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           fuser [-a|-s|-c] [-4|-6] [-n  space ] [-k [-i] [-signal ] ] [-muvf]
           name ...
           fuser -l
           fuser -V


           fuser displays the PIDs of processes using the specified files or  file
           systems.   In the default display mode, each file name is followed by a
           letter denoting the type of access:
                  c      current directory.
                  e      executable being run.
                  f      open file. f is omitted in default display mode.
                  F      open file for writing. F is omitted  in  default  display
                  r      root directory.
                  m      mmap'ed file or shared library.
           fuser  returns a non-zero return code if none of the specified files is
           accessed or in case of a fatal error. If at least one access  has  been
           found, fuser returns zero.
           In  order  to  look  up processes using TCP and UDP sockets, the corre-
           sponding name space has to be selected with the -n option.  By  default
           fuser  will  look in both IPv6 and IPv4 sockets. To change the default,
           behavior, use the -4 and -6 options. The socket(s) can be specified  by
           the  local  and  remote  port,  and  the remote address. All fields are
           optional, but commas in front of missing fields must be present:
           Either symbolic or numeric values can be used for IP addresses and port
           fuser  outputs  only  the  PIDs  to  stdout, everything else is sent to


           -a     Show all files specified on the command line. By  default,  only
                  files that are accessed by at least one process are shown.
           -c     Same as -m option, used for POSIX compatibility.
           -f     Silently ignored, used for POSIX compatibility.
           -k     Kill  processes accessing the file. Unless changed with -signal,
                  mounted on that directory.
           -n space
                  Select a different name space. The name spaces file (file names,
                  the  default),  udp (local UDP ports), and tcp (local TCP ports)
                  are supported. For ports, either the port number or the symbolic
                  name  can  be  specified. If there is no ambiguity, the shortcut
                  notation name/Ispace (e.g. 80/tcp ) can be used.
           -s     Silent operation. -u and -v are ignored in this mode.   -a  must
                  not be used with -s.
                  Use  the  specified  signal instead of SIGKILL when killing pro-
                  cesses. Signals can be specified either by name (e.g.  -HUP)  or
                  by  number  (e.g. -1). This option is silently ignored if the -k
                  option is not used.
           -u     Append the user name of the process owner to each PID.
           -v     Verbose mode. Processes are shown in a ps-like style. The fields
                  PID,  USER  and  COMMAND are similar to ps. ACCESS shows how the
                  process accesses the file. If the access is by the kernel  (e.g.
                  in  the  case  of  a  mount point, a swap file, etc.), kernel is
                  shown instead of the PID.
           -V     Display version information.
           -4     Search only for IPv4 sockets. This option must not be used  with
                  the -6 option and only has an effect with the tcp and udp names-
           -6     Search only for IPv6 sockets. This option must not be used  with
                  the -4 option and only has an effect with the tcp and udp names-
           -      Reset all options and set the signal back to SIGKILL.


           /proc     location of the proc file system


           fuser -km /home kills all processes accessing the file system /home  in
           any way.
           if fuser -s /dev/ttyS1; then :; else something; fi invokes something if
           no other process is using /dev/ttyS1.
           fuser telnet/tcp shows all processes at the (local) TELNET port.


           Processes accessing the same file or file system several times  in  the
           kernels older than 1.3.78.
           udp  and tcp currently  work with IPv6 and IPv4, but the address fields
           can only be IPv4 addresses.
           Accesses by the kernel are only shown with the -v option.
           The -k option only works on processes. If the user is the kernel, fuser
           will print an advice, but take no action beyond that.


           fuser  -m  /dev/sgX will show (or kill with the -k flag) all processes,
           even if you don't have that  device  configured.  There  may  be  other
           devices it does this for too.
           fuser cannot report on any processes that it doesn't have permission to
           look at the file descriptor table for.  The most common time this prob-
           lem occurs is when looking for TCP or UDP sockets when running fuser as
           a non-root user. In this case fuser will report no access


           Werner Almesberger <>
           Craig Small <>


           kill(1), killall(1), lsof(8), ps(1), kill(2).

    Linux 2005-11-05 FUSER(1)


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