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           alternate object database
               Via the alternates mechanism, a repository can inherit part of its
               object database from another object database, which is called
           bare repository
               A bare repository is normally an appropriately named directory with
               a .git suffix that does not have a locally checked-out copy of any
               of the files under revision control. That is, all of the git
               administrative and control files that would normally be present in
               the hidden .git sub-directory are directly present in the
               repository.git directory instead, and no other files are present
               and checked out. Usually publishers of public repositories make
               bare repositories available.
           blob object
               Untyped object, e.g. the contents of a file.
               A "branch" is an active line of development. The most recent commit
               on a branch is referred to as the tip of that branch. The tip of
               the branch is referenced by a branch head, which moves forward as
               additional development is done on the branch. A single git
               repository can track an arbitrary number of branches, but your
               working tree is associated with just one of them (the "current" or
               "checked out" branch), and HEAD points to that branch.
               Obsolete for: index.
               A list of objects, where each object in the list contains a
               reference to its successor (for example, the successor of a commit
               could be one of its parents).
               BitKeeper/cvsps speak for "commit". Since git does not store
               changes, but states, it really does not make sense to use the term
               "changesets" with git.
               The action of updating all or part of the working tree with a tree
               object or blob from the object database, and updating the index and
               HEAD if the whole working tree has been pointed at a new branch.
               In SCM jargon, "cherry pick" means to choose a subset of changes
               out of a series of changes (typically commits) and record them as a
               a short hand for commit object.
               As a verb: The action of storing a new snapshot of the project's
               state in the git history, by creating a new commit representing the
               current state of the index and advancing HEAD to point at the new
           commit object
               An object which contains the information about a particular
               revision, such as parents, committer, author, date and the tree
               object which corresponds to the top directory of the stored
           core git
               Fundamental data structures and utilities of git. Exposes only
               limited source code management tools.
               Directed acyclic graph. The commit objects form a directed acyclic
               graph, because they have parents (directed), and the graph of
               commit objects is acyclic (there is no chain which begins and ends
               with the same object).
           dangling object
               An unreachable object which is not reachable even from other
               unreachable objects; a dangling object has no references to it from
               any reference or object in the repository.
           detached HEAD
               Normally the HEAD stores the name of a branch. However, git also
               allows you to check out an arbitrary commit that isn't necessarily
               the tip of any particular branch. In this case HEAD is said to be
               You are waaaaay behind. See index.
               The list you get with "ls" :-)
               A working tree is said to be "dirty" if it contains modifications
               which have not been committed to the current branch.
               Favorite synonym to "tree-ish" by some total geeks. See
      for an in-depth
               explanation. Avoid this term, not to confuse people.
           evil merge
               An evil merge is a merge that introduces changes that do not appear
               in any parent.
               Linus Torvalds originally designed git to be a user space file
               system, i.e. the infrastructure to hold files and directories. That
               ensured the efficiency and speed of git.
           git archive
               Synonym for repository (for arch people).
               Grafts enables two otherwise different lines of development to be
               joined together by recording fake ancestry information for commits.
               This way you can make git pretend the set of parents a commit has
               is different from what was recorded when the commit was created.
               Configured via the .git/info/grafts file.
               In git's context, synonym to object name.
               A named reference to the commit at the tip of a branch. Heads are
               stored in $GIT_DIR/refs/heads/, except when using packed refs. (See
               The current branch. In more detail: Your working tree is normally
               derived from the state of the tree referred to by HEAD. HEAD is a
               reference to one of the heads in your repository, except when using
               a detached HEAD, in which case it may reference an arbitrary
           head ref
               A synonym for head.
               During the normal execution of several git commands, call-outs are
               made to optional scripts that allow a developer to add
               functionality or checking. Typically, the hooks allow for a command
               to be pre-verified and potentially aborted, and allow for a
               post-notification after the operation is done. The hook scripts are
               found in the $GIT_DIR/hooks/ directory, and are enabled by simply
               removing the .sample suffix from the filename. In earlier versions
               of git you had to make them executable.
               A collection of files with stat information, whose contents are
               stored as objects. The index is a stored version of your working
               tree. Truth be told, it can also contain a second, and even a third
               version of a working tree, which are used when merging.
           index entry
               The information regarding a particular file, stored in the index.
               An index entry can be unmerged, if a merge was started, but not yet
               finished (i.e. if the index contains multiple versions of that
               operations is called a pull. Merging is performed by an automatic
               process that identifies changes made since the branches diverged,
               and then applies all those changes together. In cases where changes
               conflict, manual intervention may be required to complete the
               As a noun: unless it is a fast-forward, a successful merge results
               in the creation of a new commit representing the result of the
               merge, and having as parents the tips of the merged branches. This
               commit is referred to as a "merge commit", or sometimes just a
               The unit of storage in git. It is uniquely identified by the SHA1
               of its contents. Consequently, an object can not be changed.
           object database
               Stores a set of "objects", and an individual object is identified
               by its object name. The objects usually live in $GIT_DIR/objects/.
           object identifier
               Synonym for object name.
           object name
               The unique identifier of an object. The hash of the object's
               contents using the Secure Hash Algorithm 1 and usually represented
               by the 40 character hexadecimal encoding of the hash of the object.
           object type
               One of the identifiers "commit", "tree", "tag" or "blob" describing
               the type of an object.
               To merge more than two branches. Also denotes an intelligent
               The default upstream repository. Most projects have at least one
               upstream project which they track. By default origin is used for
               that purpose. New upstream updates will be fetched into remote
               tracking branches named origin/name-of-upstream-branch, which you
               can see using git branch -r.
               A set of objects which have been compressed into one file (to save
               space or to transmit them efficiently).
           pack index
               The list of identifiers, and other information, of the objects in a
               pack, to assist in efficiently accessing the contents of a pack.
               Cute name for programs and program suites depending on core git,
               presenting a high level access to core git. Porcelains expose more
               of a SCM interface than the plumbing.
               Pulling a branch means to fetch it and merge it. See also git-
               Pushing a branch means to get the branch's head ref from a remote
               repository, find out if it is a direct ancestor to the branch's
               local head ref, and in that case, putting all objects, which are
               reachable from the local head ref, and which are missing from the
               remote repository, into the remote object database, and updating
               the remote head ref. If the remote head is not an ancestor to the
               local head, the push fails.
               All of the ancestors of a given commit are said to be "reachable"
               from that commit. More generally, one object is reachable from
               another if we can reach the one from the other by a chain that
               follows tags to whatever they tag, commits to their parents or
               trees, and trees to the trees or blobs that they contain.
               To reapply a series of changes from a branch to a different base,
               and reset the head of that branch to the result.
               A 40-byte hex representation of a SHA1 or a name that denotes a
               particular object. These may be stored in $GIT_DIR/refs/.
               A reflog shows the local "history" of a ref. In other words, it can
               tell you what the 3rd last revision in this repository was, and
               what was the current state in this repository, yesterday 9:14pm.
               See git-reflog(1) for details.
               A "refspec" is used by fetch and push to describe the mapping
               between remote ref and local ref. They are combined with a colon in
               the format <src>:<dst>, preceded by an optional plus sign, +. For
               example: git fetch $URL refs/heads/master:refs/heads/origin means
               "grab the master branch head from the $URL and store it as my
               origin branch head". And git push $URL
               refs/heads/master:refs/heads/to-upstream means "publish my master
               branch head as to-upstream branch at $URL". See also git-push(1).
               A collection of refs together with an object database containing
               all objects which are reachable from the refs, possibly accompanied
               by meta data from one or more porcelains. A repository can share an
               Source code management (tool).
               Synonym for object name.
           shallow repository
               A shallow repository has an incomplete history some of whose
               commits have parents cauterized away (in other words, git is told
               to pretend that these commits do not have the parents, even though
               they are recorded in the commit object). This is sometimes useful
               when you are interested only in the recent history of a project
               even though the real history recorded in the upstream is much
               larger. A shallow repository is created by giving the --depth
               option to git-clone(1), and its history can be later deepened with
               Symbolic reference: instead of containing the SHA1 id itself, it is
               of the format ref: refs/some/thing and when referenced, it
               recursively dereferences to this reference.  HEAD is a prime
               example of a symref. Symbolic references are manipulated with the
               git-symbolic-ref(1) command.
               A ref pointing to a tag or commit object. In contrast to a head, a
               tag is not changed by a commit. Tags (not tag objects) are stored
               in $GIT_DIR/refs/tags/. A git tag has nothing to do with a Lisp tag
               (which would be called an object type in git's context). A tag is
               most typically used to mark a particular point in the commit
               ancestry chain.
           tag object
               An object containing a ref pointing to another object, which can
               contain a message just like a commit object. It can also contain a
               (PGP) signature, in which case it is called a "signed tag object".
           topic branch
               A regular git branch that is used by a developer to identify a
               conceptual line of development. Since branches are very easy and
               inexpensive, it is often desirable to have several small branches
               that each contain very well defined concepts or small incremental
               yet related changes.
           tracking branch
               A regular git branch that is used to follow changes from another
               repository. A tracking branch should not contain direct
               modifications or have local commits made to it. A tracking branch
               can usually be identified as the right-hand-side ref in a Pull:
               An index which contains unmerged index entries.
           unreachable object
               An object which is not reachable from a branch, tag, or any other
           upstream branch
               The default branch that is merged into the branch in question (or
               the branch in question is rebased onto). It is configured via
               branch.<name>.remote and branch.<name>.merge. If the upstream
               branch of A is origin/B sometimes we say "A is tracking origin/B".
           working tree
               The tree of actual checked out files. The working tree normally
               contains the contents of the HEAD commit's tree, plus any local
               changes that you have made but not yet committed.


           gittutorial(7), gittutorial-2(7), gitcvs-migration(7), Everyday git[1],
           The Git User's Manual[2]


           Part of the git(1) suite.


            1. Everyday git
            2. The Git User's Manual

    Git 1.7.1 03/04/2013 GITGLOSSARY(7)


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