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    Command:

    git-diff

    
    
    

    SYNOPSIS

           git diff [<common diff options>] <commit>{0,2} [--] [<path>...]
    
    
    

    DESCRIPTION

           Show changes between two trees, a tree and the working tree, a tree and
           the index file, or the index file and the working tree.
    
           git diff [--options] [--] [<path>...]
               This form is to view the changes you made relative to the index
               (staging area for the next commit). In other words, the differences
               are what you could tell git to further add to the index but you
               still haven't. You can stage these changes by using git-add(1).
    
               If exactly two paths are given, and at least one is untracked,
               compare the two files / directories. This behavior can be forced by
               --no-index.
    
           git diff [--options] --cached [<commit>] [--] [<path>...]
               This form is to view the changes you staged for the next commit
               relative to the named <commit>. Typically you would want comparison
               with the latest commit, so if you do not give <commit>, it defaults
               to HEAD. --staged is a synonym of --cached.
    
           git diff [--options] <commit> [--] [<path>...]
               This form is to view the changes you have in your working tree
               relative to the named <commit>. You can use HEAD to compare it with
               the latest commit, or a branch name to compare with the tip of a
               different branch.
    
           git diff [--options] <commit> <commit> [--] [<path>...]
               This is to view the changes between two arbitrary <commit>.
    
           git diff [--options] <commit>..<commit> [--] [<path>...]
               This is synonymous to the previous form. If <commit> on one side is
               omitted, it will have the same effect as using HEAD instead.
    
           git diff [--options] <commit>...<commit> [--] [<path>...]
               This form is to view the changes on the branch containing and up to
               the second <commit>, starting at a common ancestor of both
               <commit>. "git diff A...B" is equivalent to "git diff
               $(git-merge-base A B) B". You can omit any one of <commit>, which
               has the same effect as using HEAD instead.
    
           Just in case if you are doing something exotic, it should be noted that
           all of the <commit> in the above description, except for the last two
           forms that use ".." notations, can be any <tree-ish>.
    
           For a more complete list of ways to spell <commit>, see "SPECIFYING
           REVISIONS" section in git-rev-parse(1). However, "diff" is about
           comparing two endpoints, not ranges, and the range notations
           ("<commit>..<commit>" and "<commit>...<commit>") do not mean a range as
           defined in the "SPECIFYING RANGES" section in git-rev-parse(1).
               Synonym for -p --raw.
    
           --patience
               Generate a diff using the "patience diff" algorithm.
    
           --stat[=width[,name-width]]
               Generate a diffstat. You can override the default output width for
               80-column terminal by --stat=width. The width of the filename part
               can be controlled by giving another width to it separated by a
               comma.
    
           --numstat
               Similar to --stat, but shows number of added and deleted lines in
               decimal notation and pathname without abbreviation, to make it more
               machine friendly. For binary files, outputs two - instead of saying
               0 0.
    
           --shortstat
               Output only the last line of the --stat format containing total
               number of modified files, as well as number of added and deleted
               lines.
    
           --dirstat[=limit]
               Output the distribution of relative amount of changes (number of
               lines added or removed) for each sub-directory. Directories with
               changes below a cut-off percent (3% by default) are not shown. The
               cut-off percent can be set with --dirstat=limit. Changes in a child
               directory is not counted for the parent directory, unless
               --cumulative is used.
    
           --dirstat-by-file[=limit]
               Same as --dirstat, but counts changed files instead of lines.
    
           --summary
               Output a condensed summary of extended header information such as
               creations, renames and mode changes.
    
           --patch-with-stat
               Synonym for -p --stat.
    
           -z
               When --raw, --numstat, --name-only or --name-status has been given,
               do not munge pathnames and use NULs as output field terminators.
    
               Without this option, each pathname output will have TAB, LF, double
               quotes, and backslash characters replaced with \t, \n, \", and \\,
               respectively, and the pathname will be enclosed in double quotes if
               any of those replacements occurred.
    
           --name-only
               Show only names of changed files.
    
    
           --no-color
               Turn off colored diff, even when the configuration file gives the
               default to color output. Same as --color=never.
    
           --color-words[=<regex>]
               Show colored word diff, i.e., color words which have changed. By
               default, words are separated by whitespace.
    
               When a <regex> is specified, every non-overlapping match of the
               <regex> is considered a word. Anything between these matches is
               considered whitespace and ignored(!) for the purposes of finding
               differences. You may want to append |[^[:space:]] to your regular
               expression to make sure that it matches all non-whitespace
               characters. A match that contains a newline is silently
               truncated(!) at the newline.
    
               The regex can also be set via a diff driver or configuration
               option, see gitattributes(1) or git-config(1). Giving it explicitly
               overrides any diff driver or configuration setting. Diff drivers
               override configuration settings.
    
           --no-renames
               Turn off rename detection, even when the configuration file gives
               the default to do so.
    
           --check
               Warn if changes introduce trailing whitespace or an indent that
               uses a space before a tab. Exits with non-zero status if problems
               are found. Not compatible with --exit-code.
    
           --full-index
               Instead of the first handful of characters, show the full pre- and
               post-image blob object names on the "index" line when generating
               patch format output.
    
           --binary
               In addition to --full-index, output a binary diff that can be
               applied with git-apply.
    
           --abbrev[=<n>]
               Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal object name in
               diff-raw format output and diff-tree header lines, show only a
               partial prefix. This is independent of the --full-index option
               above, which controls the diff-patch output format. Non default
               number of digits can be specified with --abbrev=<n>.
    
           -B
               Break complete rewrite changes into pairs of delete and create.
    
           -M
               Detect renames.
    
           --find-copies-harder
               For performance reasons, by default, -C option finds copies only if
               the original file of the copy was modified in the same changeset.
               This flag makes the command inspect unmodified files as candidates
               for the source of copy. This is a very expensive operation for
               large projects, so use it with caution. Giving more than one -C
               option has the same effect.
    
           -l<num>
               The -M and -C options require O(n^2) processing time where n is the
               number of potential rename/copy targets. This option prevents
               rename/copy detection from running if the number of rename/copy
               targets exceeds the specified number.
    
           -S<string>
               Look for differences that introduce or remove an instance of
               <string>. Note that this is different than the string simply
               appearing in diff output; see the pickaxe entry in gitdiffcore(7)
               for more details.
    
           --pickaxe-all
               When -S finds a change, show all the changes in that changeset, not
               just the files that contain the change in <string>.
    
           --pickaxe-regex
               Make the <string> not a plain string but an extended POSIX regex to
               match.
    
           -O<orderfile>
               Output the patch in the order specified in the <orderfile>, which
               has one shell glob pattern per line.
    
           -R
               Swap two inputs; that is, show differences from index or on-disk
               file to tree contents.
    
           --relative[=<path>]
               When run from a subdirectory of the project, it can be told to
               exclude changes outside the directory and show pathnames relative
               to it with this option. When you are not in a subdirectory (e.g. in
               a bare repository), you can name which subdirectory to make the
               output relative to by giving a <path> as an argument.
    
           -a, --text
               Treat all files as text.
    
           --ignore-space-at-eol
               Ignore changes in whitespace at EOL.
    
           -b, --ignore-space-change
               Ignore changes in amount of whitespace. This ignores whitespace at
               line end, and considers all other sequences of one or more
    
           --quiet
               Disable all output of the program. Implies --exit-code.
    
           --ext-diff
               Allow an external diff helper to be executed. If you set an
               external diff driver with gitattributes(5), you need to use this
               option with git-log(1) and friends.
    
           --no-ext-diff
               Disallow external diff drivers.
    
           --ignore-submodules
               Ignore changes to submodules in the diff generation.
    
           --src-prefix=<prefix>
               Show the given source prefix instead of "a/".
    
           --dst-prefix=<prefix>
               Show the given destination prefix instead of "b/".
    
           --no-prefix
               Do not show any source or destination prefix.
    
           For more detailed explanation on these common options, see also
           gitdiffcore(7).
    
           <path>...
               The <paths> parameters, when given, are used to limit the diff to
               the named paths (you can give directory names and get diff for all
               files under them).
    
    
    

    RAW OUTPUT FORMAT

           The raw output format from "git-diff-index", "git-diff-tree",
           "git-diff-files" and "git diff --raw" are very similar.
    
           These commands all compare two sets of things; what is compared
           differs:
    
           git-diff-index <tree-ish>
               compares the <tree-ish> and the files on the filesystem.
    
           git-diff-index --cached <tree-ish>
               compares the <tree-ish> and the index.
    
           git-diff-tree [-r] <tree-ish-1> <tree-ish-2> [<pattern>...]
               compares the trees named by the two arguments.
    
           git-diff-files [<pattern>...]
               compares the index and the files on the filesystem.
    
           The "git-diff-tree" command begins its output by printing the hash of
           what is being compared. After that, all the commands print one output
            1. a colon.
    
            2. mode for "src"; 000000 if creation or unmerged.
    
            3. a space.
    
            4. mode for "dst"; 000000 if deletion or unmerged.
    
            5. a space.
    
            6. sha1 for "src"; 0{40} if creation or unmerged.
    
            7. a space.
    
            8. sha1 for "dst"; 0{40} if creation, unmerged or "look at work tree".
    
            9. a space.
    
           10. status, followed by optional "score" number.
    
           11. a tab or a NUL when -z option is used.
    
           12. path for "src"
    
           13. a tab or a NUL when -z option is used; only exists for C or R.
    
           14. path for "dst"; only exists for C or R.
    
           15. an LF or a NUL when -z option is used, to terminate the record.
    
           Possible status letters are:
    
           ?   A: addition of a file
    
           ?   C: copy of a file into a new one
    
           ?   D: deletion of a file
    
           ?   M: modification of the contents or mode of a file
    
           ?   R: renaming of a file
    
           ?   T: change in the type of the file
    
           ?   U: file is unmerged (you must complete the merge before it can be
               committed)
    
           ?   X: "unknown" change type (most probably a bug, please report it)
    
           Status letters C and R are always followed by a score (denoting the
           percentage of similarity between the source and target of the move or
           copy), and are the only ones to be so.
           --cc option to generate diff output also for merge commits. The output
           differs from the format described above in the following way:
    
            1. there is a colon for each parent
    
            2. there are more "src" modes and "src" sha1
    
            3. status is concatenated status characters for each parent
    
            4. no optional "score" number
    
            5. single path, only for "dst"
    
           Example:
    
               ::100644 100644 100644 fabadb8... cc95eb0... 4866510... MM      describe.c
    
           Note that combined diff lists only files which were modified from all
           parents.
    
    
    

    GENERATING PATCHES WITH -P

           When "git-diff-index", "git-diff-tree", or "git-diff-files" are run
           with a -p option, "git diff" without the --raw option, or "git log"
           with the "-p" option, they do not produce the output described above;
           instead they produce a patch file. You can customize the creation of
           such patches via the GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF and the GIT_DIFF_OPTS
           environment variables.
    
           What the -p option produces is slightly different from the traditional
           diff format.
    
            1. It is preceded with a "git diff" header, that looks like this:
    
                   diff --git a/file1 b/file2
    
               The a/ and b/ filenames are the same unless rename/copy is
               involved. Especially, even for a creation or a deletion, /dev/null
               is not used in place of a/ or b/ filenames.
    
               When rename/copy is involved, file1 and file2 show the name of the
               source file of the rename/copy and the name of the file that
               rename/copy produces, respectively.
    
            2. It is followed by one or more extended header lines:
    
                   old mode <mode>
                   new mode <mode>
                   deleted file mode <mode>
                   new file mode <mode>
                   copy from <path>
                   copy to <path>
    
           100% is thus reserved for two equal files, while 100% dissimilarity
           means that no line from the old file made it into the new one.
    
    
    

    COMBINED DIFF FORMAT

           "git-diff-tree", "git-diff-files" and "git-diff" can take -c or --cc
           option to produce combined diff. For showing a merge commit with "git
           log -p", this is the default format; you can force showing full diff
           with the -m option. A combined diff format looks like this:
    
               diff --combined describe.c
               index fabadb8,cc95eb0..4866510
               --- a/describe.c
               +++ b/describe.c
               @@@ -98,20 -98,12 +98,20 @@@
                       return (a_date > b_date) ? -1 : (a_date == b_date) ? 0 : 1;
                 }
    
               - static void describe(char *arg)
                -static void describe(struct commit *cmit, int last_one)
               ++static void describe(char *arg, int last_one)
                 {
                +      unsigned char sha1[20];
                +      struct commit *cmit;
                       struct commit_list *list;
                       static int initialized = 0;
                       struct commit_name *n;
    
                +      if (get_sha1(arg, sha1) < 0)
                +              usage(describe_usage);
                +      cmit = lookup_commit_reference(sha1);
                +      if (!cmit)
                +              usage(describe_usage);
                +
                       if (!initialized) {
                               initialized = 1;
                               for_each_ref(get_name);
    
            1. It is preceded with a "git diff" header, that looks like this (when
               -c option is used):
    
                   diff --combined file
    
               or like this (when --cc option is used):
    
                   diff --cc file
    
            2. It is followed by one or more extended header lines (this example
               shows a merge with two parents):
    
                   index <hash>,<hash>..<hash>
    
               Similar to two-line header for traditional unified diff format,
               /dev/null is used to signal created or deleted files.
    
            4. Chunk header format is modified to prevent people from accidentally
               feeding it to patch -p1. Combined diff format was created for
               review of merge commit changes, and was not meant for apply. The
               change is similar to the change in the extended index header:
    
                   @@@ <from-file-range> <from-file-range> <to-file-range> @@@
    
               There are (number of parents + 1) @ characters in the chunk header
               for combined diff format.
    
           Unlike the traditional unified diff format, which shows two files A and
           B with a single column that has - (minus -- appears in A but removed in
           B), + (plus -- missing in A but added to B), or " " (space -- unchanged)
           prefix, this format compares two or more files file1, file2,... with
           one file X, and shows how X differs from each of fileN. One column for
           each of fileN is prepended to the output line to note how X's line is
           different from it.
    
           A - character in the column N means that the line appears in fileN but
           it does not appear in the result. A + character in the column N means
           that the line appears in the result, and fileN does not have that line
           (in other words, the line was added, from the point of view of that
           parent).
    
           In the above example output, the function signature was changed from
           both files (hence two - removals from both file1 and file2, plus ++ to
           mean one line that was added does not appear in either file1 nor
           file2). Also eight other lines are the same from file1 but do not
           appear in file2 (hence prefixed with +).
    
           When shown by git diff-tree -c, it compares the parents of a merge
           commit with the merge result (i.e. file1..fileN are the parents). When
           shown by git diff-files -c, it compares the two unresolved merge
           parents with the working tree file (i.e. file1 is stage 2 aka "our
           version", file2 is stage 3 aka "their version").
    
    
    

    OTHER DIFF FORMATS

           The --summary option describes newly added, deleted, renamed and copied
           files. The --stat option adds diffstat(1) graph to the output. These
           options can be combined with other options, such as -p, and are meant
           for human consumption.
    
           When showing a change that involves a rename or a copy, --stat output
           formats the pathnames compactly by combining common prefix and suffix
           of the pathnames. For example, a change that moves arch/i386/Makefile
           to arch/x86/Makefile while modifying 4 lines will be shown like this:
    
               arch/{i386 => x86}/Makefile    |   4 +--
    
            2. a tab;
    
            3. the number of deleted lines;
    
            4. a tab;
    
            5. pathname (possibly with rename/copy information);
    
            6. a newline.
    
           When -z output option is in effect, the output is formatted this way:
    
               1       2       README NUL
               3       1       NUL arch/i386/Makefile NUL arch/x86/Makefile NUL
    
           That is:
    
            1. the number of added lines;
    
            2. a tab;
    
            3. the number of deleted lines;
    
            4. a tab;
    
            5. a NUL (only exists if renamed/copied);
    
            6. pathname in preimage;
    
            7. a NUL (only exists if renamed/copied);
    
            8. pathname in postimage (only exists if renamed/copied);
    
            9. a NUL.
    
           The extra NUL before the preimage path in renamed case is to allow
           scripts that read the output to tell if the current record being read
           is a single-path record or a rename/copy record without reading ahead.
           After reading added and deleted lines, reading up to NUL would yield
           the pathname, but if that is NUL, the record will show two paths.
    
    
    

    EXAMPLES

           Various ways to check your working tree
    
                   $ git diff            (1)
                   $ git diff --cached   (2)
                   $ git diff HEAD       (3)
    
               1. Changes in the working tree not yet staged for the next commit.
               2. Changes between the index and your last commit; what you would
               be committing if you run "git commit" without "-a" option.
               3. Compare the version before the last commit and the last commit.
    
           Comparing branches
    
                   $ git diff topic master    (1)
                   $ git diff topic..master   (2)
                   $ git diff topic...master  (3)
    
               1. Changes between the tips of the topic and the master branches.
               2. Same as above.
               3. Changes that occurred on the master branch since when the topic
               branch was started off it.
    
           Limiting the diff output
    
                   $ git diff --diff-filter=MRC            (1)
                   $ git diff --name-status                (2)
                   $ git diff arch/i386 include/asm-i386   (3)
    
               1. Show only modification, rename and copy, but not addition nor
               deletion.
               2. Show only names and the nature of change, but not actual diff
               output.
               3. Limit diff output to named subtrees.
    
           Munging the diff output
    
                   $ git diff --find-copies-harder -B -C  (1)
                   $ git diff -R                          (2)
    
               1. Spend extra cycles to find renames, copies and complete rewrites
               (very expensive).
               2. Output diff in reverse.
    
    
    

    SEE ALSO

           git-difftool(1)
               Show changes using common diff tools
    
    
    

    AUTHOR

           Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org[1]>
    
    
    

    DOCUMENTATION

           Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list
           <git@vger.kernel.org[2]>.
    
    
    

    GIT

           Part of the git(1) suite
    
    
    

    NOTES

            1. torvalds@osdl.org
               mailto:torvalds@osdl.org
    
    
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