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           git filter-branch [--env-filter <command>] [--tree-filter <command>]
                   [--index-filter <command>] [--parent-filter <command>]
                   [--msg-filter <command>] [--commit-filter <command>]
                   [--tag-name-filter <command>] [--subdirectory-filter <directory>]
                   [--original <namespace>] [-d <directory>] [-f | --force]
                   [--] [<rev-list options>...]


           Lets you rewrite git revision history by rewriting the branches
           mentioned in the <rev-list options>, applying custom filters on each
           revision. Those filters can modify each tree (e.g. removing a file or
           running a perl rewrite on all files) or information about each commit.
           Otherwise, all information (including original commit times or merge
           information) will be preserved.
           The command will only rewrite the positive refs mentioned in the
           command line (e.g. if you pass a..b, only b will be rewritten). If you
           specify no filters, the commits will be recommitted without any
           changes, which would normally have no effect. Nevertheless, this may be
           useful in the future for compensating for some git bugs or such,
           therefore such a usage is permitted.
           NOTE: This command honors .git/info/grafts. If you have any grafts
           defined, running this command will make them permanent.
           WARNING! The rewritten history will have different object names for all
           the objects and will not converge with the original branch. You will
           not be able to easily push and distribute the rewritten branch on top
           of the original branch. Please do not use this command if you do not
           know the full implications, and avoid using it anyway, if a simple
           single commit would suffice to fix your problem. (See the "RECOVERING
           FROM UPSTREAM REBASE" section in git-rebase(1) for further information
           about rewriting published history.)
           Always verify that the rewritten version is correct: The original refs,
           if different from the rewritten ones, will be stored in the namespace
           Note that since this operation is very I/O expensive, it might be a
           good idea to redirect the temporary directory off-disk with the -d
           option, e.g. on tmpfs. Reportedly the speedup is very noticeable.
           The filters are applied in the order as listed below. The <command>
           argument is always evaluated in the shell context using the eval
           command (with the notable exception of the commit filter, for technical
           reasons). Prior to that, the $GIT_COMMIT environment variable will be
           set to contain the id of the commit being rewritten. Also,
               in which the commit will be performed. Specifically, you might want
               to rewrite the author/committer name/email/time environment
               variables (see git-commit(1) for details). Do not forget to
               re-export the variables.
           --tree-filter <command>
               This is the filter for rewriting the tree and its contents. The
               argument is evaluated in shell with the working directory set to
               the root of the checked out tree. The new tree is then used as-is
               (new files are auto-added, disappeared files are auto-removed -
               neither .gitignore files nor any other ignore rules HAVE ANY
           --index-filter <command>
               This is the filter for rewriting the index. It is similar to the
               tree filter but does not check out the tree, which makes it much
               faster. Frequently used with git rm --cached --ignore-unmatch ...,
               see EXAMPLES below. For hairy cases, see git-update-index(1).
           --parent-filter <command>
               This is the filter for rewriting the commit's parent list. It will
               receive the parent string on stdin and shall output the new parent
               string on stdout. The parent string is in the format described in
               git-commit-tree(1): empty for the initial commit, "-p parent" for a
               normal commit and "-p parent1 -p parent2 -p parent3 ..." for a
               merge commit.
           --msg-filter <command>
               This is the filter for rewriting the commit messages. The argument
               is evaluated in the shell with the original commit message on
               standard input; its standard output is used as the new commit
           --commit-filter <command>
               This is the filter for performing the commit. If this filter is
               specified, it will be called instead of the git commit-tree
               command, with arguments of the form "<TREE_ID> [-p
               <PARENT_COMMIT_ID>]..." and the log message on stdin. The commit id
               is expected on stdout.
               As a special extension, the commit filter may emit multiple commit
               ids; in that case, the rewritten children of the original commit
               will have all of them as parents.
               You can use the map convenience function in this filter, and other
               convenience functions, too. For example, calling skip_commit "$@"
               will leave out the current commit (but not its changes! If you want
               that, use git rebase instead).
               You can also use the git_commit_non_empty_tree "$@" instead of git
               commit-tree "$@" if you don't wish to keep commits with a single
               parent and that makes no change to the tree.
               a message attached, a new tag object will be created with the same
               message, author, and timestamp. If the tag has a signature
               attached, the signature will be stripped. It is by definition
               impossible to preserve signatures. The reason this is "nearly"
               proper, is because ideally if the tag did not change (points to the
               same object, has the same name, etc.) it should retain any
               signature. That is not the case, signatures will always be removed,
               buyer beware. There is also no support for changing the author or
               timestamp (or the tag message for that matter). Tags which point to
               other tags will be rewritten to point to the underlying commit.
           --subdirectory-filter <directory>
               Only look at the history which touches the given subdirectory. The
               result will contain that directory (and only that) as its project
               root. Implies --remap-to-ancestor.
               Rewrite refs to the nearest rewritten ancestor instead of ignoring
               Normally, positive refs on the command line are only changed if the
               commit they point to was rewritten. However, you can limit the
               extent of this rewriting by using rev-list(1) arguments, e.g., path
               limiters. Refs pointing to such excluded commits would then
               normally be ignored. With this option, they are instead rewritten
               to point at the nearest ancestor that was not excluded.
               Some kind of filters will generate empty commits, that left the
               tree untouched. This switch allow git-filter-branch to ignore such
               commits. Though, this switch only applies for commits that have one
               and only one parent, it will hence keep merges points. Also, this
               option is not compatible with the use of --commit-filter. Though
               you just need to use the function git_commit_non_empty_tree "$@"
               instead of the git commit-tree "$@" idiom in your commit filter to
               make that happen.
           --original <namespace>
               Use this option to set the namespace where the original commits
               will be stored. The default value is refs/original.
           -d <directory>
               Use this option to set the path to the temporary directory used for
               rewriting. When applying a tree filter, the command needs to
               temporarily check out the tree to some directory, which may consume
               considerable space in case of large projects. By default it does
               this in the .git-rewrite/ directory but you can override that
               choice by this parameter.
           -f, --force
               git filter-branch refuses to start with an existing temporary
           However, if the file is absent from the tree of some commit, a simple
           rm filename will fail for that tree and commit. Thus you may instead
           want to use rm -f filename as the script.
           Using --index-filter with git rm yields a significantly faster version.
           Like with using rm filename, git rm --cached filename will fail if the
           file is absent from the tree of a commit. If you want to "completely
           forget" a file, it does not matter when it entered history, so we also
           add --ignore-unmatch:
               git filter-branch --index-filter ?git rm --cached --ignore-unmatch filename? HEAD
           Now, you will get the rewritten history saved in HEAD.
           To rewrite the repository to look as if foodir/ had been its project
           root, and discard all other history:
               git filter-branch --subdirectory-filter foodir -- --all
           Thus you can, e.g., turn a library subdirectory into a repository of
           its own. Note the -- that separates filter-branch options from revision
           options, and the --all to rewrite all branches and tags.
           To set a commit (which typically is at the tip of another history) to
           be the parent of the current initial commit, in order to paste the
           other history behind the current history:
               git filter-branch --parent-filter ?sed "s/^\$/-p <graft-id>/"? HEAD
           (if the parent string is empty - which happens when we are dealing with
           the initial commit - add graftcommit as a parent). Note that this
           assumes history with a single root (that is, no merge without common
           ancestors happened). If this is not the case, use:
               git filter-branch --parent-filter \
                       ?test $GIT_COMMIT = <commit-id> && echo "-p <graft-id>" || cat? HEAD
           or even simpler:
               echo "$commit-id $graft-id" >> .git/info/grafts
               git filter-branch $graft-id..HEAD
           To remove commits authored by "Darl McBribe" from the history:
               git filter-branch --commit-filter ?
                               map "$1";
           The shift magic first throws away the tree id and then the -p
           parameters. Note that this handles merges properly! In case Darl
           committed a merge between P1 and P2, it will be propagated properly and
           all children of the merge will become merge commits with P1,P2 as their
           parents instead of the merge commit.
           You can rewrite the commit log messages using --msg-filter. For
           example, git svn-id strings in a repository created by git svn can be
           removed this way:
               git filter-branch --msg-filter ?
                       sed -e "/^git-svn-id:/d"
           To restrict rewriting to only part of the history, specify a revision
           range in addition to the new branch name. The new branch name will
           point to the top-most revision that a git rev-list of this range will
           If you need to add Acked-by lines to, say, the last 10 commits (none of
           which is a merge), use this command:
               git filter-branch --msg-filter ?
                       cat &&
                       echo "Acked-by: Bugs Bunny <>"
               ? HEAD~10..HEAD
           NOTE the changes introduced by the commits, and which are not reverted
           by subsequent commits, will still be in the rewritten branch. If you
           want to throw out changes together with the commits, you should use the
           interactive mode of git rebase.
           Consider this history:
                   /     /
           To rewrite only commits D,E,F,G,H, but leave A, B and C alone, use:
               git filter-branch ... C..H
                        mv $ $GIT_INDEX_FILE? HEAD


           git-filter-branch is often used to get rid of a subset of files,
           usually with some combination of --index-filter and
           --subdirectory-filter. People expect the resulting repository to be
           smaller than the original, but you need a few more steps to actually
           make it smaller, because git tries hard not to lose your objects until
           you tell it to. First make sure that:
           ?   You really removed all variants of a filename, if a blob was moved
               over its lifetime.  git log --name-only --follow --all -- filename
               can help you find renames.
           ?   You really filtered all refs: use --tag-name-filter cat -- --all
               when calling git-filter-branch.
           Then there are two ways to get a smaller repository. A safer way is to
           clone, that keeps your original intact.
           ?   Clone it with git clone file:///path/to/repo. The clone will not
               have the removed objects. See git-clone(1). (Note that cloning with
               a plain path just hardlinks everything!)
           If you really don't want to clone it, for whatever reasons, check the
           following points instead (in this order). This is a very destructive
           approach, so make a backup or go back to cloning it. You have been
           ?   Remove the original refs backed up by git-filter-branch: say git
               for-each-ref --format="%(refname)" refs/original/ | xargs -n 1 git
               update-ref -d.
           ?   Expire all reflogs with git reflog expire --expire=now --all.
           ?   Garbage collect all unreferenced objects with git gc --prune=now
               (or if your git-gc is not new enough to support arguments to
               --prune, use git repack -ad; git prune instead).


           Written by Petr "Pasky" Baudis <[1]>, and the git list


           Documentation by Petr Baudis and the git list.


           Part of the git(1) suite



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