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    Command:

    git-push

    
    
    

    SYNOPSIS

           git push [--all | --mirror | --tags] [-n | --dry-run] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
                      [--repo=<repository>] [-f | --force] [-v | --verbose] [-u | --set-upstream]
                      [<repository> [<refspec>...]]
    
    
    

    DESCRIPTION

           Updates remote refs using local refs, while sending objects necessary
           to complete the given refs.
    
           You can make interesting things happen to a repository every time you
           push into it, by setting up hooks there. See documentation for git-
           receive-pack(1).
    
    
    

    OPTIONS

           <repository>
               The "remote" repository that is destination of a push operation.
               This parameter can be either a URL (see the section GIT URLS below)
               or the name of a remote (see the section REMOTES below).
    
           <refspec>...
               The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus +, followed
               by the source ref <src>, followed by a colon :, followed by the
               destination ref <dst>. It is used to specify with what <src> object
               the <dst> ref in the remote repository is to be updated.
    
               The <src> is often the name of the branch you would want to push,
               but it can be any arbitrary "SHA-1 expression", such as master~4 or
               HEAD (see git-rev-parse(1)).
    
               The <dst> tells which ref on the remote side is updated with this
               push. Arbitrary expressions cannot be used here, an actual ref must
               be named. If :<dst> is omitted, the same ref as <src> will be
               updated.
    
               The object referenced by <src> is used to update the <dst>
               reference on the remote side, but by default this is only allowed
               if the update can fast-forward <dst>. By having the optional
               leading +, you can tell git to update the <dst> ref even when the
               update is not a fast-forward. This does not attempt to merge <src>
               into <dst>. See EXAMPLES below for details.
    
               tag <tag> means the same as refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>.
    
               Pushing an empty <src> allows you to delete the <dst> ref from the
               remote repository.
    
               The special refspec : (or +: to allow non-fast-forward updates)
               directs git to push "matching" branches: for every branch that
               exists on the local side, the remote side is updated if a branch of
               the same name already exists on the remote side. This is the
               default operation mode if no explicit refspec is found (that is
               default if the configuration option remote.<remote>.mirror is set.
    
           -n, --dry-run
               Do everything except actually send the updates.
    
           --porcelain
               Produce machine-readable output. The output status line for each
               ref will be tab-separated and sent to stdout instead of stderr. The
               full symbolic names of the refs will be given.
    
           --delete
               All listed refs are deleted from the remote repository. This is the
               same as prefixing all refs with a colon.
    
           --tags
               All refs under refs/tags are pushed, in addition to refspecs
               explicitly listed on the command line.
    
           --receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>, --exec=<git-receive-pack>
               Path to the git-receive-pack program on the remote end. Sometimes
               useful when pushing to a remote repository over ssh, and you do not
               have the program in a directory on the default $PATH.
    
           -f, --force
               Usually, the command refuses to update a remote ref that is not an
               ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it. This flag disables
               the check. This can cause the remote repository to lose commits;
               use it with care.
    
           --repo=<repository>
               This option is only relevant if no <repository> argument is passed
               in the invocation. In this case, git push derives the remote name
               from the current branch: If it tracks a remote branch, then that
               remote repository is pushed to. Otherwise, the name "origin" is
               used. For this latter case, this option can be used to override the
               name "origin". In other words, the difference between these two
               commands
    
                   git push public         #1
                   git push --repo=public  #2
    
               is that #1 always pushes to "public" whereas #2 pushes to "public"
               only if the current branch does not track a remote branch. This is
               useful if you write an alias or script around git push.
    
           -u, --set-upstream
               For every branch that is up to date or successfully pushed, add
               upstream (tracking) reference, used by argument-less git-pull(1)
               and other commands. For more information, see branch.<name>.merge
               in git-config(1).
    
           --thin, --no-thin
               Progress status is reported on the standard error stream by default
               when it is attached to a terminal, unless -q is specified. This
               flag forces progress status even if the standard error stream is
               not directed to a terminal.
    
    
    

    GIT URLS

           In general, URLs contain information about the transport protocol, the
           address of the remote server, and the path to the repository. Depending
           on the transport protocol, some of this information may be absent.
    
           Git natively supports ssh, git, http, https, ftp, ftps, and rsync
           protocols. The following syntaxes may be used with them:
    
           ?   ssh://[user@]host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/
    
           ?   git://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/
    
           ?   http[s]://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/
    
           ?   ftp[s]://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/
    
           ?   rsync://host.xz/path/to/repo.git/
    
           An alternative scp-like syntax may also be used with the ssh protocol:
    
           ?   [user@]host.xz:path/to/repo.git/
    
           The ssh and git protocols additionally support ~username expansion:
    
           ?   ssh://[user@]host.xz[:port]/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/
    
           ?   git://host.xz[:port]/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/
    
           ?   [user@]host.xz:/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/
    
           For local respositories, also supported by git natively, the following
           syntaxes may be used:
    
           ?   /path/to/repo.git/
    
           ?    file:///path/to/repo.git/
    
           These two syntaxes are mostly equivalent, except when cloning, when the
           former implies --local option. See git-clone(1) for details.
    
           When git doesn't know how to handle a certain transport protocol, it
           attempts to use the remote-<transport> remote helper, if one exists. To
           explicitly request a remote helper, the following syntax may be used:
    
           ?   <transport>::<address>
    
           where <address> may be a path, a server and path, or an arbitrary
                       [url "git://git.host.xz/"]
                               insteadOf = host.xz:/path/to/
                               insteadOf = work:
    
           a URL like "work:repo.git" or like "host.xz:/path/to/repo.git" will be
           rewritten in any context that takes a URL to be
           "git://git.host.xz/repo.git".
    
           If you want to rewrite URLs for push only, you can create a
           configuration section of the form:
    
                       [url "<actual url base>"]
                               pushInsteadOf = <other url base>
    
           For example, with this:
    
                       [url "ssh://example.org/"]
                               pushInsteadOf = git://example.org/
    
           a URL like "git://example.org/path/to/repo.git" will be rewritten to
           "ssh://example.org/path/to/repo.git" for pushes, but pulls will still
           use the original URL.
    
    
    

    REMOTES

           The name of one of the following can be used instead of a URL as
           <repository> argument:
    
           ?   a remote in the git configuration file: $GIT_DIR/config,
    
           ?   a file in the $GIT_DIR/remotes directory, or
    
           ?   a file in the $GIT_DIR/branches directory.
    
           All of these also allow you to omit the refspec from the command line
           because they each contain a refspec which git will use by default.
    
       Named remote in configuration file
           You can choose to provide the name of a remote which you had previously
           configured using git-remote(1), git-config(1) or even by a manual edit
           to the $GIT_DIR/config file. The URL of this remote will be used to
           access the repository. The refspec of this remote will be used by
           default when you do not provide a refspec on the command line. The
           entry in the config file would appear like this:
    
                       [remote "<name>"]
                               url = <url>
                               pushurl = <pushurl>
                               push = <refspec>
                               fetch = <refspec>
    
           Push: lines are used by git push and Pull: lines are used by git pull
           and git fetch. Multiple Push: and Pull: lines may be specified for
           additional branch mappings.
    
       Named file in $GIT_DIR/branches
           You can choose to provide the name of a file in $GIT_DIR/branches. The
           URL in this file will be used to access the repository. This file
           should have the following format:
    
                       <url>#<head>
    
           <url> is required; #<head> is optional.
    
           Depending on the operation, git will use one of the following refspecs,
           if you don't provide one on the command line. <branch> is the name of
           this file in $GIT_DIR/branches and <head> defaults to master.
    
           git fetch uses:
    
                       refs/heads/<head>:refs/heads/<branch>
    
           git push uses:
    
                       HEAD:refs/heads/<head>
    
    
    

    OUTPUT

           The output of "git push" depends on the transport method used; this
           section describes the output when pushing over the git protocol (either
           locally or via ssh).
    
           The status of the push is output in tabular form, with each line
           representing the status of a single ref. Each line is of the form:
    
                <flag> <summary> <from> -> <to> (<reason>)
    
           If --porcelain is used, then each line of the output is of the form:
    
                <flag> \t <from>:<to> \t <summary> (<reason>)
    
           The status of up-to-date refs is shown only if --porcelain or --verbose
           option is used.
    
           flag
               A single character indicating the status of the ref:
    
    
               =
                   for a ref that was up to date and did not need pushing.
    
           summary
               For a successfully pushed ref, the summary shows the old and new
               values of the ref in a form suitable for using as an argument to
               git log (this is <old>..<new> in most cases, and <old>...<new> for
               forced non-fast-forward updates). For a failed update, more details
               are given for the failure. The string rejected indicates that git
               did not try to send the ref at all (typically because it is not a
               fast-forward). The string remote rejected indicates that the remote
               end refused the update; this rejection is typically caused by a
               hook on the remote side. The string remote failure indicates that
               the remote end did not report the successful update of the ref
               (perhaps because of a temporary error on the remote side, a break
               in the network connection, or other transient error).
    
           from
               The name of the local ref being pushed, minus its refs/<type>/
               prefix. In the case of deletion, the name of the local ref is
               omitted.
    
           to
               The name of the remote ref being updated, minus its refs/<type>/
               prefix.
    
           reason
               A human-readable explanation. In the case of successfully pushed
               refs, no explanation is needed. For a failed ref, the reason for
               failure is described.
    
    
    

    NOTE ABOUT FAST-FORWARDS

           When an update changes a branch (or more in general, a ref) that used
           to point at commit A to point at another commit B, it is called a
           fast-forward update if and only if B is a descendant of A.
    
           In a fast-forward update from A to B, the set of commits that the
           original commit A built on top of is a subset of the commits the new
           commit B builds on top of. Hence, it does not lose any history.
    
           In contrast, a non-fast-forward update will lose history. For example,
           suppose you and somebody else started at the same commit X, and you
           built a history leading to commit B while the other person built a
           history leading to commit A. The history looks like this:
    
                     B
                    /
                ---X---A
    
           Further suppose that the other person already pushed changes leading to
           If you do not want to lose your work (history from X to B) nor the work
           by the other person (history from X to A), you would need to first
           fetch the history from the repository, create a history that contains
           changes done by both parties, and push the result back.
    
           You can perform "git pull", resolve potential conflicts, and "git push"
           the result. A "git pull" will create a merge commit C between commits A
           and B.
    
                     B---C
                    /   /
                ---X---A
    
           Updating A with the resulting merge commit will fast-forward and your
           push will be accepted.
    
           Alternatively, you can rebase your change between X and B on top of A,
           with "git pull --rebase", and push the result back. The rebase will
           create a new commit D that builds the change between X and B on top of
           A.
    
                     B   D
                    /   /
                ---X---A
    
           Again, updating A with this commit will fast-forward and your push will
           be accepted.
    
           There is another common situation where you may encounter
           non-fast-forward rejection when you try to push, and it is possible
           even when you are pushing into a repository nobody else pushes into.
           After you push commit A yourself (in the first picture in this
           section), replace it with "git commit --amend" to produce commit B, and
           you try to push it out, because forgot that you have pushed A out
           already. In such a case, and only if you are certain that nobody in the
           meantime fetched your earlier commit A (and started building on top of
           it), you can run "git push --force" to overwrite it. In other words,
           "git push --force" is a method reserved for a case where you do mean to
           lose history.
    
    
    

    EXAMPLES

           git push
               Works like git push <remote>, where <remote> is the current
               branch's remote (or origin, if no remote is configured for the
               current branch).
    
           git push origin
               Without additional configuration, works like git push origin :.
    
               The default behavior of this command when no <refspec> is given can
               (e.g.  refs/heads/master) in origin repository with it. If master
               did not exist remotely, it would be created.
    
           git push origin HEAD
               A handy way to push the current branch to the same name on the
               remote.
    
           git push origin master:satellite/master dev:satellite/dev
               Use the source ref that matches master (e.g.  refs/heads/master) to
               update the ref that matches satellite/master (most probably
               refs/remotes/satellite/master) in the origin repository, then do
               the same for dev and satellite/dev.
    
           git push origin HEAD:master
               Push the current branch to the remote ref matching master in the
               origin repository. This form is convenient to push the current
               branch without thinking about its local name.
    
           git push origin master:refs/heads/experimental
               Create the branch experimental in the origin repository by copying
               the current master branch. This form is only needed to create a new
               branch or tag in the remote repository when the local name and the
               remote name are different; otherwise, the ref name on its own will
               work.
    
           git push origin :experimental
               Find a ref that matches experimental in the origin repository (e.g.
               refs/heads/experimental), and delete it.
    
           git push origin +dev:master
               Update the origin repository's master branch with the dev branch,
               allowing non-fast-forward updates.  This can leave unreferenced
               commits dangling in the origin repository.  Consider the following
               situation, where a fast-forward is not possible:
    
                               o---o---o---A---B  origin/master
                                        \
                                         X---Y---Z  dev
    
               The above command would change the origin repository to
    
                                         A---B  (unnamed branch)
                                        /
                               o---o---o---X---Y---Z  master
    
               Commits A and B would no longer belong to a branch with a symbolic
               name, and so would be unreachable. As such, these commits would be
               removed by a git gc command on the origin repository.
    
    
    

    AUTHOR

           Written by Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com[1]>, later rewritten in C
           by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org[2]>
    
            3. git@vger.kernel.org
               mailto:git@vger.kernel.org
    
    
    

    Git 1.7.1 03/04/2013 GIT-PUSH(1)

    
    
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