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           gpm [ options ]


           This package tries to be a useful mouse server for applications running
           on the Linux console.  It is based on the "selection" package, and some
           of  its code comes from selection itself. This package is intended as a
           replacement for "selection" as a cut-and-paste mechanism; it also  pro-
           vides  additional facilities. The "selection" package offered the first
           cut-and-paste implementation for Linux using two mouse buttons, and the
           cut  buffer  is  still  called  "selection  buffer" or just "selection"
           throughout this document.  The information below is extracted from  the
           texinfo file, which is the preferred source of information.
           The  'gpm' executable is meant to act like a daemon (thus, 'gpmd' would
           be a better name for it). This section is meant to  describe  the  com-
           mand-line  options  for  'gpm', while its internals are outlined in the
           next section.
           Due to restrictions in the 'ioctl(TIOCLINUX)' system call,  'gpm'  must
           be  run  by the superuser. The restrictions have been added in the last
           1.1 kernels to fix a security hole  related  to  selection  and  screen
           The  server can be configured to match the user's taste, and any appli-
           cation using the mouse will inherit the server's attitude. From release
           1.02  up  to  1.19.2  is was possible for any user logged on the system
           console to change the mouse feeling using the -q  option.  This  is  no
           longer possible for security reasons.
           As  of  0.97  the server program puts itself in the background. To kill
           'gpm' you can just reinvoke it with the '-k' cmdline  switch,  although
           'killall gpm' can be a better choice.


           Version 1.10 adds the capability to execute special commands on certain
           circumstances. Special commands default to rebooting  and  halting  the
           system,  but the user can specify his/her personal choice. The capabil-
           ity to invoke commands using the mouse is a handy one for  programmers,
           because it allows to issue a clean shutdown when the keyboard is locked
           and no network is available to restore the system to a sane state.
           Special commands are toggled by triple-clicking the left and right but-
           ton  -- an unlikely event during normal mouse usage. The easiest way to
           triple-click is pressing one of the buttons and triple-click the  other
           right button
                  Execute '/sbin/shutdown -r now'
           The  '-S'  command  line  switch enables special command processing and
           allows to change the three special commands. To accept the default com-
           mands  use  '-S ""' (i.e., specify an empty argument).  To specify your
           own commands, use a colon-separated list to specify commands associated
           to  the left, middle and right button. If any of the commands is empty,
           it is interpreted as 'send a signal to the init process'. This particu-
           lar operation is supported, in addition to executing external commands,
           because sometimes bad bugs put the system to the impossibility to fork;
           in these rare case the programmer should be able to shutdown the system
           anyways, and killing init from a running process is the only way to  do
           As an example, '-S ":telinit 1:/sbin/halt"', associates killing init to
           the left button, going single user to the middle one, and  halting  the
           system to the right button.
           System  administrators  should  obviously be careful about special com-
           mands, as gpm runs with superuser  permissions.  Special  commands  are
           best  suited  for computers whose mouse can be physically accessed only
           by trusted people.


           Available command line options are the following:
           -a accel
                  Set the acceleration value used when a single  motion  event  is
                  longer than delta (see '-d').
                  Start up with selection pasting disabled.  This is intended as a
                  security measure; a plausible attack on a system seems to be  to
                  stuff  a  nasty shell command into the selection buffer ('rm -rf
                  /') including the terminating line break, then  all  the  victim
                  has  to  do  is  click the middle mouse button ..  As of version
                  1.17.2, this has developed into a more general aging  mechanism;
                  the gpm daemon can disable (age) selection pasting automatically
                  after a period of inactivity.  To enable this mode just give the
                  optional  limit  parameter  (no  space  in  between !)  which is
                  interpreted as the time in seconds for which a selection is con-
                  sidered  valid  and  pastable.   As of version 1.15.7, a trivial
                  program called 'disable-paste' is provided. The following  makes
                  a good addition to '/etc/profile' if you allow multiple users to
                  work on your console.
           -d delta
                  Set  the  delta value. When a single motion event is longer than
                  delta, accel is used as a multiplying  factor.  (Must  be  2  or
           -D     Do  not  automatically  enter background operation when started,
                  and log messages to the standard error stream,  not  the  syslog
                  mechanism.   This  is useful for debugging; in previous releases
                  it was done with a compile-time option.
           -g number
                  With glidepoint devices, emulate the specified button with  tap-
                  ping.  number must be '1', '2', or '3', and refers to the button
                  number before the '-B'  button  remapping  is  performed.   This
                  option  applies  to the mman and ps2 decoding. No button is emu-
                  lated by default because the ps2 tapping  is  incompatible  with
                  some normal ps2 mice
           -h     Print a summary of command line options.
           -i interval
                  Set  interval  to  be  used  as an upper time limit for multiple
                  clicks. If the interval between button-up and button-down events
                  is  less  than limit, the press is considered a double or triple
                  click. Time is in milliseconds.
           -k     Kill a running gpm. This can be used by busmouse users  to  kill
                  gpm  before  running  X (unless they use '-R' or the single-open
                  limitation is removed from the kernel).
           -l charset
                  Choose the 'inword()' look up table. The charset argument  is  a
                  list  of  characters. '-' is used to specify a range and '\ ' is
                  used to escape the next character or  to  provide  octal  codes.
                  Only  visible  character  can  appear in charset because control
                  characters can't appear in text-mode video memory, whence selec-
                  tion is cut.
           -m filename
                  Choose the mouse file to open. Must be before -t and -o.
           -M     Enable  multiple  mode. The daemon will read two different mouse
                  devices.  Any subsequent option will refer to the second device,
                  while  any  preceding  option will be used for the first device.
                  This option automatically forces the repeater ('-R') option  on.
           -o list-of-extra-options
                  The  option  works similary to the ''-o'' option of mount; it is
                  used to specify a list of ''extra options'' that are specific to
                  each mouse type. The list is comma-separated. The options 'dtr',
                  'rts' or 'both' are used by the serial initialization to  toggle
                  Causes 'gpm' to act as a repeater: any mouse data received while
                  in  graphic  mode will be produced on the fifo '/dev/gpmdata' in
                  protocol name, given  as  an  optional  argument  (no  space  in
                  between !).  In principle, you can use the same names as for the
                  '-t' option, although repeating into some protocols may  not  be
                  implemented  for a while.  In addition, you can specify 'raw' as
                  the name, to repeat the mouse data byte  by  byte,  without  any
                  protocol translation.  If name is omitted, it defaults to 'msc'.
                  Using gpm in repeater mode, you can configure the  X  server  to
                  use  its  fifo as a mouse device. This option is useful for bus-
                  mouse owners to override the single-open limitation. It is  also
                  an  easy  way  to manage those stupid dual-mode mice which force
                  you to keep the middle button down while  changing  video  mode.
                  The option is forced on by the '-M' option.
           -s number
                  Set the sample rate for the mouse device.
           -S commands
                  Enable special-command processing, and optionally specify custom
                  commands as a colon-separated list. See  above  for  a  detailed
                  description of special commands.
           -t name
                  Set  the  mouse  type.  Use '-t help' to get a list of allowable
                  types.  Use -t after you selected the mouse device with -m.
           -v     Print version information and exit.
           -2     Force two buttons. This means that the middle  button,  if  any,
                  will be taken as it was the right one.
           -3     Force  three buttons. By default the mouse is considered to be a
                  2-buttons one, until the middle button is pressed. If three but-
                  tons  are  there, the right one is used to extend the selection,
                  and the middle one is used to paste it.  Beware: if you use  the
                  '-3'  option  with a 2-buttons mouse, you won't be able to paste
                  the selection.


           To select text press the left mouse button  and  drag  the  mouse.   To
           paste  text  in  the  same or another console, press the middle button.
           The right button is used to extend the selection, like in 'xterm'.
           Two-button mice use the right button to paste text.
           display,  although the contents of the paste buffer will be unaffected.
           The selection mechanism is disabled if the controlling virtual  console
           is  placed  in  graphics mode, for example when running X11, and is re-
           enabled when text mode is resumed. (But see BUGS section below.)


           The 'gpm' server may have problems interacting with X: if your mouse is
           a  single-open  device (i.e. a bus mouse), you should kill 'gpm' before
           starting X, or use the '-R' option (see above).   To  kill  'gpm'  just
           invoke 'gpm -k'. This problem doesn't apply to serial mice.
           Two instances of gpm can't run on the same system. If you have two mice
           use the '-M' option (see above).
           While the current console is in graphic mode, 'gpm' sleeps  until  text
           mode  is  back  (unless '-R' is used). Thus, it won't reply to clients.
           Anyways, it is unlikely that mouse-eager clients will spur out in  hid-
           den consoles.
           The clients shipped out with gpm are not updated, thus there are poten-
           tial security risks when using them.


           Andrew Haylett <> (the original selection code)
           Ian Zimmerman <> (old maintainer)
           Alessandro Rubini <> (old maintainer (still helps a lot))
           Nico Schottelius <> (maintainer)
           Many many contributors, to both selection and gpm.


           The current maintainer is Nico Schottelius. But  without  the  help  of
           Alessandro Rubini and the mailing list it would be impossible for me to
           maintain gpm.  The  development  mailing  list  can  be  reached  under
   More information on the list is in the README file
           part of the source distribution of gpm.


           /var/run/ The PID of the running gpm

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