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           gdb    [-help] [-nx] [-q] [-batch] [-cd=dir] [-f] [-b bps] [-tty=dev]
                  [-s symfile] [-e prog] [-se prog] [-c core] [-x cmds] [-d dir]


           The  purpose  of  a debugger such as GDB is to allow you to see what is
           going on ''inside'' another program while it executes--or  what  another
           program was doing at the moment it crashed.
           GDB  can  do four main kinds of things (plus other things in support of
           these) to help you catch bugs in the act:
              ?   Start your program, specifying anything that  might  affect  its
              ?   Make your program stop on specified conditions.
              ?   Examine what has happened, when your program has stopped.
              ?   Change  things  in your program, so you can experiment with cor-
                  recting the effects of one bug and go on to learn about another.
           You  can  use  GDB  to  debug programs written in C, C++, and Modula-2.
           Fortran support will be added when a GNU Fortran compiler is ready.
           GDB is invoked with the shell command gdb.  Once started, it reads com-
           mands  from the terminal until you tell it to exit with the GDB command
           quit.  You can get online help from gdb itself  by  using  the  command
           You can run gdb with no arguments or options; but the most usual way to
           start GDB is with one argument or two, specifying an executable program
           as the argument:
           gdb program
           You  can  also  start  with  both an executable program and a core file
           gdb program core
           You can, instead, specify a process ID as a  second  argument,  if  you
           want to debug a running process:
           bt     Backtrace: display the program stack.
           print expr
                   Display the value of an expression.
           c      Continue running your program (after stopping, e.g. at a  break-
           next   Execute  next program line (after stopping); step over any func-
                  tion calls in the line.
           edit [file:]function
                  look at the program line where it is presently stopped.
           list [file:]function
                  type the text of the program in the  vicinity  of  where  it  is
                  presently stopped.
           step   Execute  next program line (after stopping); step into any func-
                  tion calls in the line.
           help [name]
                  Show information about GDB command name, or general  information
                  about using GDB.
           quit   Exit from GDB.
           For full details on GDB, see Using GDB: A Guide to the GNU Source-Level
           Debugger, by Richard M. Stallman and Roland H. Pesch.  The same text is
           available online as the gdb entry in the info program.


           Any  arguments  other  than options specify an executable file and core
           file (or process ID); that is, the first argument encountered  with  no
           associated option flag is equivalent to a '-se' option, and the second,
           if any, is equivalent to a '-c' option if it's  the  name  of  a  file.
           Many  options have both long and short forms; both are shown here.  The
           long forms are also recognized if you truncate them, so long as  enough
           of  the  option  is present to be unambiguous.  (If you prefer, you can
           flag option arguments with '+' rather than '-',  though  we  illustrate
           the more usual convention.)
           All  the  options  and command line arguments you give are processed in
           sequential order.  The order makes a difference when the '-x' option is
           -h     List all options, with brief explanations.
                    Read  symbol table from file file and use it as the executable
           -c file
                   Use file file as a core dump to examine.
           -x file
                   Execute GDB commands from file file.
           -d directory
                   Add directory to the path to search for source files.
           -n     Do not  execute  commands  from  any  '.gdbinit'  initialization
                  files.  Normally, the commands in these files are executed after
                  all the command options and arguments have been processed.
           -q     ''Quiet''.  Do not print the  introductory  and  copyright  mes-
                  sages.  These messages are also suppressed in batch mode.
           -batch Run  in batch mode.  Exit with status 0 after processing all the
                  command files specified with '-x' (and '.gdbinit', if not inhib-
                  ited).  Exit with nonzero status if an error occurs in executing
                  the GDB commands in the command files.
                  Batch mode may be useful for running GDB as a filter, for  exam-
                  ple  to download and run a program on another computer; in order
                  to make this more useful, the message
                  Program exited normally.
                  standard, recognizable fashion each time a stack frame  is  dis-
                  played  (which includes each time the program stops).  This rec-
                  ognizable format looks like two ' 32'  characters,  followed  by
                  the  file  name, line number and character position separated by
                  colons, and a newline.  The Emacs-to-GDB interface program  uses
                  the  two ' 32' characters as a signal to display the source code
                  for the frame.
           -b bps  Set the line speed (baud rate or bits per second) of any serial
                  interface used by GDB for remote debugging.
                    Run using device for your program's standard input and output.


           'gdb' entry in info; Using GDB: A Guide to the GNU Source-Level  Debug-
           ger, Richard M. Stallman and Roland H. Pesch, July 1991.


           Copyright (c) 1991, 2010 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
           Permission  is  granted  to make and distribute verbatim copies of this
           manual provided the copyright notice and  this  permission  notice  are
           preserved on all copies.
           Permission  is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this
           manual under the conditions for verbatim  copying,  provided  that  the
           entire  resulting derived work is distributed under the terms of a per-
           mission notice identical to this one.
           Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this  man-
           ual into another language, under the above conditions for modified ver-
           sions, except that this permission notice may be included  in  transla-
           tions approved by the Free Software Foundation instead of in the origi-
           nal English.

    GNU Tools 22may2002 gdb(1)


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