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           git blame [-c] [-b] [-l] [--root] [-t] [-f] [-n] [-s] [-p] [-w] [--incremental] [-L n,m]
                       [-S <revs-file>] [-M] [-C] [-C] [-C] [--since=<date>]
                       [<rev> | --contents <file> | --reverse <rev>] [--] <file>


           Annotates each line in the given file with information from the
           revision which last modified the line. Optionally, start annotating
           from the given revision.
           The command can also limit the range of lines annotated.
           The report does not tell you anything about lines which have been
           deleted or replaced; you need to use a tool such as git diff or the
           "pickaxe" interface briefly mentioned in the following paragraph.
           Apart from supporting file annotation, git also supports searching the
           development history for when a code snippet occurred in a change. This
           makes it possible to track when a code snippet was added to a file,
           moved or copied between files, and eventually deleted or replaced. It
           works by searching for a text string in the diff. A small example:
               $ git log --pretty=oneline -S?blame_usage?
               5040f17eba15504bad66b14a645bddd9b015ebb7 blame -S <ancestry-file>
               ea4c7f9bf69e781dd0cd88d2bccb2bf5cc15c9a7 git-blame: Make the output


               Show blank SHA-1 for boundary commits. This can also be controlled
               via the blame.blankboundary config option.
               Do not treat root commits as boundaries. This can also be
               controlled via the blame.showroot config option.
               Include additional statistics at the end of blame output.
           -L <start>,<end>
               Annotate only the given line range. <start> and <end> can take one
               of these forms:
               ?   number
                   If <start> or <end> is a number, it specifies an absolute line
                   number (lines count from 1).
               ?   /regex/
           -S <revs-file>
               Use revisions from revs-file instead of calling git-rev-list(1).
               Walk history forward instead of backward. Instead of showing the
               revision in which a line appeared, this shows the last revision in
               which a line has existed. This requires a range of revision like
               START..END where the path to blame exists in START.
           -p, --porcelain
               Show in a format designed for machine consumption.
               Show the result incrementally in a format designed for machine
               Specifies the encoding used to output author names and commit
               summaries. Setting it to none makes blame output unconverted data.
               For more information see the discussion about encoding in the git-
               log(1) manual page.
           --contents <file>
               When <rev> is not specified, the command annotates the changes
               starting backwards from the working tree copy. This flag makes the
               command pretend as if the working tree copy has the contents of the
               named file (specify - to make the command read from the standard
           --date <format>
               The value is one of the following alternatives:
               {relative,local,default,iso,rfc,short}. If --date is not provided,
               the value of the config variable is used. If the
      config variable is also not set, the iso format is used.
               For more information, See the discussion of the --date option at
               Detect moved or copied lines within a file. When a commit moves or
               copies a block of lines (e.g. the original file has A and then B,
               and the commit changes it to B and then A), the traditional blame
               algorithm notices only half of the movement and typically blames
               the lines that were moved up (i.e. B) to the parent and assigns
               blame to the lines that were moved down (i.e. A) to the child
               commit. With this option, both groups of lines are blamed on the
               parent by running extra passes of inspection.
               <num> is optional but it is the lower bound on the number of
               alphanumeric characters that git must detect as moving within a
               file for it to associate those lines with the parent commit.
               Show help message.
               Use the same output mode as git-annotate(1) (Default: off).
               Include debugging information related to the movement of lines
               between files (see -C) and lines moved within a file (see -M). The
               first number listed is the score. This is the number of
               alphanumeric characters detected as having been moved between or
               within files. This must be above a certain threshold for git blame
               to consider those lines of code to have been moved.
           -f, --show-name
               Show the filename in the original commit. By default the filename
               is shown if there is any line that came from a file with a
               different name, due to rename detection.
           -n, --show-number
               Show the line number in the original commit (Default: off).
               Suppress the author name and timestamp from the output.
               Ignore whitespace when comparing the parent's version and the
               child's to find where the lines came from.


           In this format, each line is output after a header; the header at the
           minimum has the first line which has:
           ?   40-byte SHA-1 of the commit the line is attributed to;
           ?   the line number of the line in the original file;
           ?   the line number of the line in the final file;
           ?   on a line that starts a group of lines from a different commit than
               the previous one, the number of lines in this group. On subsequent
               lines this field is absent.
           This header line is followed by the following information at least once
           for each commit:
           ?   the author name ("author"), email ("author-mail"), time
               ("author-time"), and timezone ("author-tz"); similarly for
           ?   the filename in the commit that the line is attributed to.
           ?   the first line of the commit log message ("summary").
           Also you can use a regular expression to specify the line range:
               git blame -L ?/^sub hello {/,/^}$/? foo
           which limits the annotation to the body of the hello subroutine.
           When you are not interested in changes older than version v2.6.18, or
           changes older than 3 weeks, you can use revision range specifiers
           similar to git rev-list:
               git blame v2.6.18.. -- foo
               git blame --since=3.weeks -- foo
           When revision range specifiers are used to limit the annotation, lines
           that have not changed since the range boundary (either the commit
           v2.6.18 or the most recent commit that is more than 3 weeks old in the
           above example) are blamed for that range boundary commit.
           A particularly useful way is to see if an added file has lines created
           by copy-and-paste from existing files. Sometimes this indicates that
           the developer was being sloppy and did not refactor the code properly.
           You can first find the commit that introduced the file with:
               git log --diff-filter=A --pretty=short -- foo
           and then annotate the change between the commit and its parents, using
           commit^! notation:
               git blame -C -C -f $commit^! -- foo


           When called with --incremental option, the command outputs the result
           as it is built. The output generally will talk about lines touched by
           more recent commits first (i.e. the lines will be annotated out of
           order) and is meant to be used by interactive viewers.
           The output format is similar to the Porcelain format, but it does not
           contain the actual lines from the file that is being annotated.
            1. Each blame entry always starts with a line of:
                   <40-byte hex sha1> <sourceline> <resultline> <num_lines>
               Line numbers count from 1.
            2. The first time that a commit shows up in the stream, it has various
               other information about it printed out with a one-word tag at the
               beginning of each line describing the extra commit information
               (author, email, committer, dates, summary, etc.).
            3. Unlike the Porcelain format, the filename information is always
               given and terminates the entry:
                   commentary), a blame viewer will not care.


           If the file .mailmap exists at the toplevel of the repository, or at
           the location pointed to by the mailmap.file configuration option, it is
           used to map author and committer names and email addresses to canonical
           real names and email addresses.
           In the simple form, each line in the file consists of the canonical
           real name of an author, whitespace, and an email address used in the
           commit (enclosed by < and >) to map to the name. For example:
               Proper Name <commit@email.xx>
           The more complex forms are:
               <proper@email.xx> <commit@email.xx>
           which allows mailmap to replace only the email part of a commit, and:
               Proper Name <proper@email.xx> <commit@email.xx>
           which allows mailmap to replace both the name and the email of a commit
           matching the specified commit email address, and:
               Proper Name <proper@email.xx> Commit Name <commit@email.xx>
           which allows mailmap to replace both the name and the email of a commit
           matching both the specified commit name and email address.
           Example 1: Your history contains commits by two authors, Jane and Joe,
           whose names appear in the repository under several forms:
               Joe Developer <>
               Joe R. Developer <>
               Jane Doe <>
               Jane Doe <jane@laptop.(none)>
               Jane D. <jane@desktop.(none)>
           Now suppose that Joe wants his middle name initial used, and Jane
           prefers her family name fully spelled out. A proper .mailmap file would
           look like:
               Jane Doe         <jane@desktop.(none)>
               Joe R. Developer <>
           Note how there is no need for an entry for <jane@laptop[1].(none)>,
           because the real name of that author is already correct.
           Example 2: Your repository contains commits from the following authors:
               Other Author <other@author.xx>         <nick2@company.xx>
               Santa Claus <santa.claus@northpole.xx> <me@company.xx>
           Use hash # for comments that are either on their own line, or after the
           email address.




           Written by Junio C Hamano <[2]>


           Part of the git(1) suite


            1. jane@laptop

    Git 1.7.1 03/04/2013 GIT-BLAME(1)


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