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git send-email [options] <file|directory|rev-list options>...
Takes the patches given on the command line and emails them out.
Patches can be specified as files, directories (which will send all
files in the directory), or directly as a revision list. In the last
case, any format accepted by git-format-patch(1) can be passed to git
The header of the email is configurable by command line options. If not
specified on the command line, the user will be prompted with a
ReadLine enabled interface to provide the necessary information.
There are two formats accepted for patch files:
1. mbox format files
This is what git-format-patch(1) generates. Most headers and MIME
formatting are ignored.
2. The original format used by Greg Kroah-Hartman's
This format expects the first line of the file to contain the "Cc:"
value and the "Subject:" of the message as the second line.
Review and edit each patch you're about to send. See the
CONFIGURATION section for sendemail.multiedit.
Specify a "Bcc:" value for each email. Default is the value of
The --bcc option must be repeated for each user you want on the bcc
Specify a starting "Cc:" value for each email. Default is the value
The --cc option must be repeated for each user you want on the cc
Invoke a text editor (see GIT_EDITOR in git-var(1)) to edit an
introductory message for the patch series.
If neither the command line option nor sendemail.from are set, then
the user will be prompted for the value. The default for the prompt
will be the value of GIT_AUTHOR_IDENT, or GIT_COMMITTER_IDENT if
that is not set, as returned by "git var -l".
Make the first mail (or all the mails with --no-thread) appear as a
reply to the given Message-Id, which avoids breaking threads to
provide a new patch series. The second and subsequent emails will
be sent as replies according to the --[no]-chain-reply-to setting.
So for example when --thread and --no-chain-reply-to are specified,
the second and subsequent patches will be replies to the first one
like in the illustration below where [PATCH v2 0/3] is in reply to
[PATCH 0/2] Here is what I did...
[PATCH 1/2] Clean up and tests
[PATCH 2/2] Implementation
[PATCH v2 0/3] Here is a reroll
[PATCH v2 1/3] Clean up
[PATCH v2 2/3] New tests
[PATCH v2 3/3] Implementation
Only necessary if --compose is also set. If --compose is not set,
this will be prompted for.
Specify the initial subject of the email thread. Only necessary if
--compose is also set. If --compose is not set, this will be
Specify the primary recipient of the emails generated. Generally,
this will be the upstream maintainer of the project involved.
Default is the value of the sendemail.to configuration value; if
that is unspecified, and --to-cmd is not specified, this will be
The --to option must be repeated for each user you want on the to
When encountering a non-ASCII message or subject that does not
declare its encoding, add headers/quoting to indicate it is encoded
in <encoding>. Default is the value of the
sendemail.assume8bitEncoding; if that is unspecified, this will be
prompted for if any non-ASCII files are encountered.
Note that no attempts whatsoever are made to validate the encoding.
Specifies the Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) used in the
HELO/EHLO command to the SMTP server. Some servers require the FQDN
to match your IP address. If not set, git send-email attempts to
determine your FQDN automatically. Default is the value of
Password for SMTP-AUTH. The argument is optional: If no argument is
specified, then the empty string is used as the password. Default
is the value of sendemail.smtppass, however --smtp-pass always
overrides this value.
Furthermore, passwords need not be specified in configuration files
or on the command line. If a username has been specified (with
--smtp-user or a sendemail.smtpuser), but no password has been
specified (with --smtp-pass or sendemail.smtppass), then the user
is prompted for a password while the input is masked for privacy.
If set, specifies the outgoing SMTP server to use (e.g.
smtp.example.com or a raw IP address). Alternatively it can specify
a full pathname of a sendmail-like program instead; the program
must support the -i option. Default value can be specified by the
sendemail.smtpserver configuration option; the built-in default is
/usr/sbin/sendmail or /usr/lib/sendmail if such program is
available, or localhost otherwise.
Specifies a port different from the default port (SMTP servers
typically listen to smtp port 25, but may also listen to submission
port 587, or the common SSL smtp port 465); symbolic port names
(e.g. "submission" instead of 587) are also accepted. The port can
also be set with the sendemail.smtpserverport configuration
If set, specifies the outgoing SMTP server option to use. Default
value can be specified by the sendemail.smtpserveroption
The --smtp-server-option option must be repeated for each option
you want to pass to the server. Likewise, different lines in the
configuration files must be used for each option.
Legacy alias for --smtp-encryption ssl.
Username for SMTP-AUTH. Default is the value of sendemail.smtpuser;
if a username is not specified (with --smtp-user or
sendemail.smtpuser), then authentication is not attempted.
If this is set, each email will be sent as a reply to the previous
email sent. If disabled with "--no-chain-reply-to", all emails
after the first will be sent as replies to the first email sent.
When using this, it is recommended that the first file given be an
overview of the entire patch series. Disabled by default, but the
sendemail.chainreplyto configuration variable can be used to enable
A configuration identity. When given, causes values in the
sendemail.<identity> subsection to take precedence over values in
the sendemail section. The default identity is the value of
If this is set, add emails found in Signed-off-by: or Cc: lines to
the cc list. Default is the value of sendemail.signedoffbycc
configuration value; if that is unspecified, default to
Specify an additional category of recipients to suppress the
? author will avoid including the patch author
? self will avoid including the sender
? cc will avoid including anyone mentioned in Cc lines in the
patch header except for self (use self for that).
? bodycc will avoid including anyone mentioned in Cc lines in
the patch body (commit message) except for self (use self for
? sob will avoid including anyone mentioned in Signed-off-by
lines except for self (use self for that).
? cccmd will avoid running the --cc-cmd.
? body is equivalent to sob + bodycc
? all will suppress all auto cc values.
Default is the value of sendemail.suppresscc configuration value;
if that is unspecified, default to self if --suppress-from is
specified, as well as body if --no-signed-off-cc is specified.
If this is set, do not add the From: address to the cc: list.
Default is the value of sendemail.suppressfrom configuration value;
exists when git send-email is asked to add it (especially note that
git format-patch can be configured to do the threading itself).
Failure to do so may not produce the expected result in the
Confirm just before sending:
? always will always confirm before sending
? never will never confirm before sending
? cc will confirm before sending when send-email has
automatically added addresses from the patch to the Cc list
? compose will confirm before sending the first message when
? auto is equivalent to cc + compose
Default is the value of sendemail.confirm configuration value; if
that is unspecified, default to auto unless any of the suppress
options have been specified, in which case default to compose.
Do everything except actually send the emails.
When an argument may be understood either as a reference or as a
file name, choose to understand it as a format-patch argument
(--format-patch) or as a file name (--no-format-patch). By default,
when such a conflict occurs, git send-email will fail.
Make git-send-email less verbose. One line per email should be all
that is output.
Perform sanity checks on patches. Currently, validation means the
? Warn of patches that contain lines longer than 998 characters;
this is due to SMTP limits as described by
Default is the value of sendemail.validate; if this is not set,
default to --validate.
Send emails even if safety checks would prevent it.
Sets the default for whether to confirm before sending. Must be one
of always, never, cc, compose, or auto. See --confirm in the
previous section for the meaning of these values.
Use gmail as the smtp server
To use git send-email to send your patches through the GMail SMTP
server, edit ~/.gitconfig to specify your account settings:
smtpencryption = tls
smtpserver = smtp.gmail.com
smtpuser = firstname.lastname@example.org
smtpserverport = 587
Once your commits are ready to be sent to the mailing list, run the
$ git format-patch --cover-letter -M origin/master -o outgoing/
$ edit outgoing/0000-*
$ git send-email outgoing/*
Note: the following perl modules are required Net::SMTP::SSL,
MIME::Base64 and Authen::SASL
git-format-patch(1), git-imap-send(1), mbox(5)
Part of the git(1) suite
Git 18.104.22.168 04/11/2012 GIT-SEND-EMAIL(1)