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    Command:

    gpg

    
    
    

    SYNOPSIS

           gpg2 [--homedir dir] [--options file] [options] command [args]
    
    
    

    DESCRIPTION

           gpg2 is the OpenPGP part of the GNU Privacy Guard (GnuPG). It is a tool
           to provide digital encryption and signing services  using  the  OpenPGP
           standard. gpg2 features complete key management and all bells and whis-
           tles you can expect from a decent OpenPGP implementation.
    
           In contrast to the standalone version gpg, which  is  more  suited  for
           server and embedded platforms, this version is installed under the name
           gpg2 and more targeted to the desktop as it requires several other mod-
           ules  to  be installed.  The standalone version will be kept maintained
           and it is possible to install both versions on the same system.  If you
           need to use different configuration files, you should make use of some-
           thing like 'gpg.conf-2' instead of just 'gpg.conf'.
    
    
    

    RETURN VALUE

           The program returns 0 if everything was fine, 1 if at least a signature
           was bad, and other error codes for fatal errors.
    
    
    

    WARNINGS

           Use  a *good* password for your user account and a *good* passphrase to
           protect your secret key. This passphrase is the  weakest  part  of  the
           whole  system. Programs to do dictionary attacks on your secret keyring
           are very easy to write and  so  you  should  protect  your  "~/.gnupg/"
           directory very well.
    
           Keep  in mind that, if this program is used over a network (telnet), it
           is *very* easy to spy out your passphrase!
    
           If you are going to verify detached signatures, make sure that the pro-
           gram  knows about it; either give both filenames on the command line or
           use '-' to specify STDIN.
    
    
    

    INTEROPERABILITY

           GnuPG tries to be a very flexible implementation of the  OpenPGP  stan-
           dard. In particular, GnuPG implements many of the optional parts of the
           standard, such as the SHA-512 hash, and the ZLIB and BZIP2  compression
           algorithms.  It  is important to be aware that not all OpenPGP programs
           implement these optional algorithms and that by forcing their  use  via
           the  --cipher-algo,  --digest-algo,  --cert-digest-algo, or --compress-
           on  a  given  key  are  invalid for some reason, you are far better off
           using the --pgp6, --pgp7, or --pgp8 options. These options are safe  as
           they  do  not  force any particular algorithms in violation of OpenPGP,
           but rather reduce the available algorithms to a "PGP-safe" list.
    
    
    

    COMMANDS

           Commands are not distinguished from options except for  the  fact  that
           only one command is allowed.
    
           gpg2  may be run with no commands, in which case it will perform a rea-
           sonable action depending on the type of file it is given as  input  (an
           encrypted  message  is  decrypted, a signature is verified, a file con-
           taining keys is listed).
    
           Please remember that option as well as command parsing stops as soon as
           a  non-option  is encountered, you can explicitly stop parsing by using
           the special option --.
    
       Commands not specific to the function
    
           --version
                  Print the program version and licensing information.  Note  that
                  you cannot abbreviate this command.
    
           --help
    
           -h     Print  a  usage message summarizing the most useful command line
                  options.  Note that you cannot abbreviate this command.
    
           --warranty
                  Print warranty information.
    
           --dump-options
                  Print a list of all available options and commands.   Note  that
                  you cannot abbreviate this command.
    
       Commands to select the type of operation
    
    
           --clearsign
                  Make a clear text signature.  The content in a clear text signa-
                  ture is readable without any special software. OpenPGP  software
                  is  only  needed to verify the signature.  Clear text signatures
                  may modify end-of-line whitespace for platform independence  and
                  are not intended to be reversible.  The key to be used for sign-
                  ing is chosen by default or can be set with the --local-user and
                  --default-key options.
    
           --detach-sign
    
           -b     Make a detached signature.
    
           --encrypt
    
           -e     Encrypt  data.  This  option  may be combined with --sign (for a
                  signed and encrypted message), --symmetric (for a  message  that
                  may  be  decrypted  via a secret key or a passphrase), or --sign
                  and --symmetric together (for  a  signed  message  that  may  be
                  decrypted via a secret key or a passphrase).
    
           --symmetric
    
           -c     Encrypt  with a symmetric cipher using a passphrase. The default
                  symmetric cipher used is CAST5,  but  may  be  chosen  with  the
                  --cipher-algo  option.  This  option may be combined with --sign
                  (for a signed and symmetrically  encrypted  message),  --encrypt
                  (for  a  message  that  may  be  decrypted via a secret key or a
                  passphrase), or --sign and --encrypt together (for a signed mes-
                  sage that may be decrypted via a secret key or a passphrase).
    
           --store
                  Store only (make a simple RFC1991 literal data packet).
    
           --decrypt
    
           -d     Decrypt  the file given on the command line (or STDIN if no file
                  is specified) and write it to STDOUT (or the file specified with
                  --output).  If  the  decrypted  file is signed, the signature is
                  also verified. This command differs from the default  operation,
                  as it never writes to the filename which is included in the file
                  and it rejects files which don't begin with  an  encrypted  mes-
                  sage.
    
           --multifile
                  This  modifies  certain  other commands to accept multiple files
                  for processing on the command line or read from STDIN with  each
                  filename  on  a  separate line. This allows for many files to be
                  processed at once. --multifile may currently be used along  with
                  --verify, --encrypt, and --decrypt. Note that --multifile --ver-
                  ify may not be used with detached signatures.
    
           --verify-files
                  Identical to --multifile --verify.
    
           --encrypt-files
                  Identical to --multifile --encrypt.
    
           --decrypt-files
                  Identical to --multifile --decrypt.
    
           --list-keys
    
           -k
    
           --list-public-keys
                  List all keys from the public keyrings, or just the  keys  given
                  on the command line.
    
                  Avoid  using the output of this command in scripts or other pro-
                  grams as it is likely to change as GnuPG  changes.  See  --with-
                  colons  for  a  machine-parseable  key  listing  command that is
                  appropriate for use in scripts and other programs.
    
           --list-secret-keys
    
           -K     List all keys from the secret keyrings, or just the  ones  given
                  on  the  command  line. A # after the letters sec means that the
                  secret key is not usable (for example, if  it  was  created  via
                  --export-secret-subkeys).
    
           --list-sigs
                  Same  as  --list-keys,  but the signatures are listed too.  This
                  command has the same effect as using  --list-keys  with  --with-
                  sig-list.
    
                  For  each  signature  listed, there are several flags in between
                  the "sig" tag and keyid. These flags give additional information
                  about  each  signature. From left to right, they are the numbers
                  1-3 for certificate check level (see --ask-cert-level), "L"  for
    
                  The status of the verification is indicated by a  flag  directly
                  following  the  "sig"  tag  (and thus before the flags described
                  above for --list-sigs).  A "!" indicates that the signature  has
                  been  successfully verified, a "-" denotes a bad signature and a
                  "%" is used if an error occurred while  checking  the  signature
                  (e.g. a non supported algorithm).
    
           --locate-keys
                  Locate the keys given as arguments.  This command basically uses
                  the same algorithm as used when locating keys for encryption  or
                  signing  and  may  thus be used to see what keys gpg2 might use.
                  In particular external methods as defined  by  --auto-key-locate
                  may be used to locate a key.  Only public keys are listed.
    
           --fingerprint
                  List  all  keys (or the specified ones) along with their finger-
                  prints. This is the same output  as  --list-keys  but  with  the
                  additional  output  of  a line with the fingerprint. May also be
                  combined with --list-sigs or --check-sigs.  If this  command  is
                  given  twice,  the fingerprints of all secondary keys are listed
                  too.
    
           --list-packets
                  List only the sequence of packets. This  is  mainly  useful  for
                  debugging.
    
           --card-edit
                  Present  a  menu to work with a smartcard. The subcommand "help"
                  provides an overview  on  available  commands.  For  a  detailed
                  description,     please     see     the     Card     HOWTO    at
                  http://www.gnupg.org/documentation/howtos.html#GnuPG-cardHOWTO .
    
           --card-status
                  Show the content of the smart card.
    
           --change-pin
                  Present  a  menu  to allow changing the PIN of a smartcard. This
                  functionality is also available as the subcommand "passwd"  with
                  the --card-edit command.
    
           --delete-key name
                  Remove  key  from the public keyring. In batch mode either --yes
    
           --export
                  Either export all keys from all keyrings (default  keyrings  and
                  those  registered via option --keyring), or if at least one name
                  is given, those of the given name. The new keyring is written to
                  STDOUT  or  to the file given with option --output. Use together
                  with --armor to mail those keys.
    
           --send-keys key IDs
                  Similar to --export but sends the keys to a keyserver.   Finger-
                  prints  may  be used instead of key IDs. Option --keyserver must
                  be used to give the name of this keyserver. Don't send your com-
                  plete  keyring  to  a keyserver --- select only those keys which
                  are new or changed by you.  If no key IDs are  given,  gpg  does
                  nothing.
    
           --export-secret-keys
    
           --export-secret-subkeys
                  Same  as --export, but exports the secret keys instead.  This is
                  normally not very useful and a security risk.  The  second  form
                  of  the  command  has  the special property to render the secret
                  part of the primary key useless; this  is  a  GNU  extension  to
                  OpenPGP  and  other  implementations can not be expected to suc-
                  cessfully import such a key.  See the option  --simple-sk-check-
                  sum  if  you  want  to import such an exported key with an older
                  OpenPGP implementation.
    
           --import
    
           --fast-import
                  Import/merge keys. This adds the given keys to the keyring.  The
                  fast version is currently just a synonym.
    
                  There  are  a  few  other options which control how this command
                  works.  Most notable here  is  the  --import-options  merge-only
                  option  which does not insert new keys but does only the merging
                  of new signatures, user-IDs and subkeys.
    
           --recv-keys key IDs
                  Import the keys with the given key IDs from a keyserver.  Option
                  --keyserver must be used to give the name of this keyserver.
    
           --refresh-keys
                  Request  updates from a keyserver for keys that already exist on
                  the local keyring. This is useful for updating a  key  with  the
                  latest signatures, user IDs, etc. Calling this with no arguments
    
           --fetch-keys URIs
                  Retrieve keys located at the specified URIs. Note that different
                  installations of GnuPG may support  different  protocols  (HTTP,
                  FTP, LDAP, etc.)
    
           --update-trustdb
                  Do  trust  database  maintenance. This command iterates over all
                  keys and builds the Web of Trust. This is an interactive command
                  because it may have to ask for the "ownertrust" values for keys.
                  The user has to give an estimation of how  far  she  trusts  the
                  owner  of  the  displayed  key to correctly certify (sign) other
                  keys. GnuPG only asks for the ownertrust value if it has not yet
                  been  assigned to a key. Using the --edit-key menu, the assigned
                  value can be changed at any time.
    
           --check-trustdb
                  Do trust database maintenance  without  user  interaction.  From
                  time  to time the trust database must be updated so that expired
                  keys or signatures and the resulting changes in the Web of Trust
                  can  be  tracked.  Normally,  GnuPG  will calculate when this is
                  required and do it automatically unless  --no-auto-check-trustdb
                  is set. This command can be used to force a trust database check
                  at any time. The processing is identical to  that  of  --update-
                  trustdb but it skips keys with a not yet defined "ownertrust".
    
                  For  use  with cron jobs, this command can be used together with
                  --batch in which case the trust database check is done only if a
                  check  is  needed.  To  force  a  run even in batch mode add the
                  option --yes.
    
           --export-ownertrust
                  Send the ownertrust values to STDOUT. This is useful for  backup
                  purposes  as  these  values are the only ones which can't be re-
                  created from a corrupted trustdb.  Example:
                      gpg2 --export-ownertrust > otrust.txt
    
           --import-ownertrust
                  Update the trustdb with the ownertrust values  stored  in  files
                  (or  STDIN  if  not given); existing values will be overwritten.
                  In case of a severely damaged trustdb and if you have  a  recent
                  backup  of the ownertrust values (e.g. in the file 'otrust.txt',
                  you may re-create the trustdb using these commands:
                      cd ~/.gnupg
                      rm trustdb.gpg
    
                  STDIN.   With  the  second  form  (or  a deprecated "*" as algo)
                  digests for all available algorithms are printed.
    
           --gen-random 0|1|2
                  Emit count random bytes of the given quality level. If count  is
                  not  given  or zero, an endless sequence of random bytes will be
                  emitted.  PLEASE, don't use this command unless  you  know  what
                  you are doing; it may remove precious entropy from the system!
    
           --gen-prime mode bits
                  Use  the source, Luke :-). The output format is still subject to
                  change.
    
           --enarmor
    
           --dearmor
                  Pack or unpack an arbitrary input  into/from  an  OpenPGP  ASCII
                  armor.   This is a GnuPG extension to OpenPGP and in general not
                  very useful.
    
       How to manage your keys
    
           This section explains the main commands for key management
    
           --gen-key
                  Generate a new key pair. This  command  is  normally  only  used
                  interactively.
    
                  There is an experimental feature which allows you to create keys
                  in batch mode. See the file 'doc/DETAILS' in the source  distri-
                  bution on how to use this.
    
           --gen-revoke name
                  Generate  a  revocation  certificate  for  the  complete key. To
                  revoke a subkey or a signature, use the --edit command.
    
           --desig-revoke name
                  Generate a designated revocation certificate  for  a  key.  This
                  allows  a  user (with the permission of the keyholder) to revoke
    
                  key n  Toggle selection of subkey with index n.  Use * to select
                         all and 0 to deselect all.
    
                  sign   Make a signature on key of user name If the  key  is  not
                         yet  signed  by the default user (or the users given with
                         -u), the program displays  the  information  of  the  key
                         again,  together with its fingerprint and asks whether it
                         should be signed. This question is repeated for all users
                         specified with -u.
    
                  lsign  Same  as  "sign"  but  the  signature  is  marked as non-
                         exportable and will therefore never be  used  by  others.
                         This  may  be  used  to make keys valid only in the local
                         environment.
    
                  nrsign Same as "sign" but the signature is marked as non-revoca-
                         ble and can therefore never be revoked.
    
                  tsign  Make a trust signature. This is a signature that combines
                         the notions of certification (like a regular  signature),
                         and  trust  (like  the  "trust" command). It is generally
                         only useful in distinct communities or groups.
    
                  Note that "l" (for local / non-exportable), "nr" (for  non-revo-
                  cable,  and  "t" (for trust) may be freely mixed and prefixed to
                  "sign" to create a signature of any type desired.
    
                  delsig Delete a signature. Note  that  it  is  not  possible  to
                         retract  a signature, once it has been send to the public
                         (i.e. to a keyserver).   In  that  case  you  better  use
                         revsig.
    
                  revsig Revoke  a  signature.  For every signature which has been
                         generated by one of the secret keys, GnuPG asks whether a
                         revocation certificate should be generated.
    
                  check  Check the signatures on all selected user IDs.
    
                  adduid Create an additional user ID.
    
                  addphoto
                         send to the public (i.e. to a keyserver).  In  that  case
                         you better use revuid.
    
                  revuid Revoke a user ID or photographic user ID.
    
                  primary
                         Flag  the current user id as the primary one, removes the
                         primary user id flag from all other user ids and sets the
                         timestamp  of  all  affected  self-signatures  one second
                         ahead. Note that setting a photo user ID as primary makes
                         it primary over other photo user IDs, and setting a regu-
                         lar user ID as primary makes it primary over other  regu-
                         lar user IDs.
    
                  keyserver
                         Set  a  preferred keyserver for the specified user ID(s).
                         This allows other users to know where you prefer they get
                         your  key  from. See --keyserver-options honor-keyserver-
                         url for more on how  this  works.   Setting  a  value  of
                         "none" removes an existing preferred keyserver.
    
                  notation
                         Set  a  name=value notation for the specified user ID(s).
                         See --cert-notation for more on how this works. Setting a
                         value of "none" removes all notations, setting a notation
                         prefixed with a minus sign (-) removes that notation, and
                         setting  a  notation  name  (without the =value) prefixed
                         with a minus sign removes all notations with that name.
    
                  pref   List preferences from the selected user  ID.  This  shows
                         the  actual  preferences,  without  including any implied
                         preferences.
    
                  showpref
                         More verbose preferences listing for  the  selected  user
                         ID. This shows the preferences in effect by including the
                         implied preferences of 3DES (cipher), SHA-1 (digest), and
                         Uncompressed   (compression)  if  they  are  not  already
                         included in the preference list. In  addition,  the  pre-
                         ferred  keyserver  and  signature  notations (if any) are
                         shown.
    
                  setpref string
                         Set the list of user ID preferences to string for all (or
                         just  the  selected)  user  IDs.  Calling setpref with no
                         algorithm (for example, your key  may  not  be  the  only
                         recipient),  and  so the remote OpenPGP application being
                         used to send to you may or may not follow your exact cho-
                         sen  order  for  a given message.  It will, however, only
                         choose an algorithm that is  present  on  the  preference
                         list of every recipient key.  See also the INTEROPERABIL-
                         ITY WITH OTHER OPENPGP PROGRAMS section below.
    
                  addkey Add a subkey to this key.
    
                  addcardkey
                         Generate a subkey on a card and add it to this key.
    
                  keytocard
                         Transfer the selected secret subkey (or the  primary  key
                         if  no  subkey  has  been  selected)  to a smartcard. The
                         secret key in the keyring will be replaced by a  stub  if
                         the  key could be stored successfully on the card and you
                         use the save command later. Only certain key types may be
                         transferred  to the card. A sub menu allows you to select
                         on what card to store the key. Note that it is not possi-
                         ble to get that key back from the card - if the card gets
                         broken your secret key will be lost  unless  you  have  a
                         backup somewhere.
    
                  bkuptocard file
                         Restore  the  given  file  to a card. This command may be
                         used to restore a backup key (as  generated  during  card
                         initialization)  to  a new card. In almost all cases this
                         will be the encryption key. You should use  this  command
                         only with the corresponding public key and make sure that
                         the file given  as  argument  is  indeed  the  backup  to
                         restore.  You  should then select 2 to restore as encryp-
                         tion  key.   You  will  first  be  asked  to  enter   the
                         passphrase  of  the backup key and then for the Admin PIN
                         of the card.
    
                  delkey Remove a subkey (secondart key). Note that it is not pos-
                         sible  to  retract a subkey, once it has been send to the
                         public (i.e. to a keyserver).  In that  case  you  better
                         use revkey.
    
                  revkey Revoke a subkey.
    
                  expire Change  the key or subkey expiration time. If a subkey is
    
                  addrevoker
                         Add a designated revoker  to  the  key.  This  takes  one
                         optional  argument:  "sensitive". If a designated revoker
                         is marked as  sensitive,  it  will  not  be  exported  by
                         default (see export-options).
    
                  passwd Change the passphrase of the secret key.
    
                  toggle Toggle between public and secret key listing.
    
                  clean  Compact  (by  removing all signatures except the selfsig)
                         any user ID that is no longer usable  (e.g.  revoked,  or
                         expired). Then, remove any signatures that are not usable
                         by the trust calculations.   Specifically,  this  removes
                         any  signature that does not validate, any signature that
                         is superseded by a later signature,  revoked  signatures,
                         and signatures issued by keys that are not present on the
                         keyring.
    
                  minimize
                         Make the key as small as possible. This removes all  sig-
                         natures  from  each  user  ID  except for the most recent
                         self-signature.
    
                  cross-certify
                         Add cross-certification  signatures  to  signing  subkeys
                         that  may  not  currently  have them. Cross-certification
                         signatures protect against a subtle attack against  sign-
                         ing  subkeys. See --require-cross-certification.  All new
                         keys generated have this signature by  default,  so  this
                         option is only useful to bring older keys up to date.
    
                  save   Save all changes to the key rings and quit.
    
                  quit   Quit the program without updating the key rings.
    
                  The  listing  shows  you the key with its secondary keys and all
                  user ids. Selected keys or user ids are indicated by  an  aster-
                  isk.  The  trust  value  is  displayed with the primary key: the
                  first is the assigned owner trust and the second is  the  calcu-
                  lated trust value. Letters are used for the values:
    
                  m      Marginally trusted.
    
                  f      Fully trusted.
    
                  u      Ultimately trusted.
    
           --sign-key name
                  Signs a public key with your secret key. This is a shortcut ver-
                  sion of the subcommand "sign" from --edit.
    
           --lsign-key name
                  Signs  a  public  key  with your secret key but marks it as non-
                  exportable. This is a shortcut version of the subcommand "lsign"
                  from --edit-key.
    
    
    

    OPTIONS

           gpg2  comes  features a bunch of options to control the exact behaviour
           and to change the default configuration.
    
           Long   options   can   be   put   in   an   options    file    (default
           "~/.gnupg/gpg.conf").  Short  option names will not work - for example,
           "armor" is a valid option for the options file, while "a"  is  not.  Do
           not  write  the  2  dashes,  but  simply the name of the option and any
           required arguments. Lines with a hash ('#')  as  the  first  non-white-
           space  character are ignored. Commands may be put in this file too, but
           that is not generally useful as the command will execute  automatically
           with every execution of gpg.
    
           Please  remember  that  option parsing stops as soon as a non-option is
           encountered, you can explicitly  stop  parsing  by  using  the  special
           option --.
    
       How to change the configuration
    
           These  options  are  used  to  change the configuration and are usually
           found in the option file.
    
                  key is the first one from the secret keyring or the one set with
                  --default-key.
    
           --no-default-recipient
                  Reset --default-recipient and --default-recipient-self.
    
           -v, --verbose
                  Give more information during  processing.  If  used  twice,  the
                  input data is listed in detail.
    
           --no-verbose
                  Reset verbose level to 0.
    
           -q, --quiet
                  Try to be as quiet as possible.
    
           --batch
    
           --no-batch
                  Use  batch  mode.  Never ask, do not allow interactive commands.
                  --no-batch disables this option.  Note that even with a filename
                  given  on  the  command  line, gpg might still need to read from
                  STDIN (in particular if gpg figures that the input is a detached
                  signature  and no data file has been specified).  Thus if you do
                  not want to feed data via STDIN, you  should  connect  STDIN  to
                  '/dev/null'.
    
           --no-tty
                  Make  sure that the TTY (terminal) is never used for any output.
                  This option is needed in  some  cases  because  GnuPG  sometimes
                  prints warnings to the TTY even if --batch is used.
    
           --yes  Assume "yes" on most questions.
    
           --no   Assume "no" on most questions.
    
           --list-options parameters
                  This  is  a  space  or comma delimited string that gives options
                  used when listing keys and  signatures  (that  is,  --list-keys,
                  --list-sigs,  --list-public-keys,  --list-secret-keys,  and  the
                  --edit-key functions).  Options can  be  prepended  with  a  no-
                  (after  the  two  dashes)  to  give  the  opposite meaning.  The
    
                  show-notations
    
                  show-std-notations
    
                  show-user-notations
                         Show  all, IETF standard, or user-defined signature nota-
                         tions  in  the  --list-sigs  or  --check-sigs   listings.
                         Defaults to no.
    
                  show-keyserver-urls
    
                         Show  any  preferred  keyserver URL in the --list-sigs or
                         --check-sigs listings. Defaults to no.
    
                  show-uid-validity
                         Display the calculated validity of user  IDs  during  key
                         listings.  Defaults to no.
    
                  show-unusable-uids
                         Show  revoked  and  expired  user  IDs  in  key listings.
                         Defaults to no.
    
                  show-unusable-subkeys
                         Show  revoked  and  expired  subkeys  in  key   listings.
                         Defaults to no.
    
                  show-keyring
                         Display  the  keyring name at the head of key listings to
                         show which keyring a given key resides  on.  Defaults  to
                         no.
    
                  show-sig-expire
                         Show  signature  expiration dates (if any) during --list-
                         sigs or --check-sigs listings. Defaults to no.
    
                  show-sig-subpackets
                         Include signature subpackets in  the  key  listing.  This
                         option   can  take  an  optional  argument  list  of  the
                         subpackets to list. If no argument is  passed,  list  all
                         subpackets.  Defaults to no. This option is only meaning-
                         ful when using --with-colons along  with  --list-sigs  or
                         --check-sigs.
    
                         Defaults to no.
    
                  show-notations
    
                  show-std-notations
    
                  show-user-notations
                         Show  all, IETF standard, or user-defined signature nota-
                         tions in the signature being verified. Defaults  to  IETF
                         standard.
    
                  show-keyserver-urls
                         Show  any  preferred keyserver URL in the signature being
                         verified.  Defaults to no.
    
                  show-uid-validity
                         Display the calculated validity of the user  IDs  on  the
                         key that issued the signature. Defaults to no.
    
                  show-unusable-uids
                         Show  revoked and expired user IDs during signature veri-
                         fication.  Defaults to no.
    
                  show-primary-uid-only
                         Show only the primary user ID during signature  verifica-
                         tion.  That is all the AKA lines as well as photo Ids are
                         not shown with the signature verification status.
    
                  pka-lookups
                         Enable PKA lookups to verify sender addresses. Note  that
                         PKA is based on DNS, and so enabling this option may dis-
                         close information on when and what signatures  are  veri-
                         fied or to whom data is encrypted. This is similar to the
                         "web bug" described for the auto-key-retrieve feature.
    
                  pka-trust-increase
                         Raise the trust in a signature to full if  the  signature
                         passes  PKA validation. This option is only meaningful if
                         pka-lookups is set.
    
           --enable-dsa2
    
           --disable-dsa2
                  Enable hash truncation for all DSA keys even for old DSA Keys up
                  supplied to the viewer on standard input.
    
                  The  default  viewer  is  "xloadimage -fork -quiet -title 'KeyID
                  0x%k' STDIN". Note that if your  image  viewer  program  is  not
                  secure, then executing it from GnuPG does not make it secure.
    
           --exec-path string
                  Sets  a list of directories to search for photo viewers and key-
                  server helpers. If not provided, keyserver helpers use the  com-
                  piled-in  default  directory,  and  photo  viewers use the $PATH
                  environment variable.  Note, that on W32 system  this  value  is
                  ignored when searching for keyserver helpers.
    
           --keyring file
                  Add  file to the current list of keyrings. If file begins with a
                  tilde and a slash, these are replaced by the $HOME directory. If
                  the  filename  does  not contain a slash, it is assumed to be in
                  the GnuPG home directory ("~/.gnupg" if --homedir or  $GNUPGHOME
                  is not used).
    
                  Note that this adds a keyring to the current list. If the intent
                  is to use the specified keyring alone, use --keyring along  with
                  --no-default-keyring.
    
           --secret-keyring file
                  Same as --keyring but for the secret keyrings.
    
           --primary-keyring file
                  Designate  file  as  the primary public keyring. This means that
                  newly imported keys (via --import or keyserver --recv-from) will
                  go to this keyring.
    
           --trustdb-name file
                  Use  file  instead of the default trustdb. If file begins with a
                  tilde and a slash, these are replaced by the $HOME directory. If
                  the  filename  does  not contain a slash, it is assumed to be in
                  the GnuPG home directory ('~/.gnupg' if --homedir or  $GNUPGHOME
                  is not used).
    
           --homedir dir
                  Set the name of the home directory to dir. If this option is not
                  used, the home directory defaults to  '~/.gnupg'.   It  is  only
                  recognized  when  given  on the command line.  It also overrides
                  any home  directory  stated  through  the  environment  variable
                  'GNUPGHOME'  or  (on W32 systems) by means of the Registry entry
                  HKCU\Software\GNU\GnuPG:HomeDir.
                  verbosity level of 3 shows the chosen  set.   Valid  values  for
                  name are:
    
                  iso-8859-1
                         This is the Latin 1 set.
    
                  iso-8859-2
                         The Latin 2 set.
    
                  iso-8859-15
                         This is currently an alias for the Latin 1 set.
    
                  koi8-r The usual Russian set (rfc1489).
    
                  utf-8  Bypass  all  translations  and  assume  that  the OS uses
                         native UTF-8 encoding.
    
           --utf8-strings
    
           --no-utf8-strings
                  Assume that command line arguments are given  as  UTF8  strings.
                  The  default (--no-utf8-strings) is to assume that arguments are
                  encoded in the character set as specified by  --display-charset.
                  These  options  affect all following arguments. Both options may
                  be used multiple times.
    
           --options file
                  Read options from file and do not try  to  read  them  from  the
                  default options file in the homedir (see --homedir). This option
                  is ignored if used in an options file.
    
           --no-options
                  Shortcut for --options /dev/null. This option is detected before
                  an  attempt to open an option file.  Using this option will also
                  prevent the creation of a '~/.gnupg' homedir.
    
           -z n
    
           --compress-level n
    
                  also  runs  at  half the speed. This is useful under extreme low
                  memory circumstances when the file was originally compressed  at
                  a high --bzip2-compress-level.
    
           --mangle-dos-filenames
    
           --no-mangle-dos-filenames
                  Older  version of Windows cannot handle filenames with more than
                  one dot. --mangle-dos-filenames causes GnuPG to replace  (rather
                  than  add  to) the extension of an output filename to avoid this
                  problem. This option is off by default and has no effect on non-
                  Windows platforms.
    
           --ask-cert-level
    
           --no-ask-cert-level
                  When  making  a key signature, prompt for a certification level.
                  If this option is not specified, the certification level used is
                  set   via  --default-cert-level.  See  --default-cert-level  for
                  information on the specific levels and how they are used.  --no-
                  ask-cert-level disables this option. This option defaults to no.
    
           --default-cert-level n
                  The default to use for the check level when signing a key.
    
                  0 means you make no particular claim as  to  how  carefully  you
                  verified the key.
    
                  1 means you believe the key is owned by the person who claims to
                  own it but you could not, or did not verify the key at all. This
                  is  useful  for a "persona" verification, where you sign the key
                  of a pseudonymous user.
    
                  2 means you did casual verification of  the  key.  For  example,
                  this  could  mean that you verified that the key fingerprint and
                  checked the user ID on the key against a photo ID.
    
                  3 means you did extensive verification of the key. For  example,
                  this  could  mean that you verified the key fingerprint with the
                  owner of the key in person, and that you checked, by means of  a
                  hard to forge document with a photo ID (such as a passport) that
                  the name of the key owner matches the name in the user ID on the
                  key,  and  finally that you verified (by exchange of email) that
                  the email address on the key belongs to the key owner.
    
                  Note that the examples given above for levels 2 and 3  are  just
                  that:  examples. In the end, it is up to you to decide just what
                  "casual" and "extensive" mean to you.
                  This option is useful if you don't want to keep your secret keys
                  (or one of them) online but still want to be able to  check  the
                  validity of a given recipient's or signator's key.
    
           --trust-model pgp|classic|direct|always|auto
                  Set what trust model GnuPG should follow. The models are:
    
                  pgp    This  is  the Web of Trust combined with trust signatures
                         as used in PGP 5.x and later. This is the  default  trust
                         model when creating a new trust database.
    
                  classic
                         This  is the standard Web of Trust as used in PGP 2.x and
                         earlier.
    
                  direct Key validity is set directly by the user and  not  calcu-
                         lated via the Web of Trust.
    
                  always Skip  key validation and assume that used keys are always
                         fully trusted. You generally won't use  this  unless  you
                         are  using  some  external validation scheme. This option
                         also suppresses the "[uncertain]" tag printed with signa-
                         ture checks when there is no evidence that the user ID is
                         bound to the key.
    
                  auto   Select the trust model depending on whatever the internal
                         trust  database says. This is the default model if such a
                         database already exists.
    
           --auto-key-locate parameters
    
           --no-auto-key-locate
                  GnuPG can automatically locate and retrieve keys as needed using
                  this  option.  This  happens when encrypting to an email address
                  (in the "user@example.com" form), and there  are  no  user@exam-
                  ple.com keys on the local keyring.  This option takes any number
                  of the following mechanisms, in the order they are to be tried:
    
                  cert   Locate a key using DNS CERT, as specified in rfc4398.
    
                  pka    Locate a key using DNS PKA.
                         In addition, a keyserver URL as used in  the  --keyserver
                         option  may  be  used  here to query that particular key-
                         server.
    
                  local  Locate the key using the local keyrings.  This  mechanism
                         allows  to  select  the order a local key lookup is done.
                         Thus using  '--auto-key-locate  local'  is  identical  to
                         --no-auto-key-locate.
    
                  nodefault
                         This  flag  disables  the standard local key lookup, done
                         before any of the mechanisms defined by  the  --auto-key-
                         locate  are tried.  The position of this mechanism in the
                         list does not matter.  It is not  required  if  local  is
                         also used.
    
           --keyid-format short|0xshort|long|0xlong
                  Select  how  to  display  key  IDs.  "short"  is the traditional
                  8-character key ID.  "long"  is  the  more  accurate  (but  less
                  convenient)  16-character  key  ID.  Add  an  "0x"  to either to
                  include  an  "0x"  at  the  beginning  of  the  key  ID,  as  in
                  0x99242560.
    
           --keyserver name
                  Use name as your keyserver. This is the server that --recv-keys,
                  --send-keys, and --search-keys will communicate with to  receive
                  keys  from,  send keys to, and search for keys on. The format of
                  the name is a URI: 'scheme:[//]keyservername[:port]' The  scheme
                  is  the  type  of  keyserver: "hkp" for the HTTP (or compatible)
                  keyservers, "ldap" for the LDAP keyservers, or "mailto" for  the
                  Graff email keyserver. Note that your particular installation of
                  GnuPG may have other keyserver types  available  as  well.  Key-
                  server  schemes  are case-insensitive. After the keyserver name,
                  optional keyserver configuration options may be provided.  These
                  are  the  same as the global --keyserver-options from below, but
                  apply only to this particular keyserver.
    
                  Most keyservers synchronize with each other, so there is  gener-
                  ally no need to send keys to more than one server. The keyserver
                  hkp://keys.gnupg.net uses round robin DNS to  give  a  different
                  keyserver each time you use it.
    
           --keyserver-options name=value1
                  This is a space or comma delimited string that gives options for
                  the keyserver. Options can be prefixed with a 'no-' to give  the
                  opposite  meaning. Valid import-options or export-options may be
                         are incorrectly marked as revoked.
    
                  include-disabled
                         When searching for a key with --search-keys, include keys
                         that are marked on the keyserver as disabled.  Note  that
                         this option is not used with HKP keyservers.
    
                  auto-key-retrieve
                         This option enables the automatic retrieving of keys from
                         a keyserver when verifying signatures made by  keys  that
                         are not on the local keyring.
    
                         Note  that  this  option  makes a "web bug" like behavior
                         possible.  Keyserver operators can  see  which  keys  you
                         request,  so  by  sending you a message signed by a brand
                         new key (which you naturally will not have on your  local
                         keyring),  the operator can tell both your IP address and
                         the time when you verified the signature.
    
                  honor-keyserver-url
                         When using --refresh-keys, if the key in question  has  a
                         preferred  keyserver  URL,  then  use that preferred key-
                         server to refresh the key from. In addition, if auto-key-
                         retrieve  is  set, and the signature being verified has a
                         preferred keyserver URL, then  use  that  preferred  key-
                         server to fetch the key from. Defaults to yes.
    
                  honor-pka-record
                         If auto-key-retrieve is set, and the signature being ver-
                         ified has a PKA record, then use the PKA  information  to
                         fetch the key. Defaults to yes.
    
                  include-subkeys
                         When  receiving  a key, include subkeys as potential tar-
                         gets. Note that this option is not  used  with  HKP  key-
                         servers, as they do not support retrieving keys by subkey
                         id.
    
                  use-temp-files
                         On most Unix-like platforms, GnuPG communicates with  the
                         keyserver  helper  program  via  pipes, which is the most
                         efficient method. This option forces GnuPG to use  tempo-
                         rary  files  to  communicate.  On some platforms (such as
                         Win32 and RISC OS), this option is always enabled.
    
                         Tell  the  keyserver helper program how long (in seconds)
                         to try and perform a keyserver action before  giving  up.
                         Note  that  performing  multiple actions at the same time
                         uses this timeout value per action.   For  example,  when
                         retrieving  multiple  keys  via  --recv-keys, the timeout
                         applies separately to each key retrieval, and not to  the
                         --recv-keys command as a whole. Defaults to 30 seconds.
    
                  http-proxy=value
                         Set  the  proxy to use for HTTP and HKP keyservers.  This
                         overrides the "http_proxy" environment variable, if  any.
    
                  max-cert-size
                         When  retrieving  a key via DNS CERT, only accept keys up
                         to this size.  Defaults to 16384 bytes.
    
                  debug  Turn on debug output in  the  keyserver  helper  program.
                         Note  that  the  details of debug output depends on which
                         keyserver helper program is being used, and in  turn,  on
                         any  libraries  that  the  keyserver  helper program uses
                         internally (libcurl, openldap, etc).
    
                  check-cert
                         Enable certificate checking if the keyserver presents one
                         (for hkps or ldaps).  Defaults to on.
    
                  ca-cert-file
                         Provide   a  certificate  file  to  override  the  system
                         default.  Only necessary if check-cert  is  enabled,  and
                         the  keyserver is using a certificate that is not present
                         in a system default certificate list.
    
           --completes-needed n
                  Number of completely trusted users to introduce a new key signer
                  (defaults to 1).
    
           --marginals-needed n
                  Number of marginally trusted users to introduce a new key signer
                  (defaults to 3)
    
           --max-cert-depth n
                  Maximum depth of a certification chain (default is 5).
    
           --no-sig-cache
                  Do not cache the verification status of key signatures.  Caching
                  gives a much better performance in key listings. However, if you
                  suspect that your public keyring is not save against write modi-
                  fications, you can use this option to disable  the  caching.  It
                  probably  does  not make sense to disable it because all kind of
                  damage can be done if someone else has write access to your pub-
                  lic keyring.
    
           --no-sig-create-check
                  GnuPG  normally  verifies each signature right after creation to
                  protect against bugs and hardware malfunctions which could  leak
                  out bits from the secret key. This extra verification needs some
                  time (about 115% for DSA keys), and so this option can  be  used
                  to disable it.  However, due to the fact that the signature cre-
                  ation needs manual interaction, this  performance  penalty  does
                  not matter in most settings.
    
           --auto-check-trustdb
    
           --no-auto-check-trustdb
                  If  GnuPG  feels that its information about the Web of Trust has
                  to be updated, it automatically runs the --check-trustdb command
                  internally.   This  may  be a time consuming process. --no-auto-
                  check-trustdb disables this option.
    
           --use-agent
    
           --no-use-agent
                  This is dummy option. gpg2 always requires the agent.
    
           --gpg-agent-info
                  This is dummy option. It has no effect when used with gpg2.
    
           --lock-once
                  Lock the databases the first time a lock is requested and do not
                  release the lock until the process terminates.
    
           --lock-multiple
                  Release  the  locks  every  time a lock is no longer needed. Use
                  this to override a previous --lock-once from a config file.
    
           --lock-never
                  Disable locking entirely. This option should  be  used  only  in
                  very special environments, where it can be assured that only one
    
           --limit-card-insert-tries n
                  With n greater than 0 the number of prompts asking to  insert  a
                  smartcard  gets limited to N-1. Thus with a value of 1 gpg won't
                  at all ask to insert  a  card  if  none  has  been  inserted  at
                  startup. This option is useful in the configuration file in case
                  an application does not know about  the  smartcard  support  and
                  waits ad infinitum for an inserted card.
    
           --no-random-seed-file
                  GnuPG uses a file to store its internal random pool over invoca-
                  tions.  This makes random generation faster;  however  sometimes
                  write  operations  are  not  desired. This option can be used to
                  achieve that with the cost of slower random generation.
    
           --no-greeting
                  Suppress the initial copyright message.
    
           --no-secmem-warning
                  Suppress the warning about "using insecure memory".
    
           --no-permission-warning
                  Suppress the  warning  about  unsafe  file  and  home  directory
                  (--homedir)  permissions.  Note  that the permission checks that
                  GnuPG performs are not intended to be authoritative, but  rather
                  they  simply  warn  about certain common permission problems. Do
                  not assume that the lack of a warning means that your system  is
                  secure.
    
                  Note that the warning for unsafe --homedir permissions cannot be
                  suppressed in the gpg.conf file, as this would allow an attacker
                  to  place an unsafe gpg.conf file in place, and use this file to
                  suppress warnings about itself. The --homedir permissions  warn-
                  ing may only be suppressed on the command line.
    
           --no-mdc-warning
                  Suppress the warning about missing MDC integrity protection.
    
           --require-secmem
    
           --no-require-secmem
                  Refuse  to run if GnuPG cannot get secure memory. Defaults to no
                  (i.e. run, but give a warning).
    
                  signing an expired or revoked key, or certain potentially incom-
                  patible things like generating unusual key types. This also dis-
                  ables  certain  warning  messages about potentially incompatible
                  actions. As the name implies, this option is for  experts  only.
                  If you don't fully understand the implications of what it allows
                  you to do, leave this off. --no-expert disables this option.
    
       Key related options
    
           --recipient name
    
           -r     Encrypt for user id name. If this option  or  --hidden-recipient
                  is  not  specified, GnuPG asks for the user-id unless --default-
                  recipient is given.
    
           --hidden-recipient name
    
           -R     Encrypt for user ID name, but hide the key  ID  of  this  user's
                  key.  This  option helps to hide the receiver of the message and
                  is a limited countermeasure against traffic  analysis.  If  this
                  option  or --recipient is not specified, GnuPG asks for the user
                  ID unless --default-recipient is given.
    
           --encrypt-to name
                  Same as --recipient but this one is  intended  for  use  in  the
                  options  file  and  may  be  used  with  your  own user-id as an
                  "encrypt-to-self". These keys are only used when there are other
                  recipients  given  either  by use of --recipient or by the asked
                  user id.  No trust checking is performed for these user ids  and
                  even disabled keys can be used.
    
           --hidden-encrypt-to name
                  Same  as  --hidden-recipient but this one is intended for use in
                  the options file and may be used with your own user-id as a hid-
                  den  "encrypt-to-self".  These keys are only used when there are
                  other recipients given either by use of --recipient  or  by  the
                  asked  user  id.   No trust checking is performed for these user
                  ids and even disabled keys can be used.
    
                  is accepted. Note that a value with spaces in it will be treated
                  as  two  different  values. Note also there is only one level of
                  expansion --- you cannot make an group that  points  to  another
                  group.  When  used from the command line, it may be necessary to
                  quote the argument to this option  to  prevent  the  shell  from
                  treating it as multiple arguments.
    
           --ungroup name
                  Remove a given entry from the --group list.
    
           --no-groups
                  Remove all entries from the --group list.
    
           --local-user name
    
           -u     Use  name  as  the key to sign with. Note that this option over-
                  rides --default-key.
    
           --try-all-secrets
                  Don't look at the key ID as stored in the message  but  try  all
                  secret  keys  in  turn  to  find  the right decryption key. This
                  option forces the behaviour  as  used  by  anonymous  recipients
                  (created  by  using --throw-keyids) and might come handy in case
                  where an encrypted message contains a bogus key ID.
    
       Input and Output
    
           --armor
    
           -a     Create ASCII armored output.   The  default  is  to  create  the
                  binary OpenPGP format.
    
           --no-armor
                  Assume the input data is not in ASCII armored format.
    
           --output file
    
           --import-options parameters
                  This is a space or comma delimited string that gives options for
                  importing  keys.  Options  can be prepended with a 'no-' to give
                  the opposite meaning. The options are:
    
                  import-local-sigs
                         Allow importing key signatures marked as "local". This is
                         not  generally  useful  unless a shared keyring scheme is
                         being used.  Defaults to no.
    
                  repair-pks-subkey-bug
                         During import, attempt to repair the damage caused by the
                         PKS  keyserver  bug (pre version 0.9.6) that mangles keys
                         with multiple subkeys. Note that this  cannot  completely
                         repair the damaged key as some crucial data is removed by
                         the keyserver, but it does at least  give  you  back  one
                         subkey.  Defaults  to  no for regular --import and to yes
                         for keyserver --recv-keys.
    
                  merge-only
                         During import, allow key updates to existing keys, but do
                         not allow any new keys to be imported. Defaults to no.
    
                  import-clean
                         After  import,  compact (remove all signatures except the
                         self-signature) any user IDs from the new  key  that  are
                         not usable.  Then, remove any signatures from the new key
                         that are not usable.  This includes signatures that  were
                         issued  by keys that are not present on the keyring. This
                         option is the same  as  running  the  --edit-key  command
                         "clean" after import. Defaults to no.
    
                  import-minimal
                         Import the smallest key possible. This removes all signa-
                         tures except the most recent self-signature on each  user
                         ID.  This  option  is  the same as running the --edit-key
                         command "minimize" after import.  Defaults to no.
    
           --export-options parameters
                  This is a space or comma delimited string that gives options for
                  exporting  keys.  Options  can be prepended with a 'no-' to give
                  the opposite meaning. The options are:
    
    
                  export-sensitive-revkeys
                         Include designated revoker information that was marked as
                         "sensitive". Defaults to no.
    
                  export-reset-subkey-passwd
                         When  using  the  --export-secret-subkeys  command,  this
                         option resets the passphrases for all exported subkeys to
                         empty. This is useful when the exported subkey is  to  be
                         used  on an unattended machine where a passphrase doesn't
                         necessarily make sense. Defaults to no.
    
                  export-clean
                         Compact (remove all signatures from) user IDs on the  key
                         being  exported  if the user IDs are not usable. Also, do
                         not export any  signatures  that  are  not  usable.  This
                         includes signatures that were issued by keys that are not
                         present on the keyring. This option is the same  as  run-
                         ning  the --edit-key command "clean" before export except
                         that the local copy of the key is not modified.  Defaults
                         to no.
    
                  export-minimal
                         Export the smallest key possible. This removes all signa-
                         tures except the most recent self-signature on each  user
                         ID.  This  option  is  the same as running the --edit-key
                         command "minimize" before export except  that  the  local
                         copy of the key is not modified. Defaults to no.
    
           --with-colons
                  Print  key  listings  delimited  by colons. Note that the output
                  will be encoded in UTF-8  regardless  of  any  --display-charset
                  setting. This format is useful when GnuPG is called from scripts
                  and other programs as it is easily machine parsed.  The  details
                  of  this  format are documented in the file 'doc/DETAILS', which
                  is included in the GnuPG source distribution.
    
           --fixed-list-mode
                  Do not merge primary user ID and  primary  key  in  --with-colon
                  listing   mode   and  print  all  timestamps  as  seconds  since
                  1970-01-01.  Since GnuPG 2.0.10, this mode is  always  used  and
                  thus this option is obsolete; it does not harm to use it though.
    
           --with-fingerprint
                  Same as the command --fingerprint but changes only the format of
                  the output and may be used together with another command.
                  cal text form with standard "CRLF" line endings. This also  sets
                  the  necessary  flags to inform the recipient that the encrypted
                  or signed data is text and may need its line  endings  converted
                  back  to  whatever  the local system uses. This option is useful
                  when communicating between two  platforms  that  have  different
                  line ending conventions (UNIX-like to Mac, Mac to Windows, etc).
                  --no-textmode disables this option, and is the default.
    
           --force-v3-sigs
    
           --no-force-v3-sigs
                  OpenPGP states that an implementation should generate v4  signa-
                  tures  but PGP versions 5 through 7 only recognize v4 signatures
                  on key material. This option forces v3 signatures for signatures
                  on data.  Note that this option implies --ask-sig-expire, --sig-
                  policy-url, --sig-notation, and  --sig-keyserver-url,  as  these
                  features  cannot be used with v3 signatures.  --no-force-v3-sigs
                  disables this option.
    
           --force-v4-certs
    
           --no-force-v4-certs
                  Always use v4 key signatures even on v3 keys. This  option  also
                  changes  the  default hash algorithm for v3 RSA keys from MD5 to
                  SHA-1.  --no-force-v4-certs disables this option.
    
           --force-mdc
                  Force the use of encryption with a modification detection  code.
                  This  is always used with the newer ciphers (those with a block-
                  size greater than 64 bits), or if  all  of  the  recipient  keys
                  indicate MDC support in their feature flags.
    
           --disable-mdc
                  Disable the use of the modification detection code. Note that by
                  using this option, the encrypted message becomes vulnerable to a
                  message modification attack.
    
           --personal-cipher-preferences string
                  Set the list of personal cipher preferences to string.  Use gpg2
                  --version to get a list of available algorithms, and use none to
                  set  no preference at all.  This allows the user to safely over-
                  ride the algorithm chosen by the recipient key  preferences,  as
                  GPG  will only select an algorithm that is usable by all recipi-
                  ents.  The most highly ranked cipher in this list is  also  used
                  for the --symmetric encryption command.
    
                  gpg2  --version  to  get a list of available algorithms, and use
                  none to set no preference at  all.   This  allows  the  user  to
                  safely  override the algorithm chosen by the recipient key pref-
                  erences, as GPG will only select an algorithm that is usable  by
                  all recipients.  The most highly ranked compression algorithm in
                  this list is also used when there are no recipient keys to  con-
                  sider (e.g. --symmetric).
    
           --s2k-cipher-algo name
                  Use  name  as  the cipher algorithm used to protect secret keys.
                  The default cipher is CAST5. This cipher is also used  for  con-
                  ventional   encryption   if   --personal-cipher-preferences  and
                  --cipher-algo is not given.
    
           --s2k-digest-algo name
                  Use name as the digest algorithm used to mangle the passphrases.
                  The default algorithm is SHA-1.
    
           --s2k-mode n
                  Selects  how  passphrases  are  mangled.  If  n  is  0  a  plain
                  passphrase (which is not recommended) will be used, a 1  adds  a
                  salt  to the passphrase and a 3 (the default) iterates the whole
                  process a number of times (see --s2k-count).   Unless  --rfc1991
                  is used, this mode is also used for conventional encryption.
    
           --s2k-count n
                  Specify  how  many  times  the  passphrase mangling is repeated.
                  This value may range between 1024 and  65011712  inclusive,  and
                  the  default  is  65536.   Note  that  not  all  values  in  the
                  1024-65011712 range  are  legal  and  if  an  illegal  value  is
                  selected,  GnuPG will round up to the nearest legal value.  This
                  option is only meaningful if --s2k-mode is 3.
    
       Compliance options
    
           These options control what GnuPG is compliant to.  Only  one  of  these
           options  may be active at a time. Note that the default setting of this
           is nearly always the correct one. See the INTEROPERABILITY  WITH  OTHER
           OPENPGP PROGRAMS section below before using one of these options.
    
           --gnupg
    
           --rfc4880
                  Reset  all  packet, cipher and digest options to strict RFC-4880
                  behavior.  Note  that  this  is  currently  the  same  thing  as
                  --openpgp.
    
           --rfc2440
                  Reset  all  packet, cipher and digest options to strict RFC-2440
                  behavior.
    
           --rfc1991
                  Try to be more RFC-1991 (PGP 2.x) compliant.
    
           --pgp2 Set up all options to be as PGP 2.x compliant as  possible,  and
                  warn  if  an  action is taken (e.g. encrypting to a non-RSA key)
                  that will create a message that PGP 2.x will not be able to han-
                  dle.  Note  that 'PGP 2.x' here means 'MIT PGP 2.6.2'. There are
                  other versions of PGP 2.x available, but the MIT  release  is  a
                  good common baseline.
    
                  This  option implies --rfc1991 --disable-mdc --no-force-v4-certs
                  --escape-from-lines --force-v3-sigs --cipher-algo IDEA --digest-
                  algo  MD5  --compress-algo ZIP. It also disables --textmode when
                  encrypting.
    
           --pgp6 Set up all options to be as PGP 6 compliant  as  possible.  This
                  restricts  you  to  the  ciphers  IDEA  (if  the  IDEA plugin is
                  installed), 3DES, and CAST5, the hashes MD5, SHA1 and RIPEMD160,
                  and  the compression algorithms none and ZIP. This also disables
                  --throw-keyids, and making signatures with  signing  subkeys  as
                  PGP 6 does not understand signatures made by signing subkeys.
    
                  This  option  implies --disable-mdc --escape-from-lines --force-
                  v3-sigs.
    
           --pgp7 Set up all options to be as PGP 7 compliant as possible. This is
                  identical  to  --pgp6 except that MDCs are not disabled, and the
                  list of allowable ciphers is expanded  to  add  AES128,  AES192,
                  AES256, and TWOFISH.
    
           --pgp8 Set  up  all options to be as PGP 8 compliant as possible. PGP 8
                  is a lot closer to the OpenPGP standard than  previous  versions
                  of  PGP,  so  all  this  does  is disable --throw-keyids and set
                  --escape-from-lines.  All algorithms are allowed except for  the
                  SHA224, SHA384, and SHA512 digests.
    
    
           --list-only
                  Changes  the  behaviour of some commands. This is like --dry-run
                  but different in some cases. The semantic of this command may be
                  extended  in  the  future.  Currently  it  only skips the actual
                  decryption pass and therefore enables  a  fast  listing  of  the
                  encryption keys.
    
           -i
    
           --interactive
                  Prompt before overwriting any files.
    
           --debug-level level
                  Select  the debug level for investigating problems. level may be
                  a numeric value or by a keyword:
    
                  none   No debugging at all.  A value of less than 1 may be  used
                         instead of the keyword.
    
                  basic  Some  basic  debug messages.  A value between 1 and 2 may
                         be used instead of the keyword.
    
                  advanced
                         More verbose debug messages.  A value between 3 and 5 may
                         be used instead of the keyword.
    
                  expert Even more detailed messages.  A value between 6 and 8 may
                         be used instead of the keyword.
    
                  guru   All of the debug messages you can get.  A  value  greater
                         than  8 may be used instead of the keyword.  The creation
                         of hash tracing files is only enabled if the  keyword  is
                         used.
    
           How  these  messages  are  mapped  to the actual debugging flags is not
           specified and may change with newer releases of this program. They  are
           however carefully selected to best aid in debugging.
    
           --debug flags
                  Set  debugging flags. All flags are or-ed and flags may be given
                  in C syntax (e.g. 0x0042).
    
           --debug-all
                  Set all useful debugging flags.
    
                  file.
    
           --logger-fd n
                  Write log output to file descriptor n and not to STDERR.
    
           --log-file file
    
           --logger-file file
                  Same  as  --logger-fd, except the logger data is written to file
                  file.  Note that --log-file is only implemented for GnuPG-2.
    
           --attribute-fd n
                  Write attribute subpackets to the file  descriptor  n.  This  is
                  most  useful for use with --status-fd, since the status messages
                  are needed to separate  out  the  various  subpackets  from  the
                  stream delivered to the file descriptor.
    
           --attribute-file file
                  Same  as --attribute-fd, except the attribute data is written to
                  file file.
    
           --comment string
    
           --no-comments
                  Use string as a comment string  in  clear  text  signatures  and
                  ASCII armored messages or keys (see --armor). The default behav-
                  ior is not to use a comment string. --comment  may  be  repeated
                  multiple  times  to  get multiple comment strings. --no-comments
                  removes all comments.  It is a good idea to keep the length of a
                  single  comment  below 60 characters to avoid problems with mail
                  programs wrapping such lines.  Note that comment lines, like all
                  other header lines, are not protected by the signature.
    
           --emit-version
    
           --no-emit-version
                  Force  inclusion  of the version string in ASCII armored output.
                  --no-emit-version disables this option.
    
           --sig-notation name=value
    
           --cert-notation name=value
    
           -N, --set-notation name=value
                  Put the name value pair into the  signature  as  notation  data.
                  will  be  expanded into the key ID of the key being signed, "%K"
                  into the long key ID of the key being signed, "%f" into the fin-
                  gerprint  of  the  key being signed, "%s" into the key ID of the
                  key making the signature, "%S" into the long key ID of  the  key
                  making  the signature, "%g" into the fingerprint of the key mak-
                  ing the signature (which might be a subkey), "%p" into the  fin-
                  gerprint  of  the  primary  key of the key making the signature,
                  "%c" into the signature count from the  OpenPGP  smartcard,  and
                  "%%" results in a single "%". %k, %K, and %f are only meaningful
                  when making a key signature  (certification),  and  %c  is  only
                  meaningful when using the OpenPGP smartcard.
    
           --sig-policy-url string
    
           --cert-policy-url string
    
           --set-policy-url string
                  Use  string  as  a Policy URL for signatures (rfc2440:5.2.3.19).
                  If you prefix it with an exclamation mark (!),  the  policy  URL
                  packet will be flagged as critical. --sig-policy-url sets a pol-
                  icy url for data signatures. --cert-policy-url sets a policy url
                  for key signatures (certifications). --set-policy-url sets both.
    
                  The same %-expandos used for notation data are available here as
                  well.
    
           --sig-keyserver-url string
                  Use  string as a preferred keyserver URL for data signatures. If
                  you prefix it with an exclamation mark (!),  the  keyserver  URL
                  packet will be flagged as critical.
    
                  The same %-expandos used for notation data are available here as
                  well.
    
           --set-filename string
                  Use string as the filename  which  is  stored  inside  messages.
                  This  overrides the default, which is to use the actual filename
                  of the file being encrypted.
    
           --for-your-eyes-only
    
           --no-for-your-eyes-only
                  Set the 'for your eyes only' flag in the  message.  This  causes
                  GnuPG  to  refuse to save the file unless the --output option is
                  given, and PGP to use a "secure viewer" with a claimed  Tempest-
                  resistant  font  to  display  the message. This option overrides
                  --set-filename.  --no-for-your-eyes-only disables this option.
    
                  option as it allows you to violate the OpenPGP standard.  --per-
                  sonal-cipher-preferences  is the safe way to accomplish the same
                  thing.
    
           --digest-algo name
                  Use name as the message digest algorithm.  Running  the  program
                  with  the  command  --version  yields  a list of supported algo-
                  rithms. In general, you do not want to use  this  option  as  it
                  allows  you  to violate the OpenPGP standard. --personal-digest-
                  preferences is the safe way to accomplish the same thing.
    
           --compress-algo name
                  Use compression algorithm name. "zlib" is RFC-1950 ZLIB compres-
                  sion.  "zip"  is  RFC-1951 ZIP compression which is used by PGP.
                  "bzip2" is a more modern compression scheme  that  can  compress
                  some  things  better  than  zip or zlib, but at the cost of more
                  memory used during compression and decompression. "uncompressed"
                  or  "none" disables compression. If this option is not used, the
                  default behavior is to examine the recipient key preferences  to
                  see  which algorithms the recipient supports. If all else fails,
                  ZIP is used for maximum compatibility.
    
                  ZLIB may give better compression results than ZIP, as  the  com-
                  pression  window  size is not limited to 8k. BZIP2 may give even
                  better compression results than that, but will  use  a  signifi-
                  cantly larger amount of memory while compressing and decompress-
                  ing. This may be significant in  low  memory  situations.  Note,
                  however,  that PGP (all versions) only supports ZIP compression.
                  Using any algorithm other than ZIP or "none" will make the  mes-
                  sage  unreadable  with  PGP.  In general, you do not want to use
                  this option as it allows you to violate  the  OpenPGP  standard.
                  --personal-compress-preferences  is  the  safe way to accomplish
                  the same thing.
    
           --cert-digest-algo name
                  Use name as the message digest algorithm  used  when  signing  a
                  key.  Running  the  program  with the command --version yields a
                  list of supported algorithms. Be aware that  if  you  choose  an
                  algorithm  that GnuPG supports but other OpenPGP implementations
                  do not, then some users will not be able to use the  key  signa-
                  tures you make, or quite possibly your entire key.
    
           --disable-cipher-algo name
                  Never allow the use of name as cipher algorithm.  The given name
                  will not be checked so that a later loaded algorithm will  still
                  get disabled.
    
                  On the receiving side, it may slow down the  decryption  process
                  because  all  available  secret keys must be tried.  --no-throw-
                  keyids disables this option. This option is essentially the same
                  as using --hidden-recipient for all recipients.
    
           --not-dash-escaped
                  This option changes the behavior of cleartext signatures so that
                  they can be used for patch files. You should not  send  such  an
                  armored  file  via email because all spaces and line endings are
                  hashed too. You can not use this option for  data  which  has  5
                  dashes  at the beginning of a line, patch files don't have this.
                  A special armor header line tells  GnuPG  about  this  cleartext
                  signature option.
    
           --escape-from-lines
    
           --no-escape-from-lines
                  Because  some  mailers  change  lines  starting  with "From " to
                  ">From " it is good to handle such lines in a special  way  when
                  creating  cleartext  signatures  to prevent the mail system from
                  breaking the signature. Note that all other PGP versions  do  it
                  this  way  too.  Enabled by default. --no-escape-from-lines dis-
                  ables this option.
    
           --passphrase-repeat n
                  Specify how many times gpg2 will request  a  new  passphrase  be
                  repeated.   This  is  useful  for helping memorize a passphrase.
                  Defaults to 1 repetition.
    
           --passphrase-fd n
                  Read the passphrase from file descriptor n. Only the first  line
                  will  be  read  from  file descriptor n. If you use 0 for n, the
                  passphrase will be read from STDIN. This can  only  be  used  if
                  only  one  passphrase is supplied.  Note that this passphrase is
                  only used if the option --batch has also been  given.   This  is
                  different from gpg.
    
           --passphrase-file file
                  Read  the passphrase from file file. Only the first line will be
                  read from  file  file.  This  can  only  be  used  if  only  one
                  passphrase is supplied. Obviously, a passphrase stored in a file
                  is of questionable security if other users can read  this  file.
                  Don't  use  this  option  if  you  can avoid it.  Note that this
                  passphrase is only used if the  option  --batch  has  also  been
                  given.  This is different from gpg.
    
                  it.
    
           --command-file file
                  Same  as  --command-fd, except the commands are read out of file
                  file
    
           --allow-non-selfsigned-uid
    
           --no-allow-non-selfsigned-uid
                  Allow the import and use of keys with user  IDs  which  are  not
                  self-signed.  This is not recommended, as a non self-signed user
                  ID is trivial to forge. --no-allow-non-selfsigned-uid  disables.
    
           --allow-freeform-uid
                  Disable all checks on the form of the user ID while generating a
                  new one. This option should only be used in very  special  envi-
                  ronments  as  it does not ensure the de-facto standard format of
                  user IDs.
    
           --ignore-time-conflict
                  GnuPG normally checks that the timestamps associated  with  keys
                  and  signatures have plausible values. However, sometimes a sig-
                  nature seems to be older than the key  due  to  clock  problems.
                  This  option  makes  these  checks  just  a  warning.  See  also
                  --ignore-valid-from for timestamp issues on subkeys.
    
           --ignore-valid-from
                  GnuPG normally does not select and use subkeys  created  in  the
                  future.   This  option  allows  the  use  of  such keys and thus
                  exhibits the pre-1.0.7 behaviour. You should not use this option
                  unless  you there is some clock problem. See also --ignore-time-
                  conflict for timestamp issues with signatures.
    
           --ignore-crc-error
                  The ASCII armor used by OpenPGP is protected by a  CRC  checksum
                  against  transmission  errors. Occasionally the CRC gets mangled
                  somewhere on the transmission channel  but  the  actual  content
                  (which  is  protected  by  the OpenPGP protocol anyway) is still
                  okay. This option allows GnuPG to ignore CRC errors.
    
           --ignore-mdc-error
                  This option changes a MDC integrity protection  failure  into  a
                  warning.   This can be useful if a message is partially corrupt,
                  but it is necessary to get as much data as possible out  of  the
                  corrupt  message.  However, be aware that a MDC protection fail-
                  the decryption faster  if  the  signature  verification  is  not
                  needed.
    
           --with-key-data
                  Print  key listings delimited by colons (like --with-colons) and
                  print the public key data.
    
           --fast-list-mode
                  Changes the output of the list commands to work faster; this  is
                  achieved  by  leaving  some parts empty. Some applications don't
                  need the user ID and the trust information given  in  the  list-
                  ings.  By  using this options they can get a faster listing. The
                  exact behaviour of this option may change  in  future  versions.
                  If you are missing some information, don't use this option.
    
           --no-literal
                  This  is  not  for normal use. Use the source to see for what it
                  might be useful.
    
           --set-filesize
                  This is not for normal use. Use the source to see  for  what  it
                  might be useful.
    
           --show-session-key
                  Display  the  session  key used for one message. See --override-
                  session-key for the counterpart of this option.
    
                  We think that Key Escrow is a Bad Thing; however the user should
                  have  the freedom to decide whether to go to prison or to reveal
                  the content of one specific  message  without  compromising  all
                  messages  ever encrypted for one secret key. DON'T USE IT UNLESS
                  YOU ARE REALLY FORCED TO DO SO.
    
           --override-session-key string
                  Don't use the public key but the session key string. The  format
                  of this string is the same as the one printed by --show-session-
                  key. This option is normally not used but comes  handy  in  case
                  someone  forces  you  to reveal the content of an encrypted mes-
                  sage; using this option you can do this without handing out  the
                  secret key.
    
           --ask-sig-expire
    
           --no-ask-sig-expire
                  When  making a data signature, prompt for an expiration time. If
    
           --ask-cert-expire
    
           --no-ask-cert-expire
                  When  making  a key signature, prompt for an expiration time. If
                  this option is  not  specified,  the  expiration  time  set  via
                  --default-cert-expire  is  used.  --no-ask-cert-expire  disables
                  this option.
    
           --default-cert-expire
                  The default expiration time to use for key signature expiration.
                  Valid values are "0" for no expiration, a number followed by the
                  letter d (for days), w (for weeks), m (for months),  or  y  (for
                  years)  (for  example  "2m"  for  two  months,  or "5y" for five
                  years), or an absolute date in the form YYYY-MM-DD. Defaults  to
                  "0".
    
           --allow-secret-key-import
                  This is an obsolete option and is not used anywhere.
    
           --allow-multiple-messages
    
           --no-allow-multiple-messages
                  Allow  processing  of  multiple  OpenPGP messages contained in a
                  single file or stream.  Some programs that call GPG are not pre-
                  pared  to  deal with multiple messages being processed together,
                  so this option defaults to no.  Note that versions of GPG  prior
                  to 1.4.7 always allowed multiple messages.
    
                  Warning:  Do  not use this option unless you need it as a tempo-
                  rary workaround!
    
           --enable-special-filenames
                  This options enables a mode  in  which  filenames  of  the  form
                  '-&n',  where  n  is a non-negative decimal number, refer to the
                  file descriptor n and not to a file with that name.
    
           --no-expensive-trust-checks
                  Experimental use only.
    
           --preserve-permissions
                  Don't change the permissions of a secret keyring  back  to  user
                  read/write  only.  Use  this option only if you really know what
                  you are doing.
    
           --list-config
                  Display various internal configuration parameters of GnuPG. This
                  option is intended for external programs that call GnuPG to per-
                  form tasks, and is thus  not  generally  useful.  See  the  file
                  'doc/DETAILS'  in  the  source  distribution  for the details of
                  which configuration items may be listed. --list-config  is  only
                  usable with --with-colons set.
    
           --gpgconf-list
                  This  command  is  similar  to --list-config but in general only
                  internally used by the gpgconf tool.
    
           --gpgconf-test
                  This is more or less dummy action.  However it parses  the  con-
                  figuration  file  and  returns with failure if the configuration
                  file would prevent gpg from startup.  Thus it may be used to run
                  a syntax check on the configuration file.
    
       Deprecated options
    
           --show-photos
    
           --no-show-photos
                  Causes  --list-keys,  --list-sigs,  --list-public-keys,  --list-
                  secret-keys, and verifying a signature to also display the photo
                  ID  attached  to the key, if any. See also --photo-viewer. These
                  options  are  deprecated.  Use  --list-options  [no-]show-photos
                  and/or --verify-options [no-]show-photos instead.
    
           --show-keyring
                  Display  the  keyring  name  at the head of key listings to show
                  which keyring a given key resides on. This option is deprecated:
                  use --list-options [no-]show-keyring instead.
    
           --always-trust
                  Identical to --trust-model always. This option is deprecated.
    
           --show-notation
    
                  icy-url and/or --verify-options [no-]show-policy-url instead.
    
    
    

    EXAMPLES

           gpg -se -r Bob file
                  sign and encrypt for user Bob
    
           gpg --clearsign file
                  make a clear text signature
    
           gpg -sb file
                  make a detached signature
    
           gpg -u 0x12345678 -sb file
                  make a detached signature with the key 0x12345678
    
           gpg --list-keys user_ID
                  show keys
    
           gpg --fingerprint user_ID
                  show fingerprint
    
           gpg --verify pgpfile
    
           gpg --verify sigfile
                  Verify the signature of the file but do not output the data. The
                  second  form  is  used for detached signatures, where sigfile is
                  the detached signature (either ASCII armored or binary) and  are
                  the  signed  data;  if  this  is not given, the name of the file
                  holding the signed data is constructed by cutting off the exten-
                  sion (".asc" or ".sig") of sigfile or by asking the user for the
                  filename.
    
    
    

    HOW TO SPECIFY A USER ID

           There are different ways to specify a user ID to GnuPG.  Some  of  them
           are  only  valid  for  gpg others are only good for gpgsm.  Here is the
           entire list of ways to specify a key:
    
                  long key ID using the option --with-colons.
    
             234567C4
             0F34E556E
             01347A56A
             0xAB123456
    
             234AABBCC34567C4
             0F323456784E56EAB
             01AB3FED1347A5612
             0x234AABBCC34567C4
    
           By fingerprint.
                  This format is deduced from the length of  the  string  and  its
                  content  or  the 0x prefix.  Note, that only the 20 byte version
                  fingerprint is available with gpgsm (i.e. the SHA-1 hash of  the
                  certificate).
    
                  When  using gpg an exclamation mark (!) may be appended to force
                  using the specified primary or secondary key and not to try  and
                  calculate which primary or secondary key to use.
    
                  The  best  way  to specify a key Id is by using the fingerprint.
                  This avoids any ambiguities in case that  there  are  duplicated
                  key IDs.
    
             1234343434343434C434343434343434
             123434343434343C3434343434343734349A3434
             0E12343434343434343434EAB3484343434343434
             0xE12343434343434343434EAB3484343434343434
    
           (gpgsm  also  accepts  colons  between  each pair of hexadecimal digits
           because this is the de-facto standard on how to present  X.509  finger-
           prints.)
    
           By exact match on OpenPGP user ID.
                  This  is denoted by a leading equal sign. It does not make sense
                  for X.509 certificates.
    
             =Heinrich Heine <heinrichh@uni-duesseldorf.de>
    
           By exact match on an email address.
                  This is indicated by enclosing the email address  in  the  usual
                  way with left and right angles.
    
             <heinrichh@uni-duesseldorf.de>
                  RFC-2253 encoded DN of the subject.  Note that you can't use the
                  string printed by "gpgsm --list-keys" because that one  as  been
                  reordered and modified for better readability; use --with-colons
                  to print the raw (but standard escaped) RFC-2253 string
    
             /CN=Heinrich Heine,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR
    
           By exact match on the issuer's DN.
                  This is indicated by a leading hash mark, directly followed by a
                  slash  and  then  directly followed by the rfc2253 encoded DN of
                  the issuer.  This should return the Root  cert  of  the  issuer.
                  See note above.
    
             #/CN=Root Cert,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR
    
           By exact match on serial number and issuer's DN.
                  This  is  indicated  by a hash mark, followed by the hexadecimal
                  representation of the serial number, then followed  by  a  slash
                  and the RFC-2253 encoded DN of the issuer. See note above.
    
             #4F03/CN=Root Cert,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR
    
           By keygrip
                  This  is indicated by an ampersand followed by the 40 hex digits
                  of a keygrip.  gpgsm prints the keygrip when using  the  command
                  --dump-cert.  It does not yet work for OpenPGP keys.
    
             &D75F22C3F86E355877348498CDC92BD21010A480
    
           By substring match.
                  This is the default mode but applications may want to explicitly
                  indicate this by putting the asterisk in front.   Match  is  not
                  case sensitive.
    
             Heine
             *Heine
    
           Please note that we have reused the hash mark identifier which was used
           in old GnuPG versions to indicate the so called local-id.   It  is  not
           anymore  used  and  there  should  be  no conflict when used with X.509
           stuff.
    
           Using the RFC-2253 format of DNs has the drawback that it is not possi-
           ble to map them back to the original encoding, however we don't have to
                  This is the standard configuration file read by gpg2 on startup.
                  It may contain any valid long option; the leading two dashes may
                  not be entered and the option  may  not  be  abbreviated.   This
                  default  name  may  be changed on the command line (see: [option
                  --options]).  You should backup this file.
    
           Note that on larger installations, it is useful to put predefined files
           into  the  directory  '/etc/skel/.gnupg/'  so  that newly created users
           start up with a working configuration.  For existing users the a  small
           helper  script is provided to create these files (see: [addgnupghome]).
    
           For internal purposes gpg2 creates and maintains  a  few  other  files;
           They  all  live  in in the current home directory (see: [option --home-
           dir]).  Only the gpg2 may modify these files.
    
           ~/.gnupg/secring.gpg
                  The secret keyring.  You should backup this file.
    
           ~/.gnupg/secring.gpg.lock
                  The lock file for the secret keyring.
    
           ~/.gnupg/pubring.gpg
                  The public keyring.  You should backup this file.
    
           ~/.gnupg/pubring.gpg.lock
                  The lock file for the public keyring.
    
           ~/.gnupg/trustdb.gpg
                  The trust database.  There is no need to backup this file; it is
                  better  to  backup the ownertrust values (see: [option --export-
                  ownertrust]).
    
           ~/.gnupg/trustdb.gpg.lock
                  The lock file for the trust database.
    
           ~/.gnupg/random_seed
                  A file used to preserve the state of the internal random pool.
    
           /usr[/local]/share/gnupg/options.skel
                  The skeleton options file.
    
    
           GPG_AGENT_INFO
                  Used to locate the gpg-agent.  The value  consists  of  3  colon
                  delimited  fields:  The  first  is  the  path to the Unix Domain
                  Socket, the second the PID of the  gpg-agent  and  the  protocol
                  version which should be set to 1. When starting the gpg-agent as
                  described in its documentation, this variable is set to the cor-
                  rect  value. The option --gpg-agent-info can be used to override
                  it.
    
           PINENTRY_USER_DATA
                  This value is passed via gpg-agent to pinentry.  It is useful to
                  convey extra information to a custom pinentry.
    
           COLUMNS
    
           LINES  Used to size some displays to the full size of the screen.
    
           LANGUAGE
                  Apart  from  its  use  by  GNU, it is used in the W32 version to
                  override the language selection done through the  Registry.   If
                  used  and  set  to a valid and available language name (langid),
                  the   file    with    the    translation    is    loaded    from
                  gpgdir/gnupg.nls/langid.mo.  Here gpgdir is the directory out of
                  which the gpg binary has been loaded.  If it can't be loaded the
                  Registry  is  tried and as last resort the native Windows locale
                  system is used.
    
    
    

    BUGS

           On many systems this program should be installed as setuid(root).  This
           is  necessary  to  lock memory pages. Locking memory pages prevents the
           operating  system  from  writing  memory  pages  (which   may   contain
           passphrases or other sensitive material) to disk. If you get no warning
           message about insecure memory your operating  system  supports  locking
           without being root. The program drops root privileges as soon as locked
           memory is allocated.
    
           Note also that some systems (especially laptops) have  the  ability  to
           ''suspend  to  disk''  (also known as ''safe sleep'' or ''hibernate'').
           This writes all memory to disk before going into a low  power  or  even
           powered off mode.  Unless measures are taken in the operating system to
           protect the saved memory, passphrases or other sensitive  material  may
           be recoverable from it later.
    
    
    
    

    GnuPG 2.0.14 2014-06-30 GPG2(1)

    
    
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