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    Command:

    git-diff-index

    
    
    
    

    SYNOPSIS

           git diff-index [-m] [--cached] [<common diff options>] <tree-ish>
           [<path>...]
    
    
    

    DESCRIPTION

           Compares the content and mode of the blobs found via a tree object with
           the content of the current index and, optionally ignoring the stat
           state of the file on disk. When paths are specified, compares only
           those named paths. Otherwise all entries in the index are compared.
    
    
    

    OPTIONS

           -p, -u
               Generate patch (see section on generating patches).
    
           -U<n>, --unified=<n>
               Generate diffs with <n> lines of context instead of the usual
               three. Implies -p.
    
           --raw
               Generate the raw format. This is the default.
    
           --patch-with-raw
               Synonym for -p --raw.
    
           --patience
               Generate a diff using the "patience diff" algorithm.
    
           --stat[=width[,name-width]]
               Generate a diffstat. You can override the default output width for
               80-column terminal by --stat=width. The width of the filename part
               can be controlled by giving another width to it separated by a
               comma.
    
           --numstat
               Similar to --stat, but shows number of added and deleted lines in
               decimal notation and pathname without abbreviation, to make it more
               machine friendly. For binary files, outputs two - instead of saying
               0 0.
    
           --shortstat
               Output only the last line of the --stat format containing total
               number of modified files, as well as number of added and deleted
               lines.
    
           --dirstat[=limit]
               Output the distribution of relative amount of changes (number of
               lines added or removed) for each sub-directory. Directories with
               changes below a cut-off percent (3% by default) are not shown. The
               cut-off percent can be set with --dirstat=limit. Changes in a child
               directory is not counted for the parent directory, unless
               --cumulative is used.
    
               Without this option, each pathname output will have TAB, LF, double
               quotes, and backslash characters replaced with \t, \n, \", and \\,
               respectively, and the pathname will be enclosed in double quotes if
               any of those replacements occurred.
    
           --name-only
               Show only names of changed files.
    
           --name-status
               Show only names and status of changed files. See the description of
               the --diff-filter option on what the status letters mean.
    
           --submodule[=<format>]
               Chose the output format for submodule differences. <format> can be
               one of short and log.  short just shows pairs of commit names, this
               format is used when this option is not given.  log is the default
               value for this option and lists the commits in that commit range
               like the summary option of git-submodule(1) does.
    
           --color[=<when>]
               Show colored diff. The value must be always (the default), never,
               or auto.
    
           --no-color
               Turn off colored diff, even when the configuration file gives the
               default to color output. Same as --color=never.
    
           --color-words[=<regex>]
               Show colored word diff, i.e., color words which have changed. By
               default, words are separated by whitespace.
    
               When a <regex> is specified, every non-overlapping match of the
               <regex> is considered a word. Anything between these matches is
               considered whitespace and ignored(!) for the purposes of finding
               differences. You may want to append |[^[:space:]] to your regular
               expression to make sure that it matches all non-whitespace
               characters. A match that contains a newline is silently
               truncated(!) at the newline.
    
               The regex can also be set via a diff driver or configuration
               option, see gitattributes(1) or git-config(1). Giving it explicitly
               overrides any diff driver or configuration setting. Diff drivers
               override configuration settings.
    
           --no-renames
               Turn off rename detection, even when the configuration file gives
               the default to do so.
    
           --check
               Warn if changes introduce trailing whitespace or an indent that
               uses a space before a tab. Exits with non-zero status if problems
               partial prefix. This is independent of the --full-index option
               above, which controls the diff-patch output format. Non default
               number of digits can be specified with --abbrev=<n>.
    
           -B
               Break complete rewrite changes into pairs of delete and create.
    
           -M
               Detect renames.
    
           -C
               Detect copies as well as renames. See also --find-copies-harder.
    
           --diff-filter=[ACDMRTUXB*]
               Select only files that are Added (A), Copied (C), Deleted (D),
               Modified (M), Renamed (R), have their type (i.e. regular file,
               symlink, submodule, ...) changed (T), are Unmerged (U), are Unknown
               (X), or have had their pairing Broken (B). Any combination of the
               filter characters may be used. When * (All-or-none) is added to the
               combination, all paths are selected if there is any file that
               matches other criteria in the comparison; if there is no file that
               matches other criteria, nothing is selected.
    
           --find-copies-harder
               For performance reasons, by default, -C option finds copies only if
               the original file of the copy was modified in the same changeset.
               This flag makes the command inspect unmodified files as candidates
               for the source of copy. This is a very expensive operation for
               large projects, so use it with caution. Giving more than one -C
               option has the same effect.
    
           -l<num>
               The -M and -C options require O(n^2) processing time where n is the
               number of potential rename/copy targets. This option prevents
               rename/copy detection from running if the number of rename/copy
               targets exceeds the specified number.
    
           -S<string>
               Look for differences that introduce or remove an instance of
               <string>. Note that this is different than the string simply
               appearing in diff output; see the pickaxe entry in gitdiffcore(7)
               for more details.
    
           --pickaxe-all
               When -S finds a change, show all the changes in that changeset, not
               just the files that contain the change in <string>.
    
           --pickaxe-regex
               Make the <string> not a plain string but an extended POSIX regex to
               match.
    
           -O<orderfile>
           -a, --text
               Treat all files as text.
    
           --ignore-space-at-eol
               Ignore changes in whitespace at EOL.
    
           -b, --ignore-space-change
               Ignore changes in amount of whitespace. This ignores whitespace at
               line end, and considers all other sequences of one or more
               whitespace characters to be equivalent.
    
           -w, --ignore-all-space
               Ignore whitespace when comparing lines. This ignores differences
               even if one line has whitespace where the other line has none.
    
           --inter-hunk-context=<lines>
               Show the context between diff hunks, up to the specified number of
               lines, thereby fusing hunks that are close to each other.
    
           --exit-code
               Make the program exit with codes similar to diff(1). That is, it
               exits with 1 if there were differences and 0 means no differences.
    
           --quiet
               Disable all output of the program. Implies --exit-code.
    
           --ext-diff
               Allow an external diff helper to be executed. If you set an
               external diff driver with gitattributes(5), you need to use this
               option with git-log(1) and friends.
    
           --no-ext-diff
               Disallow external diff drivers.
    
           --ignore-submodules
               Ignore changes to submodules in the diff generation.
    
           --src-prefix=<prefix>
               Show the given source prefix instead of "a/".
    
           --dst-prefix=<prefix>
               Show the given destination prefix instead of "b/".
    
           --no-prefix
               Do not show any source or destination prefix.
    
           For more detailed explanation on these common options, see also
           gitdiffcore(7).
    
           <tree-ish>
               The id of a tree object to diff against.
    
    
           git-diff-index <tree-ish>
               compares the <tree-ish> and the files on the filesystem.
    
           git-diff-index --cached <tree-ish>
               compares the <tree-ish> and the index.
    
           git-diff-tree [-r] <tree-ish-1> <tree-ish-2> [<pattern>...]
               compares the trees named by the two arguments.
    
           git-diff-files [<pattern>...]
               compares the index and the files on the filesystem.
    
           The "git-diff-tree" command begins its output by printing the hash of
           what is being compared. After that, all the commands print one output
           line per changed file.
    
           An output line is formatted this way:
    
               in-place edit  :100644 100644 bcd1234... 0123456... M file0
               copy-edit      :100644 100644 abcd123... 1234567... C68 file1 file2
               rename-edit    :100644 100644 abcd123... 1234567... R86 file1 file3
               create         :000000 100644 0000000... 1234567... A file4
               delete         :100644 000000 1234567... 0000000... D file5
               unmerged       :000000 000000 0000000... 0000000... U file6
    
           That is, from the left to the right:
    
            1. a colon.
    
            2. mode for "src"; 000000 if creation or unmerged.
    
            3. a space.
    
            4. mode for "dst"; 000000 if deletion or unmerged.
    
            5. a space.
    
            6. sha1 for "src"; 0{40} if creation or unmerged.
    
            7. a space.
    
            8. sha1 for "dst"; 0{40} if creation, unmerged or "look at work tree".
    
            9. a space.
    
           10. status, followed by optional "score" number.
    
           11. a tab or a NUL when -z option is used.
    
           12. path for "src"
    
           ?   M: modification of the contents or mode of a file
    
           ?   R: renaming of a file
    
           ?   T: change in the type of the file
    
           ?   U: file is unmerged (you must complete the merge before it can be
               committed)
    
           ?   X: "unknown" change type (most probably a bug, please report it)
    
           Status letters C and R are always followed by a score (denoting the
           percentage of similarity between the source and target of the move or
           copy), and are the only ones to be so.
    
           <sha1> is shown as all 0's if a file is new on the filesystem and it is
           out of sync with the index.
    
           Example:
    
               :100644 100644 5be4a4...... 000000...... M file.c
    
           When -z option is not used, TAB, LF, and backslash characters in
           pathnames are represented as \t, \n, and \\, respectively.
    
    
    

    DIFF FORMAT FOR MERGES

           "git-diff-tree", "git-diff-files" and "git-diff --raw" can take -c or
           --cc option to generate diff output also for merge commits. The output
           differs from the format described above in the following way:
    
            1. there is a colon for each parent
    
            2. there are more "src" modes and "src" sha1
    
            3. status is concatenated status characters for each parent
    
            4. no optional "score" number
    
            5. single path, only for "dst"
    
           Example:
    
               ::100644 100644 100644 fabadb8... cc95eb0... 4866510... MM      describe.c
    
           Note that combined diff lists only files which were modified from all
           parents.
    
    
    

    GENERATING PATCHES WITH -P

           When "git-diff-index", "git-diff-tree", or "git-diff-files" are run
               involved. Especially, even for a creation or a deletion, /dev/null
               is not used in place of a/ or b/ filenames.
    
               When rename/copy is involved, file1 and file2 show the name of the
               source file of the rename/copy and the name of the file that
               rename/copy produces, respectively.
    
            2. It is followed by one or more extended header lines:
    
                   old mode <mode>
                   new mode <mode>
                   deleted file mode <mode>
                   new file mode <mode>
                   copy from <path>
                   copy to <path>
                   rename from <path>
                   rename to <path>
                   similarity index <number>
                   dissimilarity index <number>
                   index <hash>..<hash> <mode>
    
            3. TAB, LF, double quote and backslash characters in pathnames are
               represented as \t, \n, \" and \\, respectively. If there is need
               for such substitution then the whole pathname is put in double
               quotes.
    
           The similarity index is the percentage of unchanged lines, and the
           dissimilarity index is the percentage of changed lines. It is a rounded
           down integer, followed by a percent sign. The similarity index value of
           100% is thus reserved for two equal files, while 100% dissimilarity
           means that no line from the old file made it into the new one.
    
    
    

    COMBINED DIFF FORMAT

           "git-diff-tree", "git-diff-files" and "git-diff" can take -c or --cc
           option to produce combined diff. For showing a merge commit with "git
           log -p", this is the default format; you can force showing full diff
           with the -m option. A combined diff format looks like this:
    
               diff --combined describe.c
               index fabadb8,cc95eb0..4866510
               --- a/describe.c
               +++ b/describe.c
               @@@ -98,20 -98,12 +98,20 @@@
                       return (a_date > b_date) ? -1 : (a_date == b_date) ? 0 : 1;
                 }
    
               - static void describe(char *arg)
                -static void describe(struct commit *cmit, int last_one)
               ++static void describe(char *arg, int last_one)
                 {
                +      unsigned char sha1[20];
                +      struct commit *cmit;
    
            1. It is preceded with a "git diff" header, that looks like this (when
               -c option is used):
    
                   diff --combined file
    
               or like this (when --cc option is used):
    
                   diff --cc file
    
            2. It is followed by one or more extended header lines (this example
               shows a merge with two parents):
    
                   index <hash>,<hash>..<hash>
                   mode <mode>,<mode>..<mode>
                   new file mode <mode>
                   deleted file mode <mode>,<mode>
    
               The mode <mode>,<mode>..<mode> line appears only if at least one of
               the <mode> is different from the rest. Extended headers with
               information about detected contents movement (renames and copying
               detection) are designed to work with diff of two <tree-ish> and are
               not used by combined diff format.
    
            3. It is followed by two-line from-file/to-file header
    
                   --- a/file
                   +++ b/file
    
               Similar to two-line header for traditional unified diff format,
               /dev/null is used to signal created or deleted files.
    
            4. Chunk header format is modified to prevent people from accidentally
               feeding it to patch -p1. Combined diff format was created for
               review of merge commit changes, and was not meant for apply. The
               change is similar to the change in the extended index header:
    
                   @@@ <from-file-range> <from-file-range> <to-file-range> @@@
    
               There are (number of parents + 1) @ characters in the chunk header
               for combined diff format.
    
           Unlike the traditional unified diff format, which shows two files A and
           B with a single column that has - (minus -- appears in A but removed in
           B), + (plus -- missing in A but added to B), or " " (space -- unchanged)
           prefix, this format compares two or more files file1, file2,... with
           one file X, and shows how X differs from each of fileN. One column for
           each of fileN is prepended to the output line to note how X's line is
           different from it.
    
           A - character in the column N means that the line appears in fileN but
           parents with the working tree file (i.e. file1 is stage 2 aka "our
           version", file2 is stage 3 aka "their version").
    
    
    

    OTHER DIFF FORMATS

           The --summary option describes newly added, deleted, renamed and copied
           files. The --stat option adds diffstat(1) graph to the output. These
           options can be combined with other options, such as -p, and are meant
           for human consumption.
    
           When showing a change that involves a rename or a copy, --stat output
           formats the pathnames compactly by combining common prefix and suffix
           of the pathnames. For example, a change that moves arch/i386/Makefile
           to arch/x86/Makefile while modifying 4 lines will be shown like this:
    
               arch/{i386 => x86}/Makefile    |   4 +--
    
           The --numstat option gives the diffstat(1) information but is designed
           for easier machine consumption. An entry in --numstat output looks like
           this:
    
               1       2       README
               3       1       arch/{i386 => x86}/Makefile
    
           That is, from left to right:
    
            1. the number of added lines;
    
            2. a tab;
    
            3. the number of deleted lines;
    
            4. a tab;
    
            5. pathname (possibly with rename/copy information);
    
            6. a newline.
    
           When -z output option is in effect, the output is formatted this way:
    
               1       2       README NUL
               3       1       NUL arch/i386/Makefile NUL arch/x86/Makefile NUL
    
           That is:
    
            1. the number of added lines;
    
            2. a tab;
    
            3. the number of deleted lines;
    
           scripts that read the output to tell if the current record being read
           is a single-path record or a rename/copy record without reading ahead.
           After reading added and deleted lines, reading up to NUL would yield
           the pathname, but if that is NUL, the record will show two paths.
    
    
    

    OPERATING MODES

           You can choose whether you want to trust the index file entirely (using
           the --cached flag) or ask the diff logic to show any files that don't
           match the stat state as being "tentatively changed". Both of these
           operations are very useful indeed.
    
    
    

    CACHED MODE

           If --cached is specified, it allows you to ask:
    
               show me the differences between HEAD and the current index
               contents (the ones I?d write using ?git write-tree?)
    
           For example, let's say that you have worked on your working directory,
           updated some files in the index and are ready to commit. You want to
           see exactly what you are going to commit, without having to write a new
           tree object and compare it that way, and to do that, you just do
    
               git diff-index --cached HEAD
    
           Example: let's say I had renamed commit.c to git-commit.c, and I had
           done an update-index to make that effective in the index file. git
           diff-files wouldn't show anything at all, since the index file matches
           my working directory. But doing a git diff-index does:
    
               torvalds@ppc970:~/git> git diff-index --cached HEAD
               -100644 blob    4161aecc6700a2eb579e842af0b7f22b98443f74        commit.c
               +100644 blob    4161aecc6700a2eb579e842af0b7f22b98443f74        git-commit.c
    
           You can see easily that the above is a rename.
    
           In fact, git diff-index --cached should always be entirely equivalent
           to actually doing a git write-tree and comparing that. Except this one
           is much nicer for the case where you just want to check where you are.
    
           So doing a git diff-index --cached is basically very useful when you
           are asking yourself "what have I already marked for being committed,
           and what's the difference to a previous tree".
    
    
    

    NON-CACHED MODE

           The "non-cached" mode takes a different approach, and is potentially
           the more useful of the two in that what it does can't be emulated with
           a git write-tree + git diff-tree. Thus that's the default mode. The
           non-cached version asks the question:
    
               show me the differences between HEAD and the currently checked out
               tree - index contents _and_ files that aren?t up-to-date
    
           is not up-to-date and may contain new stuff. The all-zero sha1 means
           that to get the real diff, you need to look at the object in the
           working directory directly rather than do an object-to-object diff.
    
               Note
               As with other commands of this type, git diff-index does not
               actually look at the contents of the file at all. So maybe
               kernel/sched.c hasn't actually changed, and it's just that you
               touched it. In either case, it's a note that you need to git
               update-index it to make the index be in sync.
    
               Note
               You can have a mixture of files show up as "has been updated" and
               "is still dirty in the working directory" together. You can always
               tell which file is in which state, since the "has been updated"
               ones show a valid sha1, and the "not in sync with the index" ones
               will always have the special all-zero sha1.
    
    
    

    AUTHOR

           Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org[1]>
    
    
    

    DOCUMENTATION

           Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list
           <git@vger.kernel.org[2]>.
    
    
    

    GIT

           Part of the git(1) suite
    
    
    

    NOTES

            1. torvalds@osdl.org
               mailto:torvalds@osdl.org
    
            2. git@vger.kernel.org
               mailto:git@vger.kernel.org
    
    
    

    Git 1.7.1 03/04/2013 GIT-DIFF-INDEX(1)

    
    
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