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           Many Git commands take revision parameters as arguments. Depending on
           the command, they denote a specific commit or, for commands which walk
           the revision graph (such as git-log(1)), all commits which can be
           reached from that commit. In the latter case one can also specify a
           range of revisions explicitly.
           In addition, some Git commands (such as git-show(1)) also take revision
           parameters which denote other objects than commits, e.g. blobs
           ("files") or trees ("directories of files").


           A revision parameter <rev> typically, but not necessarily, names a
           commit object. It uses what is called an extended SHA1 syntax. Here are
           various ways to spell object names. The ones listed near the end of
           this list name trees and blobs contained in a commit.
           <sha1>, e.g. dae86e1950b1277e545cee180551750029cfe735, dae86e
               The full SHA1 object name (40-byte hexadecimal string), or a
               leading substring that is unique within the repository. E.g.
               dae86e1950b1277e545cee180551750029cfe735 and dae86e both name the
               same commit object if there is no other object in your repository
               whose object name starts with dae86e.
           <describeOutput>, e.g. v1.7.4.2-679-g3bee7fb
               Output from git describe; i.e. a closest tag, optionally followed
               by a dash and a number of commits, followed by a dash, a g, and an
               abbreviated object name.
           <refname>, e.g. master, heads/master, refs/heads/master
               A symbolic ref name. E.g.  master typically means the commit object
               referenced by refs/heads/master. If you happen to have both
               heads/master and tags/master, you can explicitly say heads/master
               to tell git which one you mean. When ambiguous, a <name> is
               disambiguated by taking the first match in the following rules:
                1. If $GIT_DIR/<name> exists, that is what you mean (this is
                   usually useful only for HEAD, FETCH_HEAD, ORIG_HEAD, MERGE_HEAD
                   and CHERRY_PICK_HEAD);
                2. otherwise, refs/<name> if it exists;
                3. otherwise, refs/tags/<refname> if it exists;
                4. otherwise, refs/heads/<name> if it exists;
                5. otherwise, refs/remotes/<name> if it exists;
                6. otherwise, refs/remotes/<name>/HEAD if it exists.
           <refname>@{<date>}, e.g. master@{yesterday}, HEAD@{5 minutes ago}
               A ref followed by the suffix @ with a date specification enclosed
               in a brace pair (e.g.  {yesterday}, {1 month 2 weeks 3 days 1 hour
               1 second ago} or {1979-02-26 18:30:00}) specifies the value of the
               ref at a prior point in time. This suffix may only be used
               immediately following a ref name and the ref must have an existing
               log ($GIT_DIR/logs/<ref>). Note that this looks up the state of
               your local ref at a given time; e.g., what was in your local master
               branch last week. If you want to look at commits made during
               certain times, see --since and --until.
           <refname>@{<n>}, e.g. master@{1}
               A ref followed by the suffix @ with an ordinal specification
               enclosed in a brace pair (e.g.  {1}, {15}) specifies the n-th prior
               value of that ref. For example master@{1} is the immediate prior
               value of master while master@{5} is the 5th prior value of master.
               This suffix may only be used immediately following a ref name and
               the ref must have an existing log ($GIT_DIR/logs/<refname>).
           @{<n>}, e.g. @{1}
               You can use the @ construct with an empty ref part to get at a
               reflog entry of the current branch. For example, if you are on
               branch blabla then @{1} means the same as blabla@{1}.
           @{-<n>}, e.g. @{-1}
               The construct @{-<n>} means the <n>th branch checked out before the
               current one.
           <refname>@{upstream}, e.g. master@{upstream}, @{u}
               The suffix @{upstream} to a ref (short form <refname>@{u}) refers
               to the branch the ref is set to build on top of. A missing ref
               defaults to the current branch.
           <rev>^, e.g. HEAD^, v1.5.1^0
               A suffix ^ to a revision parameter means the first parent of that
               commit object.  ^<n> means the <n>th parent (i.e.  <rev>^ is
               equivalent to <rev>^1). As a special rule, <rev>^0 means the commit
               itself and is used when <rev> is the object name of a tag object
               that refers to a commit object.
           <rev>~<n>, e.g. master~3
               A suffix ~<n> to a revision parameter means the commit object that
               is the <n>th generation ancestor of the named commit object,
               following only the first parents. I.e.  <rev>~3 is equivalent to
               <rev>^^^ which is equivalent to <rev>^1^1^1. See below for an
               illustration of the usage of this form.
           <rev>^{<type>}, e.g. v0.99.8^{commit}
               A suffix ^ followed by an object type name enclosed in brace pair
               means the object could be a tag, and dereference the tag
           :/<text>, e.g. :/fix nasty bug
               A colon, followed by a slash, followed by a text, names a commit
               whose commit message matches the specified regular expression. This
               name returns the youngest matching commit which is reachable from
               any ref. If the commit message starts with a !  you have to repeat
               that; the special sequence :/!, followed by something else than !,
               is reserved for now. The regular expression can match any part of
               the commit message. To match messages starting with a string, one
               can use e.g.  :/^foo.
           <rev>:<path>, e.g. HEAD:README, :README, master:./README
               A suffix : followed by a path names the blob or tree at the given
               path in the tree-ish object named by the part before the colon.
               :path (with an empty part before the colon) is a special case of
               the syntax described next: content recorded in the index at the
               given path. A path starting with ./ or ../ is relative to the
               current working directory. The given path will be converted to be
               relative to the working tree's root directory. This is most useful
               to address a blob or tree from a commit or tree that has the same
               tree structure as the working tree.
           :<n>:<path>, e.g. :0:README, :README
               A colon, optionally followed by a stage number (0 to 3) and a
               colon, followed by a path, names a blob object in the index at the
               given path. A missing stage number (and the colon that follows it)
               names a stage 0 entry. During a merge, stage 1 is the common
               ancestor, stage 2 is the target branch's version (typically the
               current branch), and stage 3 is the version from the branch which
               is being merged.
           Here is an illustration, by Jon Loeliger. Both commit nodes B and C are
           parents of commit node A. Parent commits are ordered left-to-right.
               G   H   I   J
                \ /     \ /
                 D   E   F
                  \  |  / \
                   \ | /   |
                    \|/    |
                     B     C
                      \   /
                       \ /
               A =      = A^0
               B = A^   = A^1     = A~1
               C = A^2  = A^2
               D = A^^  = A^1^1   = A~2
               E = B^2  = A^^2
               F = B^3  = A^^3
               G = A^^^ = A^1^1^1 = A~3
           This set operation appears so often that there is a shorthand for it.
           When you have two commits r1 and r2 (named according to the syntax
           explained in SPECIFYING REVISIONS above), you can ask for commits that
           are reachable from r2 excluding those that are reachable from r1 by ^r1
           r2 and it can be written as r1..r2.
           A similar notation r1...r2 is called symmetric difference of r1 and r2
           and is defined as r1 r2 --not $(git merge-base --all r1 r2). It is the
           set of commits that are reachable from either one of r1 or r2 but not
           from both.
           Two other shorthands for naming a set that is formed by a commit and
           its parent commits exist. The r1^@ notation means all parents of r1.
           r1^! includes commit r1 but excludes all of its parents.
           Here are a handful of examples:
               D                G H D
               D F              G H I J D F
               ^G D             H D
               ^D B             E I J F B
               B...C            G H D E B C
               ^D B C           E I J F B C
               C^@              I J F
               F^! D            G H D F




           Part of the git(1) suite

    Git 04/11/2012 GITREVISIONS(7)


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