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           git *


           This tutorial explains how to import a new project into git, make
           changes to it, and share changes with other developers.
           If you are instead primarily interested in using git to fetch a
           project, for example, to test the latest version, you may prefer to
           start with the first two chapters of The Git User's Manual[1].
           First, note that you can get documentation for a command such as git
           log --graph with:
               $ man git-log
               $ git help log
           With the latter, you can use the manual viewer of your choice; see git-
           help(1) for more information.
           It is a good idea to introduce yourself to git with your name and
           public email address before doing any operation. The easiest way to do
           so is:
               $ git config --global "Your Name Comes Here"
               $ git config --global


           Assume you have a tarball project.tar.gz with your initial work. You
           can place it under git revision control as follows.
               $ tar xzf project.tar.gz
               $ cd project
               $ git init
           Git will reply
               Initialized empty Git repository in .git/
           You've now initialized the working directory--you may notice a new
           directory created, named ".git".
           Next, tell git to take a snapshot of the contents of all files under


           Modify some files, then add their updated contents to the index:
               $ git add file1 file2 file3
           You are now ready to commit. You can see what is about to be committed
           using git diff with the --cached option:
               $ git diff --cached
           (Without --cached, git diff will show you any changes that you've made
           but not yet added to the index.) You can also get a brief summary of
           the situation with git status:
               $ git status
               # On branch master
               # Changes to be committed:
               #   (use "git reset HEAD <file>..." to unstage)
               #       modified:   file1
               #       modified:   file2
               #       modified:   file3
           If you need to make any further adjustments, do so now, and then add
           any newly modified content to the index. Finally, commit your changes
               $ git commit
           This will again prompt you for a message describing the change, and
           then record a new version of the project.
           Alternatively, instead of running git add beforehand, you can use
               $ git commit -a
           which will automatically notice any modified (but not new) files, add
           them to the index, and commit, all in one step.
           A note on commit messages: Though not required, it's a good idea to
           begin the commit message with a single short (less than 50 character)
           line summarizing the change, followed by a blank line and then a more
           thorough description. Tools that turn commits into email, for example,
           use the first line on the Subject: line and the rest of the commit in
           the body.
           If you also want to see complete diffs at each step, use
               $ git log -p
           Often the overview of the change is useful to get a feel of each step
               $ git log --stat --summary


           A single git repository can maintain multiple branches of development.
           To create a new branch named "experimental", use
               $ git branch experimental
           If you now run
               $ git branch
           you'll get a list of all existing branches:
               * master
           The "experimental" branch is the one you just created, and the "master"
           branch is a default branch that was created for you automatically. The
           asterisk marks the branch you are currently on; type
               $ git checkout experimental
           to switch to the experimental branch. Now edit a file, commit the
           change, and switch back to the master branch:
               (edit file)
               $ git commit -a
               $ git checkout master
           Check that the change you made is no longer visible, since it was made
           on the experimental branch and you're back on the master branch.
           You can make a different change on the master branch:
               (edit file)
               $ git commit -a
           will show this. Once you've edited the files to resolve the conflicts,
               $ git commit -a
           will commit the result of the merge. Finally,
               $ gitk
           will show a nice graphical representation of the resulting history.
           At this point you could delete the experimental branch with
               $ git branch -d experimental
           This command ensures that the changes in the experimental branch are
           already in the current branch.
           If you develop on a branch crazy-idea, then regret it, you can always
           delete the branch with
               $ git branch -D crazy-idea
           Branches are cheap and easy, so this is a good way to try something


           Suppose that Alice has started a new project with a git repository in
           /home/alice/project, and that Bob, who has a home directory on the same
           machine, wants to contribute.
           Bob begins with:
               bob$ git clone /home/alice/project myrepo
           This creates a new directory "myrepo" containing a clone of Alice's
           repository. The clone is on an equal footing with the original project,
           possessing its own copy of the original project's history.
           Bob then makes some changes and commits them:
               (edit files)
               bob$ git commit -a
               (repeat as necessary)
           When he's ready, he tells Alice to pull changes from the repository at
           /home/bob/myrepo. She does this with:
           did since their histories forked, Alice will use her working tree and
           the index to resolve conflicts, and existing local changes will
           interfere with the conflict resolution process (git will still perform
           the fetch but will refuse to merge --- Alice will have to get rid of
           her local changes in some way and pull again when this happens).
           Alice can peek at what Bob did without merging first, using the "fetch"
           command; this allows Alice to inspect what Bob did, using a special
           symbol "FETCH_HEAD", in order to determine if he has anything worth
           pulling, like this:
               alice$ git fetch /home/bob/myrepo master
               alice$ git log -p HEAD..FETCH_HEAD
           This operation is safe even if Alice has uncommitted local changes. The
           range notation "HEAD..FETCH_HEAD" means "show everything that is
           reachable from the FETCH_HEAD but exclude anything that is reachable
           from HEAD". Alice already knows everything that leads to her current
           state (HEAD), and reviews what Bob has in his state (FETCH_HEAD) that
           she has not seen with this command.
           If Alice wants to visualize what Bob did since their histories forked
           she can issue the following command:
               $ gitk HEAD..FETCH_HEAD
           This uses the same two-dot range notation we saw earlier with git log.
           Alice may want to view what both of them did since they forked. She can
           use three-dot form instead of the two-dot form:
               $ gitk HEAD...FETCH_HEAD
           This means "show everything that is reachable from either one, but
           exclude anything that is reachable from both of them".
           Please note that these range notation can be used with both gitk and
           "git log".
           After inspecting what Bob did, if there is nothing urgent, Alice may
           decide to continue working without pulling from Bob. If Bob's history
           does have something Alice would immediately need, Alice may choose to
           stash her work-in-progress first, do a "pull", and then finally unstash
           her work-in-progress on top of the resulting history.
           When you are working in a small closely knit group, it is not unusual
           to interact with the same repository over and over again. By defining
           remote repository shorthand, you can make it easier:
               alice$ git log -p master..bob/master
           shows a list of all the changes that Bob made since he branched from
           Alice's master branch.
           After examining those changes, Alice could merge the changes into her
           master branch:
               alice$ git merge bob/master
           This merge can also be done by pulling from her own remote tracking
           branch, like this:
               alice$ git pull . remotes/bob/master
           Note that git pull always merges into the current branch, regardless of
           what else is given on the command line.
           Later, Bob can update his repo with Alice's latest changes using
               bob$ git pull
           Note that he doesn't need to give the path to Alice's repository; when
           Bob cloned Alice's repository, git stored the location of her
           repository in the repository configuration, and that location is used
           for pulls:
               bob$ git config --get remote.origin.url
           (The complete configuration created by git clone is visible using git
           config -l, and the git-config(1) man page explains the meaning of each
           Git also keeps a pristine copy of Alice's master branch under the name
               bob$ git branch -r
           If Bob later decides to work from a different host, he can still
           perform clones and pulls using the ssh protocol:
               bob$ git clone myrepo
               Date:   Tue May 16 17:18:22 2006 -0700
                   merge-base: Clarify the comments on post processing.
           We can give this name to git show to see the details about this commit.
               $ git show c82a22c39cbc32576f64f5c6b3f24b99ea8149c7
           But there are other ways to refer to commits. You can use any initial
           part of the name that is long enough to uniquely identify the commit:
               $ git show c82a22c39c   # the first few characters of the name are
                                       # usually enough
               $ git show HEAD         # the tip of the current branch
               $ git show experimental # the tip of the "experimental" branch
           Every commit usually has one "parent" commit which points to the
           previous state of the project:
               $ git show HEAD^  # to see the parent of HEAD
               $ git show HEAD^^ # to see the grandparent of HEAD
               $ git show HEAD~4 # to see the great-great grandparent of HEAD
           Note that merge commits may have more than one parent:
               $ git show HEAD^1 # show the first parent of HEAD (same as HEAD^)
               $ git show HEAD^2 # show the second parent of HEAD
           You can also give commits names of your own; after running
               $ git tag v2.5 1b2e1d63ff
           you can refer to 1b2e1d63ff by the name "v2.5". If you intend to share
           this name with other people (for example, to identify a release
           version), you should create a "tag" object, and perhaps sign it; see
           git-tag(1) for details.
           Any git command that needs to know a commit can take any of these
           names. For example:
               $ git diff v2.5 HEAD     # compare the current HEAD to v2.5
               $ git branch stable v2.5 # start a new branch named "stable" based
                                        # at v2.5
               $ git reset --hard HEAD^ # reset your current branch and working
                                        # directory to its state at HEAD^
           searches for all occurrences of "hello" in v2.5.
           If you leave out the commit name, git grep will search any of the files
           it manages in your current directory. So
               $ git grep "hello"
           is a quick way to search just the files that are tracked by git.
           Many git commands also take sets of commits, which can be specified in
           a number of ways. Here are some examples with git log:
               $ git log v2.5..v2.6            # commits between v2.5 and v2.6
               $ git log v2.5..                # commits since v2.5
               $ git log --since="2 weeks ago" # commits from the last 2 weeks
               $ git log v2.5.. Makefile       # commits since v2.5 which modify
                                               # Makefile
           You can also give git log a "range" of commits where the first is not
           necessarily an ancestor of the second; for example, if the tips of the
           branches "stable" and "master" diverged from a common commit some time
           ago, then
               $ git log stable..master
           will list commits made in the master branch but not in the stable
           branch, while
               $ git log master..stable
           will show the list of commits made on the stable branch but not the
           master branch.
           The git log command has a weakness: it must present commits in a list.
           When the history has lines of development that diverged and then merged
           back together, the order in which git log presents those commits is
           Most projects with multiple contributors (such as the Linux kernel, or
           git itself) have frequent merges, and gitk does a better job of
           visualizing their history. For example,
               $ gitk --since="2 weeks ago" drivers/
           allows you to browse any commits from the last 2 weeks of commits that
           modified files under the "drivers" directory. (Note: you can adjust


           This tutorial should be enough to perform basic distributed revision
           control for your projects. However, to fully understand the depth and
           power of git you need to understand two simple ideas on which it is
           ?   The object database is the rather elegant system used to store the
               history of your project--files, directories, and commits.
           ?   The index file is a cache of the state of a directory tree, used to
               create commits, check out working directories, and hold the various
               trees involved in a merge.
           Part two of this tutorial explains the object database, the index file,
           and a few other odds and ends that you'll need to make the most of git.
           You can find it at gittutorial-2(7).
           If you don't want to continue with that right away, a few other
           digressions that may be interesting at this point are:
           ?    git-format-patch(1), git-am(1): These convert series of git
               commits into emailed patches, and vice versa, useful for projects
               such as the Linux kernel which rely heavily on emailed patches.
           ?    git-bisect(1): When there is a regression in your project, one way
               to track down the bug is by searching through the history to find
               the exact commit that's to blame. Git bisect can help you perform a
               binary search for that commit. It is smart enough to perform a
               close-to-optimal search even in the case of complex non-linear
               history with lots of merged branches.
           ?    gitworkflows(7): Gives an overview of recommended workflows.
           ?    Everyday GIT with 20 Commands Or So[2]
           ?    gitcvs-migration(7): Git for CVS users.


           gittutorial-2(7), gitcvs-migration(7), gitcore-tutorial(7),
           gitglossary(7), git-help(1), gitworkflows(7), Everyday git[2], The Git
           User's Manual[1]


           Part of the git(1) suite.


            1. The Git User's Manual
            2. Everyday GIT with 20 Commands Or So

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