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           git reset [--mixed | --soft | --hard | --merge | --keep] [-q] [<commit>]
           git reset [-q] [<commit>] [--] <paths>...
           git reset --patch [<commit>] [--] [<paths>...]


           Sets the current head to the specified commit and optionally resets the
           index and working tree to match.
           This command is useful if you notice some small error in a recent
           commit (or set of commits) and want to redo that part without showing
           the undo in the history.
           If you want to undo a commit other than the latest on a branch, git-
           revert(1) is your friend.
           The second and third forms with paths and/or --patch are used to revert
           selected paths in the index from a given commit, without moving HEAD.


               Resets the index but not the working tree (i.e., the changed files
               are preserved but not marked for commit) and reports what has not
               been updated. This is the default action.
               Does not touch the index file nor the working tree at all, but
               requires them to be in a good order. This leaves all your changed
               files "Changes to be committed", as git status would put it.
               Matches the working tree and index to that of the tree being
               switched to. Any changes to tracked files in the working tree since
               <commit> are lost.
               Resets the index to match the tree recorded by the named commit,
               and updates the files that are different between the named commit
               and the current commit in the working tree.
               Reset the index to the given commit, keeping local changes in the
               working tree since the current commit, while updating working tree
               files without local changes to what appears in the given commit. If
               a file that is different between the current commit and the given
               commit has local changes, reset is aborted.
           -p, --patch
               Interactively select hunks in the difference between the index and
               <commit> (defaults to HEAD). The chosen hunks are applied in
               reverse to the index.
           to reset the HEAD to another commit (target) with the different reset
           options depending on the state of the files.
           In these tables, A, B, C and D are some different states of a file. For
           example, the first line of the first table means that if a file is in
           state A in the working tree, in state B in the index, in state C in
           HEAD and in state D in the target, then "git reset --soft target" will
           put the file in state A in the working tree, in state B in the index
           and in state D in HEAD.
               working index HEAD target         working index HEAD
                A       B     C    D     --soft   A       B     D
                                         --mixed  A       D     D
                                         --hard   D       D     D
                                         --merge (disallowed)
                                         --keep  (disallowed)
               working index HEAD target         working index HEAD
                A       B     C    C     --soft   A       B     C
                                         --mixed  A       C     C
                                         --hard   C       C     C
                                         --merge (disallowed)
                                         --keep   A       C     C
               working index HEAD target         working index HEAD
                B       B     C    D     --soft   B       B     D
                                         --mixed  B       D     D
                                         --hard   D       D     D
                                         --merge  D       D     D
                                         --keep  (disallowed)
               working index HEAD target         working index HEAD
                B       B     C    C     --soft   B       B     C
                                         --mixed  B       C     C
                                         --hard   C       C     C
                                         --merge  C       C     C
                                         --keep   B       C     C
               working index HEAD target         working index HEAD
                B       C     C    D     --soft   B       C     D
                                         --mixed  B       D     D
                                         --hard   D       D     D
                                         --merge (disallowed)
                                         --keep  (disallowed)
           out from a state that a mergy operation left after failing with a
           conflict. That is why we disallow --merge option in this case.
           "reset --keep" is meant to be used when removing some of the last
           commits in the current branch while keeping changes in the working
           tree. If there could be conflicts between the changes in the commit we
           want to remove and the changes in the working tree we want to keep, the
           reset is disallowed. That's why it is disallowed if there are both
           changes between the working tree and HEAD, and between HEAD and the
           target. To be safe, it is also disallowed when there are unmerged
           The following tables show what happens when there are unmerged entries:
               working index HEAD target         working index HEAD
                X       U     A    B     --soft  (disallowed)
                                         --mixed  X       B     B
                                         --hard   B       B     B
                                         --merge  B       B     B
                                         --keep  (disallowed)
               working index HEAD target         working index HEAD
                X       U     A    A     --soft  (disallowed)
                                         --mixed  X       A     A
                                         --hard   A       A     A
                                         --merge  A       A     A
                                         --keep  (disallowed)
           X means any state and U means an unmerged index.


           Undo a commit and redo
                   $ git commit ...
                   $ git reset --soft HEAD^      (1)
                   $ edit                        (2)
                   $ git commit -a -c ORIG_HEAD  (3)
               1. This is most often done when you remembered what you just
               committed is incomplete, or you misspelled your commit message, or
               both. Leaves working tree as it was before "reset".
               2. Make corrections to working tree files.
               3. "reset" copies the old head to .git/ORIG_HEAD; redo the commit
               by starting with its log message. If you do not need to edit the
               message further, you can give -C option instead.
               See also the --amend option to git-commit(1).
           Undo commits permanently
               1. You have made some commits, but realize they were premature to
               be in the "master" branch. You want to continue polishing them in a
               topic branch, so create "topic/wip" branch off of the current HEAD.
               2. Rewind the master branch to get rid of those three commits.
               3. Switch to "topic/wip" branch and keep working.
           Undo add
                   $ edit                                     (1)
                   $ git add frotz.c filfre.c
                   $ mailx                                    (2)
                   $ git reset                                (3)
                   $ git pull git:// nitfol  (4)
               1. You are happily working on something, and find the changes in
               these files are in good order. You do not want to see them when you
               run "git diff", because you plan to work on other files and changes
               with these files are distracting.
               2. Somebody asks you to pull, and the changes sounds worthy of
               3. However, you already dirtied the index (i.e. your index does not
               match the HEAD commit). But you know the pull you are going to make
               does not affect frotz.c nor filfre.c, so you revert the index
               changes for these two files. Your changes in working tree remain
               4. Then you can pull and merge, leaving frotz.c and filfre.c
               changes still in the working tree.
           Undo a merge or pull
                   $ git pull                         (1)
                   Auto-merging nitfol
                   CONFLICT (content): Merge conflict in nitfol
                   Automatic merge failed; fix conflicts and then commit the result.
                   $ git reset --hard                 (2)
                   $ git pull . topic/branch          (3)
                   Updating from 41223... to 13134...
                   $ git reset --hard ORIG_HEAD       (4)
               1. Try to update from the upstream resulted in a lot of conflicts;
               you were not ready to spend a lot of time merging right now, so you
               decide to do that later.
               2. "pull" has not made merge commit, so "git reset --hard" which is
               a synonym for "git reset --hard HEAD" clears the mess from the
               index file and the working tree.
               3. Merge a topic branch into the current branch, which resulted in
               a fast-forward.
               4. But you decided that the topic branch is not ready for public
               consumption yet. "pull" or "merge" always leaves the original tip
               of the current branch in ORIG_HEAD, so resetting hard to it brings
               other branch does not overlap with them.
               2. After inspecting the result of the merge, you may find that the
               change in the other branch is unsatisfactory. Running "git reset
               --hard ORIG_HEAD" will let you go back to where you were, but it
               will discard your local changes, which you do not want. "git reset
               --merge" keeps your local changes.
           Interrupted workflow
               Suppose you are interrupted by an urgent fix request while you are
               in the middle of a large change. The files in your working tree are
               not in any shape to be committed yet, but you need to get to the
               other branch for a quick bugfix.
                   $ git checkout feature ;# you were working in "feature" branch and
                   $ work work work       ;# got interrupted
                   $ git commit -a -m "snapshot WIP"                 (1)
                   $ git checkout master
                   $ fix fix fix
                   $ git commit ;# commit with real log
                   $ git checkout feature
                   $ git reset --soft HEAD^ ;# go back to WIP state  (2)
                   $ git reset                                       (3)
               1. This commit will get blown away so a throw-away log message is
               2. This removes the WIP commit from the commit history, and sets
               your working tree to the state just before you made that snapshot.
               3. At this point the index file still has all the WIP changes you
               committed as snapshot WIP. This updates the index to show your WIP
               files as uncommitted.
               See also git-stash(1).
           Reset a single file in the index
               Suppose you have added a file to your index, but later decide you
               do not want to add it to your commit. You can remove the file from
               the index while keeping your changes with git reset.
                   $ git reset -- frotz.c                      (1)
                   $ git commit -m "Commit files in index"     (2)
                   $ git add frotz.c                           (3)
               1. This removes the file from the index while keeping it in the
               working directory.
               2. This commits all other changes in the index.
               3. Adds the file to the index again.
           Keep changes in working tree while discarding some previous commits
               Suppose you are working on something and you commit it, and then
               you continue working a bit more, but now you think that what you
               have in your working tree should be in another branch that has
               nothing to do with what you commited previously. You can start a
               switched to branch2 (i.e. "git checkout -b branch2 start"), but
               nobody is perfect.
               3. But you can use "reset --keep" to remove the unwanted commit
               after you switched to "branch2".


           Written by Junio C Hamano <[1]> and Linus Torvalds


           Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list


           Part of the git(1) suite



    Git 1.7.1 03/04/2013 GIT-RESET(1)


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