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           git log [<options>] [<since>..<until>] [[--] <path>...]


           Shows the commit logs.
           The command takes options applicable to the git rev-list command to
           control what is shown and how, and options applicable to the git diff-*
           commands to control how the changes each commit introduces are shown.


           -p, -u
               Generate patch (see section on generating patches).
           -U<n>, --unified=<n>
               Generate diffs with <n> lines of context instead of the usual
               three. Implies -p.
               Generate the raw format.
               Synonym for -p --raw.
               Generate a diff using the "patience diff" algorithm.
               Generate a diffstat. You can override the default output width for
               80-column terminal by --stat=width. The width of the filename part
               can be controlled by giving another width to it separated by a
               Similar to --stat, but shows number of added and deleted lines in
               decimal notation and pathname without abbreviation, to make it more
               machine friendly. For binary files, outputs two - instead of saying
               0 0.
               Output only the last line of the --stat format containing total
               number of modified files, as well as number of added and deleted
               Output the distribution of relative amount of changes (number of
               lines added or removed) for each sub-directory. Directories with
               changes below a cut-off percent (3% by default) are not shown. The
               cut-off percent can be set with --dirstat=limit. Changes in a child
               directory is not counted for the parent directory, unless
               --cumulative is used.
               pathnames and use NULs as output field terminators.
               Without this option, each pathname output will have TAB, LF, double
               quotes, and backslash characters replaced with \t, \n, \", and \\,
               respectively, and the pathname will be enclosed in double quotes if
               any of those replacements occurred.
               Show only names of changed files.
               Show only names and status of changed files. See the description of
               the --diff-filter option on what the status letters mean.
               Chose the output format for submodule differences. <format> can be
               one of short and log.  short just shows pairs of commit names, this
               format is used when this option is not given.  log is the default
               value for this option and lists the commits in that commit range
               like the summary option of git-submodule(1) does.
               Show colored diff. The value must be always (the default), never,
               or auto.
               Turn off colored diff, even when the configuration file gives the
               default to color output. Same as --color=never.
               Show colored word diff, i.e., color words which have changed. By
               default, words are separated by whitespace.
               When a <regex> is specified, every non-overlapping match of the
               <regex> is considered a word. Anything between these matches is
               considered whitespace and ignored(!) for the purposes of finding
               differences. You may want to append |[^[:space:]] to your regular
               expression to make sure that it matches all non-whitespace
               characters. A match that contains a newline is silently
               truncated(!) at the newline.
               The regex can also be set via a diff driver or configuration
               option, see gitattributes(1) or git-config(1). Giving it explicitly
               overrides any diff driver or configuration setting. Diff drivers
               override configuration settings.
               Turn off rename detection, even when the configuration file gives
               the default to do so.
               Warn if changes introduce trailing whitespace or an indent that
               diff-raw format output and diff-tree header lines, show only a
               partial prefix. This is independent of the --full-index option
               above, which controls the diff-patch output format. Non default
               number of digits can be specified with --abbrev=<n>.
               Break complete rewrite changes into pairs of delete and create.
               Detect renames.
               Detect copies as well as renames. See also --find-copies-harder.
               Select only files that are Added (A), Copied (C), Deleted (D),
               Modified (M), Renamed (R), have their type (i.e. regular file,
               symlink, submodule, ...) changed (T), are Unmerged (U), are Unknown
               (X), or have had their pairing Broken (B). Any combination of the
               filter characters may be used. When * (All-or-none) is added to the
               combination, all paths are selected if there is any file that
               matches other criteria in the comparison; if there is no file that
               matches other criteria, nothing is selected.
               For performance reasons, by default, -C option finds copies only if
               the original file of the copy was modified in the same changeset.
               This flag makes the command inspect unmodified files as candidates
               for the source of copy. This is a very expensive operation for
               large projects, so use it with caution. Giving more than one -C
               option has the same effect.
               The -M and -C options require O(n^2) processing time where n is the
               number of potential rename/copy targets. This option prevents
               rename/copy detection from running if the number of rename/copy
               targets exceeds the specified number.
               Look for differences that introduce or remove an instance of
               <string>. Note that this is different than the string simply
               appearing in diff output; see the pickaxe entry in gitdiffcore(7)
               for more details.
               When -S finds a change, show all the changes in that changeset, not
               just the files that contain the change in <string>.
               Make the <string> not a plain string but an extended POSIX regex to
           -a, --text
               Treat all files as text.
               Ignore changes in whitespace at EOL.
           -b, --ignore-space-change
               Ignore changes in amount of whitespace. This ignores whitespace at
               line end, and considers all other sequences of one or more
               whitespace characters to be equivalent.
           -w, --ignore-all-space
               Ignore whitespace when comparing lines. This ignores differences
               even if one line has whitespace where the other line has none.
               Show the context between diff hunks, up to the specified number of
               lines, thereby fusing hunks that are close to each other.
               Make the program exit with codes similar to diff(1). That is, it
               exits with 1 if there were differences and 0 means no differences.
               Disable all output of the program. Implies --exit-code.
               Allow an external diff helper to be executed. If you set an
               external diff driver with gitattributes(5), you need to use this
               option with git-log(1) and friends.
               Disallow external diff drivers.
               Ignore changes to submodules in the diff generation.
               Show the given source prefix instead of "a/".
               Show the given destination prefix instead of "b/".
               Do not show any source or destination prefix.
           For more detailed explanation on these common options, see also
               Limits the number of commits to show.
               Print out the ref name given on the command line by which each
               commit was reached.
               Without this flag, "git log -p <path>..." shows commits that touch
               the specified paths, and diffs about the same specified paths. With
               this, the full diff is shown for commits that touch the specified
               paths; this means that "<path>..." limits only commits, and doesn't
               limit diff for those commits.
               Continue listing the history of a file beyond renames.
               Before the log message print out its size in bytes. Intended mainly
               for porcelain tools consumption. If git is unable to produce a
               valid value size is set to zero. Note that only message is
               considered, if also a diff is shown its size is not included.
           [--] <path>...
               Show only commits that affect any of the specified paths. To
               prevent confusion with options and branch names, paths may need to
               be prefixed with "-- " to separate them from options or refnames.
       Commit Formatting
           --pretty[=<format>], --format[=<format>]
               Pretty-print the contents of the commit logs in a given format,
               where <format> can be one of oneline, short, medium, full, fuller,
               email, raw and format:<string>. When omitted, the format defaults
               to medium.
               Note: you can specify the default pretty format in the repository
               configuration (see git-config(1)).
               Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name,
               show only a partial prefix. Non default number of digits can be
               specified with "--abbrev=<n>" (which also modifies diff output, if
               it is displayed).
               This should make "--pretty=oneline" a whole lot more readable for
               people using 80-column terminals.
               This is a shorthand for "--pretty=oneline --abbrev-commit" used
               The commit objects record the encoding used for the log message in
               their encoding header; this option can be used to tell the command
               core.notesRef and notes.displayRef variables (or corresponding
               environment overrides). Enabled by default. See git-config(1).
               Synonym for --date=relative.
               Only takes effect for dates shown in human-readable format, such as
               when using "--pretty". config variable sets a default
               value for log command's --date option.
               --date=relative shows dates relative to the current time, e.g. "2
               hours ago".
               --date=local shows timestamps in user's local timezone.
               --date=iso (or --date=iso8601) shows timestamps in ISO 8601 format.
               --date=rfc (or --date=rfc2822) shows timestamps in RFC 2822 format,
               often found in E-mail messages.
               --date=short shows only date but not time, in YYYY-MM-DD format.
               --date=raw shows the date in the internal raw git format %s %z
               --date=default shows timestamps in the original timezone (either
               committer's or author's).
               Print the parents of the commit. Also enables parent rewriting, see
               History Simplification below.
               Print the children of the commit. Also enables parent rewriting,
               see History Simplification below.
               Mark which side of a symmetric diff a commit is reachable from.
               Commits from the left side are prefixed with < and those from the
               right with >. If combined with --boundary, those commits are
               prefixed with -.
               For example, if you have this topology:
                                y---b---b  branch B
                               / \ /
                              /   .
                             /   / \
                            o---x---a---a  branch A
               you would get an output like this:
               printed in between commits, in order for the graph history to be
               drawn properly.
               This implies the --topo-order option by default, but the
               --date-order option may also be specified.
       Diff Formatting
           Below are listed options that control the formatting of diff output.
           Some of them are specific to git-rev-list(1), however other diff
           options may be given. See git-diff-files(1) for more options.
               With this option, diff output for a merge commit shows the
               differences from each of the parents to the merge result
               simultaneously instead of showing pairwise diff between a parent
               and the result one at a time. Furthermore, it lists only files
               which were modified from all parents.
               This flag implies the -c options and further compresses the patch
               output by omitting uninteresting hunks whose contents in the
               parents have only two variants and the merge result picks one of
               them without modification.
               This flag makes the merge commits show the full diff like regular
               commits; for each merge parent, a separate log entry and diff is
               generated. An exception is that only diff against the first parent
               is shown when --first-parent option is given; in that case, the
               output represents the changes the merge brought into the
               then-current branch.
               Show recursive diffs.
               Show the tree objects in the diff output. This implies -r.
       Commit Limiting
           Besides specifying a range of commits that should be listed using the
           special notations explained in the description, additional commit
           limiting may be applied.
           -n number, --max-count=<number>
               Limit the number of commits output.
               Skip number commits before starting to show the commit output.
           --since=<date>, --after=<date>
               Show commits more recent than a specific date.
           -i, --regexp-ignore-case
               Match the regexp limiting patterns without regard to letters case.
           -E, --extended-regexp
               Consider the limiting patterns to be extended regular expressions
               instead of the default basic regular expressions.
           -F, --fixed-strings
               Consider the limiting patterns to be fixed strings (don't interpret
               pattern as a regular expression).
               Stop when a given path disappears from the tree.
               Print only merge commits.
               Do not print commits with more than one parent.
               Follow only the first parent commit upon seeing a merge commit.
               This option can give a better overview when viewing the evolution
               of a particular topic branch, because merges into a topic branch
               tend to be only about adjusting to updated upstream from time to
               time, and this option allows you to ignore the individual commits
               brought in to your history by such a merge.
               Reverses the meaning of the ^ prefix (or lack thereof) for all
               following revision specifiers, up to the next --not.
               Pretend as if all the refs in refs/ are listed on the command line
               as <commit>.
               Pretend as if all the refs in refs/heads are listed on the command
               line as <commit>. If pattern is given, limit branches to ones
               matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks ?, , or [, / at the end
               is implied.
               Pretend as if all the refs in refs/tags are listed on the command
               line as <commit>. If pattern is given, limit tags to ones matching
               given shell glob. If pattern lacks ?, , or [, / at the end is
               Pretend as if all the refs in refs/remotes are listed on the
               command line as <commit>. If 'pattern'is given, limit remote
               In addition to the <commit> listed on the command line, read them
               from the standard input. If a -- separator is seen, stop reading
               commits and start reading paths to limit the result.
               Omit any commit that introduces the same change as another commit
               on the "other side" when the set of commits are limited with
               symmetric difference.
               For example, if you have two branches, A and B, a usual way to list
               all commits on only one side of them is with --left-right, like the
               example above in the description of that option. It however shows
               the commits that were cherry-picked from the other branch (for
               example, "3rd on b" may be cherry-picked from branch A). With this
               option, such pairs of commits are excluded from the output.
           -g, --walk-reflogs
               Instead of walking the commit ancestry chain, walk reflog entries
               from the most recent one to older ones. When this option is used
               you cannot specify commits to exclude (that is, ^commit,
               commit1..commit2, nor commit1...commit2 notations cannot be used).
               With --pretty format other than oneline (for obvious reasons), this
               causes the output to have two extra lines of information taken from
               the reflog. By default, commit@{Nth} notation is used in the
               output. When the starting commit is specified as commit@{now},
               output also uses commit@{timestamp} notation instead. Under
               --pretty=oneline, the commit message is prefixed with this
               information on the same line. This option cannot be combined with
               --reverse. See also git-reflog(1).
               After a failed merge, show refs that touch files having a conflict
               and don't exist on all heads to merge.
               Output uninteresting commits at the boundary, which are usually not
       History Simplification
           Sometimes you are only interested in parts of the history, for example
           the commits modifying a particular <path>. But there are two parts of
           History Simplification, one part is selecting the commits and the other
           is how to do it, as there are various strategies to simplify the
           The following options select the commits to be shown:
               Commits modifying the given <paths> are selected.
               As the default mode but does not prune some history.
               Only the selected commits are shown, plus some to have a meaningful
               All commits in the simplified history are shown.
               Additional option to --full-history to remove some needless merges
               from the resulting history, as there are no selected commits
               contributing to this merge.
           A more detailed explanation follows.
           Suppose you specified foo as the <paths>. We shall call commits that
           modify foo !TREESAME, and the rest TREESAME. (In a diff filtered for
           foo, they look different and equal, respectively.)
           In the following, we will always refer to the same example history to
           illustrate the differences between simplification settings. We assume
           that you are filtering for a file foo in this commit graph:
                        /     /   /   /   /
                       I     B   C   D   E
                        \   /   /   /   /
           The horizontal line of history A--P is taken to be the first parent of
           each merge. The commits are:
           ?    I is the initial commit, in which foo exists with contents "asdf",
               and a file quux exists with contents "quux". Initial commits are
               compared to an empty tree, so I is !TREESAME.
           ?   In A, foo contains just "foo".
           ?    B contains the same change as A. Its merge M is trivial and hence
               TREESAME to all parents.
           ?    C does not change foo, but its merge N changes it to "foobar", so
               it is not TREESAME to any parent.
           ?    D sets foo to "baz". Its merge O combines the strings from N and D
               to "foobarbaz"; i.e., it is not TREESAME to any parent.
           ?    E changes quux to "xyzzy", and its merge P combines the strings to
               "quux xyzzy". Despite appearing interesting, P is TREESAME to all
                            /         /
               Note how the rule to only follow the TREESAME parent, if one is
               available, removed B from consideration entirely.  C was considered
               via N, but is TREESAME. Root commits are compared to an empty tree,
               so I is !TREESAME.
               Parent/child relations are only visible with --parents, but that
               does not affect the commits selected in default mode, so we have
               shown the parent lines.
           --full-history without parent rewriting
               This mode differs from the default in one point: always follow all
               parents of a merge, even if it is TREESAME to one of them. Even if
               more than one side of the merge has commits that are included, this
               does not imply that the merge itself is! In the example, we get
                           I  A  B  N  D  O
               P and M were excluded because they are TREESAME to a parent.  E, C
               and B were all walked, but only B was !TREESAME, so the others do
               not appear.
               Note that without parent rewriting, it is not really possible to
               talk about the parent/child relationships between the commits, so
               we show them disconnected.
           --full-history with parent rewriting
               Ordinary commits are only included if they are !TREESAME (though
               this can be changed, see --sparse below).
               Merges are always included. However, their parent list is
               rewritten: Along each parent, prune away commits that are not
               included themselves. This results in
                            /     /   /   /   /
                           I     B   /   D   /
                            \   /   /   /   /
               Compare to --full-history without rewriting above. Note that E was
               pruned away because it is TREESAME, but the parent list of P was
               rewritten to contain E?s parent I. The same happened for C and N.
               Note also that P was included despite being TREESAME.
           In addition to the above settings, you can change whether TREESAME
           affects inclusion:
               First, build a history graph in the same way that --full-history
               with parent rewriting does (see above).
               Then simplify each commit 'C' to its replacement C' in the final
               history according to the following rules:
               ?   Set 'C'' to C.
               ?   Replace each parent 'P' of C' with its simplification 'P''. In
                   the process, drop parents that are ancestors of other parents,
                   and remove duplicates.
               ?   If after this parent rewriting, 'C'' is a root or merge commit
                   (has zero or >1 parents), a boundary commit, or !TREESAME, it
                   remains. Otherwise, it is replaced with its only parent.
                   The effect of this is best shown by way of comparing to
                   --full-history with parent rewriting. The example turns into:
                                /     /       /
                               I     B       D
                                \   /       /
                   Note the major differences in N and P over --full-history:
                   ?    N?s parent list had I removed, because it is an ancestor
                       of the other parent M. Still, N remained because it is
                   ?    P?s parent list similarly had I removed.  P was then
                       removed completely, because it had one parent and is
               The --simplify-by-decoration option allows you to view only the big
               picture of the topology of the history, by omitting commits that
               are not referenced by tags. Commits are marked as !TREESAME (in
               other words, kept after history simplification rules described
               above) if (1) they are referenced by tags, or (2) they change the
               contents of the paths given on the command line. All other commits
               are marked as TREESAME (subject to be simplified away).
       Commit Ordering
           By default, the commits are shown in reverse chronological order.
               This option makes them appear in topological order (i.e. descendant
               commits are shown before their parents).
               This option is similar to --topo-order in the sense that no parent
               comes before all of its children, but otherwise things are still
               Similar to --objects, but also print the IDs of excluded commits
               prefixed with a "-" character. This is used by git-pack-objects(1)
               to build "thin" pack, which records objects in deltified form based
               on objects contained in these excluded commits to reduce network
               Only useful with --objects; print the object IDs that are not in
               Only show the given revs, but do not traverse their ancestors.
               Overrides a previous --no-walk.


           If the commit is a merge, and if the pretty-format is not oneline,
           email or raw, an additional line is inserted before the Author: line.
           This line begins with "Merge: " and the sha1s of ancestral commits are
           printed, separated by spaces. Note that the listed commits may not
           necessarily be the list of the direct parent commits if you have
           limited your view of history: for example, if you are only interested
           in changes related to a certain directory or file.
           Here are some additional details for each format:
           ?    oneline
                   <sha1> <title line>
               This is designed to be as compact as possible.
           ?    short
                   commit <sha1>
                   Author: <author>
                   <title line>
           ?    medium
                   commit <sha1>
                   Author: <author>
                   Date:   <author date>
                   <title line>
                   <full commit message>
                   AuthorDate: <author date>
                   Commit:     <committer>
                   CommitDate: <committer date>
                   <title line>
                   <full commit message>
           ?    email
                   From <sha1> <date>
                   From: <author>
                   Date: <author date>
                   Subject: [PATCH] <title line>
                   <full commit message>
           ?    raw
               The raw format shows the entire commit exactly as stored in the
               commit object. Notably, the SHA1s are displayed in full, regardless
               of whether --abbrev or --no-abbrev are used, and parents
               information show the true parent commits, without taking grafts nor
               history simplification into account.
           ?    format:
               The format: format allows you to specify which information you want
               to show. It works a little bit like printf format, with the notable
               exception that you get a newline with %n instead of \n.
               E.g, format:"The author of %h was %an, %ar%nThe title was >>%s<<%n"
               would show something like this:
                   The author of fe6e0ee was Junio C Hamano, 23 hours ago
                   The title was >>t4119: test autocomputing -p<n> for traditional diff input.<<
               The placeholders are:
               ?    %H: commit hash
               ?    %h: abbreviated commit hash
               ?    %T: tree hash
               ?    %t: abbreviated tree hash
               ?    %P: parent hashes
               ?    %p: abbreviated parent hashes
               ?    %an: author name
               ?    %at: author date, UNIX timestamp
               ?    %ai: author date, ISO 8601 format
               ?    %cn: committer name
               ?    %cN: committer name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1)
                   or git-blame(1))
               ?    %ce: committer email
               ?    %cE: committer email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1)
                   or git-blame(1))
               ?    %cd: committer date
               ?    %cD: committer date, RFC2822 style
               ?    %cr: committer date, relative
               ?    %ct: committer date, UNIX timestamp
               ?    %ci: committer date, ISO 8601 format
               ?    %d: ref names, like the --decorate option of git-log(1)
               ?    %e: encoding
               ?    %s: subject
               ?    %f: sanitized subject line, suitable for a filename
               ?    %b: body
               ?    %N: commit notes
               ?    %gD: reflog selector, e.g., refs/stash@{1}
               ?    %gd: shortened reflog selector, e.g., stash@{1}
               ?    %gs: reflog subject
               ?    %Cred: switch color to red
               ?    %Cgreen: switch color to green
               ?    %Cblue: switch color to blue
               ?    %Creset: reset color
               ?    %C(...): color specification, as described in color.branch.*
               Some placeholders may depend on other options given to the revision
               traversal engine. For example, the %g* reflog options will insert
               an empty string unless we are traversing reflog entries (e.g., by
               git log -g). The %d placeholder will use the "short" decoration
               format if --decorate was not already provided on the command line.
           If you add a + (plus sign) after % of a placeholder, a line-feed is
           inserted immediately before the expansion if and only if the
           placeholder expands to a non-empty string.
           If you add a - (minus sign) after % of a placeholder, line-feeds that
           immediately precede the expansion are deleted if and only if the
           placeholder expands to an empty string.
           ?    tformat:
               The tformat: format works exactly like format:, except that it
               provides "terminator" semantics instead of "separator" semantics.
               In other words, each commit has the message terminator character
               (usually a newline) appended, rather than a separator placed
               between entries. This means that the final entry of a single-line
               format will be properly terminated with a new line, just as the
               "oneline" format does. For example:
                   $ git log -2 --pretty=format:%h 4da45bef \
                     | perl -pe ?$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/?
                   7134973 -- NO NEWLINE
                   $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef \
                     | perl -pe ?$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/?
               In addition, any unrecognized string that has a % in it is
               interpreted as if it has tformat: in front of it. For example,
               these two are equivalent:
                   $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef
                   $ git log -2 --pretty=%h 4da45bef


           When "git-diff-index", "git-diff-tree", or "git-diff-files" are run
           with a -p option, "git diff" without the --raw option, or "git log"
           with the "-p" option, they do not produce the output described above;
           instead they produce a patch file. You can customize the creation of
           such patches via the GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF and the GIT_DIFF_OPTS
           environment variables.
           What the -p option produces is slightly different from the traditional
           diff format.
                   old mode <mode>
                   new mode <mode>
                   deleted file mode <mode>
                   new file mode <mode>
                   copy from <path>
                   copy to <path>
                   rename from <path>
                   rename to <path>
                   similarity index <number>
                   dissimilarity index <number>
                   index <hash>..<hash> <mode>
            3. TAB, LF, double quote and backslash characters in pathnames are
               represented as \t, \n, \" and \\, respectively. If there is need
               for such substitution then the whole pathname is put in double
           The similarity index is the percentage of unchanged lines, and the
           dissimilarity index is the percentage of changed lines. It is a rounded
           down integer, followed by a percent sign. The similarity index value of
           100% is thus reserved for two equal files, while 100% dissimilarity
           means that no line from the old file made it into the new one.


           "git-diff-tree", "git-diff-files" and "git-diff" can take -c or --cc
           option to produce combined diff. For showing a merge commit with "git
           log -p", this is the default format; you can force showing full diff
           with the -m option. A combined diff format looks like this:
               diff --combined describe.c
               index fabadb8,cc95eb0..4866510
               --- a/describe.c
               +++ b/describe.c
               @@@ -98,20 -98,12 +98,20 @@@
                       return (a_date > b_date) ? -1 : (a_date == b_date) ? 0 : 1;
               - static void describe(char *arg)
                -static void describe(struct commit *cmit, int last_one)
               ++static void describe(char *arg, int last_one)
                +      unsigned char sha1[20];
                +      struct commit *cmit;
                       struct commit_list *list;
                       static int initialized = 0;
                       struct commit_name *n;
                +      if (get_sha1(arg, sha1) < 0)
                +              usage(describe_usage);
                +      cmit = lookup_commit_reference(sha1);
                +      if (!cmit)
                   diff --cc file
            2. It is followed by one or more extended header lines (this example
               shows a merge with two parents):
                   index <hash>,<hash>..<hash>
                   mode <mode>,<mode>..<mode>
                   new file mode <mode>
                   deleted file mode <mode>,<mode>
               The mode <mode>,<mode>..<mode> line appears only if at least one of
               the <mode> is different from the rest. Extended headers with
               information about detected contents movement (renames and copying
               detection) are designed to work with diff of two <tree-ish> and are
               not used by combined diff format.
            3. It is followed by two-line from-file/to-file header
                   --- a/file
                   +++ b/file
               Similar to two-line header for traditional unified diff format,
               /dev/null is used to signal created or deleted files.
            4. Chunk header format is modified to prevent people from accidentally
               feeding it to patch -p1. Combined diff format was created for
               review of merge commit changes, and was not meant for apply. The
               change is similar to the change in the extended index header:
                   @@@ <from-file-range> <from-file-range> <to-file-range> @@@
               There are (number of parents + 1) @ characters in the chunk header
               for combined diff format.
           Unlike the traditional unified diff format, which shows two files A and
           B with a single column that has - (minus -- appears in A but removed in
           B), + (plus -- missing in A but added to B), or " " (space -- unchanged)
           prefix, this format compares two or more files file1, file2,... with
           one file X, and shows how X differs from each of fileN. One column for
           each of fileN is prepended to the output line to note how X's line is
           different from it.
           A - character in the column N means that the line appears in fileN but
           it does not appear in the result. A + character in the column N means
           that the line appears in the result, and fileN does not have that line
           (in other words, the line was added, from the point of view of that
           In the above example output, the function signature was changed from
           both files (hence two - removals from both file1 and file2, plus ++ to
           mean one line that was added does not appear in either file1 nor
               Show all commits since version v2.6.12 that changed any file in the
               include/scsi or drivers/scsi subdirectories
           git log --since="2 weeks ago" -- gitk
               Show the changes during the last two weeks to the file gitk. The
               "--" is necessary to avoid confusion with the branch named gitk
           git log --name-status release..test
               Show the commits that are in the "test" branch but not yet in the
               "release" branch, along with the list of paths each commit
           git log --follow builtin-rev-list.c
               Shows the commits that changed builtin-rev-list.c, including those
               commits that occurred before the file was given its present name.
           git log --branches --not --remotes=origin
               Shows all commits that are in any of local branches but not in any
               of remote tracking branches for origin (what you have that origin
           git log master --not --remotes=*/master
               Shows all commits that are in local master but not in any remote
               repository master branches.
           git log -p -m --first-parent
               Shows the history including change diffs, but only from the "main
               branch" perspective, skipping commits that come from merged
               branches, and showing full diffs of changes introduced by the
               merges. This makes sense only when following a strict policy of
               merging all topic branches when staying on a single integration


           At the core level, git is character encoding agnostic.
           ?   The pathnames recorded in the index and in the tree objects are
               treated as uninterpreted sequences of non-NUL bytes. What
               readdir(2) returns are what are recorded and compared with the data
               git keeps track of, which in turn are expected to be what lstat(2)
               and creat(2) accepts. There is no such thing as pathname encoding
           ?   The contents of the blob objects are uninterpreted sequences of
               bytes. There is no encoding translation at the core level.
           ?   The commit log messages are uninterpreted sequences of non-NUL
           Although we encourage that the commit log messages are encoded in
           UTF-8, both the core and git Porcelain are designed not to force UTF-8
           on projects. If all participants of a particular project find it more
               people who look at them later. Lack of this header implies that the
               commit log message is encoded in UTF-8.
            2.  git log, git show, git blame and friends look at the encoding
               header of a commit object, and try to re-code the log message into
               UTF-8 unless otherwise specified. You can specify the desired
               output encoding with i18n.logoutputencoding in .git/config file,
               like this:
                           logoutputencoding = ISO-8859-1
               If you do not have this configuration variable, the value of
               i18n.commitencoding is used instead.
           Note that we deliberately chose not to re-code the commit log message
           when a commit is made to force UTF-8 at the commit object level,
           because re-coding to UTF-8 is not necessarily a reversible operation.


           Written by Linus Torvalds <[1]>


           Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list


           Part of the git(1) suite



    Git 1.7.1 03/04/2013 GIT-LOG(1)


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