pathname of source filenames, which is determined from symbolic
               debugging information in the image file and is relative to the
               directory in which the compiler was invoked.
    
           "-p[symspec]"
           "--flat-profile[=symspec]"
               The -p option causes "gprof" to print a flat profile.  If symspec
               is specified, print flat profile only for matching symbols.
    
               The -Q option causes "gprof" to suppress printing the call graph.
               If symspec is specified, "gprof" prints a call graph, but excludes
               matching symbols.
    
           "-t"
           "--table-length=num"
               The -t option causes the num most active source lines in each
               source file to be listed when source annotation is enabled.  The
               default is 10.
    
           "-y"
           "--separate-files"
               This option affects annotated source output only.  Normally,
               "gprof" prints annotated source files to standard-output.  If this
               option is specified, annotated source for a file named
               path/filename is generated in the file filename-ann.  If the
               underlying file system would truncate filename-ann so that it
               overwrites the original filename, "gprof" generates annotated
               source in the file filename.ann instead (if the original file name
               has an extension, that extension is replaced with .ann).
    
           "-Z[symspec]"
           "--no-exec-counts[=symspec]"
               The -Z option causes "gprof" not to print a tally of functions and
               the number of times each was called.  If symspec is specified,
               print tally, but exclude matching symbols.
    
           "-r"
           "--function-ordering"
               The --function-ordering option causes "gprof" to print a suggested
               function ordering for the program based on profiling data.  This
               option suggests an ordering which may improve paging, tlb and cache
               behavior for the program on systems which support arbitrary
               ordering of functions in an executable.
    
               The exact details of how to force the linker to place functions in
               a particular order is system dependent and out of the scope of this
               manual.
    
           "-R map_file"
           "--file-ordering map_file"
               The --file-ordering option causes "gprof" to print a suggested .o
               link line ordering for the program based on profiling data.  This
               option suggests an ordering which may improve paging, tlb and cache
               behavior for the program on systems which do not support arbitrary
               ordering of functions in an executable.
    
               Use of the -a argument is highly recommended with this option.
    
               The map_file argument is a pathname to a file which provides
               function name to object file mappings.  The format of the file is
               similar to the output of the program "nm".
    
           "--traditional"
               The -T option causes "gprof" to print its output in "traditional"
               BSD style.
    
           "-w width"
           "--width=width"
               Sets width of output lines to width.  Currently only used when
               printing the function index at the bottom of the call graph.
    
           "-x"
           "--all-lines"
               This option affects annotated source output only.  By default, only
               the lines at the beginning of a basic-block are annotated.  If this
               option is specified, every line in a basic-block is annotated by
               repeating the annotation for the first line.  This behavior is
               similar to "tcov"'s -a.
    
           "--demangle[=style]"
           "--no-demangle"
               These options control whether C++ symbol names should be demangled
               when printing output.  The default is to demangle symbols.  The
               "--no-demangle" option may be used to turn off demangling.
               Different compilers have different mangling styles.  The optional
               demangling style argument can be used to choose an appropriate
               demangling style for your compiler.
    
       Analysis Options
           "-a"
           "--no-static"
               The -a option causes "gprof" to suppress the printing of statically
               declared (private) functions.  (These are functions whose names are
               not listed as global, and which are not visible outside the
               file/function/block where they were defined.)  Time spent in these
               functions, calls to/from them, etc., will all be attributed to the
               function that was loaded directly before it in the executable file.
               This option affects both the flat profile and the call graph.
    
           "-c"
           "--static-call-graph"
               The -c option causes the call graph of the program to be augmented
               by a heuristic which examines the text space of the object file and
               identifies function calls in the binary machine code.  Since normal
               call graph records are only generated when functions are entered,
               this option identifies children that could have been called, but
               never were.  Calls to functions that were not compiled with
               profiling enabled are also identified, but only if symbol table
               entries are present for them.  Calls to dynamic library routines
               are typically not found by this option.  Parents or children
               identified via this heuristic are indicated in the call graph with
               call counts of 0.
    
           "-D"
               compiled by older versions of the "gcc" compiler.  Newer versions
               of "gcc" are designed to work with the "gcov" tool instead.
    
               If the program was compiled with basic-block counting enabled, this
               option will also identify how many times each line of code was
               executed.  While line-by-line profiling can help isolate where in a
               large function a program is spending its time, it also
               significantly increases the running time of "gprof", and magnifies
               statistical inaccuracies.
    
           "-m num"
           "--min-count=num"
               This option affects execution count output only.  Symbols that are
               executed less than num times are suppressed.
    
           "-nsymspec"
           "--time=symspec"
               The -n option causes "gprof", in its call graph analysis, to only
               propagate times for symbols matching symspec.
    
           "-Nsymspec"
           "--no-time=symspec"
               The -n option causes "gprof", in its call graph analysis, not to
               propagate times for symbols matching symspec.
    
           "-Sfilename"
           "--external-symbol-table=filename"
               The -S option causes "gprof" to read an external symbol table file,
               such as /proc/kallsyms, rather than read the symbol table from the
               given object file (the default is "a.out"). This is useful for
               profiling kernel modules.
    
           "-z"
           "--display-unused-functions"
               If you give the -z option, "gprof" will mention all functions in
               the flat profile, even those that were never called, and that had
               no time spent in them.  This is useful in conjunction with the -c
               option for discovering which routines were never called.
    
       Miscellaneous Options
           "-d[num]"
           "--debug[=num]"
               The -d num option specifies debugging options.  If num is not
               specified, enable all debugging.
    
           "-h"
           "--help"
               The -h option prints command line usage.
    
           "-Oname"
           "--file-format=name"
               Selects the format of the profile data files.  Recognized formats
    
           "-v"
           "--version"
               The -v flag causes "gprof" to print the current version number, and
               then exit.
    
       Deprecated Options
               These options have been replaced with newer versions that use
               symspecs.
    
               "-e function_name"
    
               The -e function option tells "gprof" to not print information about
               the function function_name (and its children...) in the call graph.
               The function will still be listed as a child of any functions that
               call it, but its index number will be shown as [not printed].  More
               than one -e option may be given; only one function_name may be
               indicated with each -e option.
    
               "-E function_name"
    
               The "-E function" option works like the "-e" option, but time spent
               in the function (and children who were not called from anywhere
               else), will not be used to compute the percentages-of-time for the
               call graph.  More than one -E option may be given; only one
               function_name may be indicated with each -E option.
    
               "-f function_name"
    
               The -f function option causes "gprof" to limit the call graph to
               the function function_name and its children (and their
               children...).  More than one -f option may be given; only one
               function_name may be indicated with each -f option.
    
               "-F function_name"
    
               The -F function option works like the "-f" option, but only time
               spent in the function and its children (and their children...) will
               be used to determine total-time and percentages-of-time for the
               call graph.  More than one -F option may be given; only one
               function_name may be indicated with each -F option.  The -F option
               overrides the -E option.
    
    
    

    FILES

           "a.out"
               the namelist and text space.
    
           "gmon.out"
               dynamic call graph and profile.
    
           "gmon.sum"
               summarized dynamic call graph and profile.
    
           reasons).  Any profiled children of signal catchers should have their
           times propagated properly, unless the signal catcher was invoked during
           the execution of the profiling routine, in which case all is lost.
    
           The profiled program must call "exit"(2) or return normally for the
           profiling information to be saved in the gmon.out file.
    
    
    

    SEE ALSO

           monitor(3), profil(2), cc(1), prof(1), and the Info entry for gprof.
    
           "An Execution Profiler for Modular Programs", by S. Graham, P. Kessler,
           M. McKusick; Software - Practice and Experience, Vol. 13, pp. 671-685,
           1983.
    
           "gprof: A Call Graph Execution Profiler", by S. Graham, P. Kessler, M.
           McKusick; Proceedings of the SIGPLAN '82 Symposium on Compiler
           Construction, SIGPLAN Notices, Vol. 17, No  6, pp. 120-126, June 1982.
    
    
    

    COPYRIGHT

           Copyright (c) 1988, 92, 97, 98, 99, 2000, 2001, 2003, 2007, 2008, 2009
           Free Software Foundation, Inc.
    
           Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
           under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or
           any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
           Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover
           Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU
           Free Documentation License".
    
    
    

    POD ERRORS

           Hey! The above document had some coding errors, which are explained
           below:
    
           Around line 539:
               You can't have =items (as at line 545) unless the first thing after
               the =over is an =item
    
    
    

    binutils-2.20.51.0.2 2015-07-23 GPROF(1)

    
    
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