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               [-auditlog <path to log file>]
               [-audit-interface (file | sysvmq)]
               [-d <debug level>]
               [-p <number of processes>]
               [-spare <number of spare blocks>]
               [-pctspare <percentage spare>]
               [-b <buffers>]
               [-l <large vnodes>]
               [-s <small vnodes>]
               [-vc <volume cachesize>]
               [-w <call back wait interval>]
               [-cb <number of call backs>]
               [-implicit <admin mode bits: rlidwka>]
               [-hr <number of hours between refreshing the host cps>]
               [-busyat <redirect clients when queue > n>]
               [-rxpck <number of rx extra packets>]
               [-rxmaxmtu <bytes>]
               [-k <stack size>]
               [-realm <Kerberos realm name>]
               [-udpsize <size of socket buffer in bytes>]
               [-sendsize <size of send buffer in bytes>]
               [-abortthreshold <abort threshold>]
               [-syslog [< loglevel >]]
               [-vhandle-setaside <fds reserved for non-cache io>]
               [-vhandle-max-cachesize <max open files>]
               [-vhandle-initial-cachesize <fds reserved for non-cache io>]
               [-vattachpar <number of volume attach threads>]
               [-m <min percentage spare in partition>]


           The fileserver command initializes the File Server component of the
           "fs" process. In the conventional configuration, its binary file is
           The command's arguments enable the administrator to control many
           aspects of the File Server's performance, as detailed in OPTIONS.  By
           default the File Server sets values for many arguments that are
           suitable for a medium-sized file server machine. To set values suitable
           for a small or large file server machine, use the -S or -L flag
           respectively. The following list describes the parameters and
           corresponding argument for which the File Server sets default values,
           and the table below summarizes the setting for each of the three
           machine sizes.
           ?   The maximum number of lightweight processes (LWPs) or pthreads the
               File Server uses to handle requests for data; corresponds to the -p
               argument. The File Server always uses a minimum of 32 KB of memory
               for these processes.
           ?   The maximum number of directory blocks the File Server caches in
               memory; corresponds to the -b argument. Each cached directory block
               (buffer) consumes 2,092 bytes of memory.
           ?   The maximum number of large vnodes the File Server caches in memory
               for tracking directory elements; corresponds to the -l argument.
               Each large vnode consumes 292 bytes of memory.
           ?   The maximum number of small vnodes the File Server caches in memory
               for tracking file elements; corresponds to the -s argument.  Each
               small vnode consumes 100 bytes of memory.
           ?   The maximum volume cache size, which determines how many volumes
               the File Server can cache in memory before having to retrieve data
               from disk; corresponds to the -vc argument.
           ?   The maximum number of callback structures the File Server caches in
               memory; corresponds to the -cb argument. Each callback structure
               consumes 16 bytes of memory.
           ?   The maximum number of Rx packets the File Server uses; corresponds
               to the -rxpck argument. Each packet consumes 1544 bytes of memory.
           The default values are:
             Parameter (Argument)               Small (-S)     Medium   Large (-L)
             Number of LWPs (-p)                        6           9          128
             Number of cached dir blocks (-b)          70          90          120
             Number of cached large vnodes (-l)       200         400          600
             Number of cached small vnodes (-s)       200         400          600
             Maximum volume cache size (-vc)          200         400          600
             Number of callbacks (-cb)             20,000      60,000       64,000
             Number of Rx packets (-rxpck)            100         150          200
           To override any of the values, provide the indicated argument (which
           can be combined with the -S or -L flag).
           ?   Set the -spare argument to the number of extra kilobytes that the
               File Server allows as overage. A value of 0 allows no overage.
           ?   Set the -pctspare argument to the percentage of the volume's quota
               the File Server allows as overage.
           By default, the File Server implicitly grants the "a" (administer) and
           "l" (lookup) permissions to system:administrators on the access control
           list (ACL) of every directory in the volumes stored on its file server
           machine. In other words, the group's members can exercise those two
           permissions even when an entry for the group does not appear on an ACL.
           To change the set of default permissions, use the -implicit argument.
           The File Server maintains a host current protection subgroup (host CPS)
           for each client machine from which it has received a data access
           request. Like the CPS for a user, a host CPS lists all of the
           Protection Database groups to which the machine belongs, and the File
           Server compares the host CPS to a directory's ACL to determine in what
           manner users on the machine are authorized to access the directory's
           contents. When the pts adduser or pts removeuser command is used to
           change the groups to which a machine belongs, the File Server must
           recompute the machine's host CPS in order to notice the change. By
           default, the File Server contacts the Protection Server every two hours
           to recompute host CPSs, implying that it can take that long for changed
           group memberships to become effective. To change this frequency, use
           the -hr argument.
           The File Server stores volumes in partitions. A partition is a
           filesystem or directory on the server machine that is named "/vicepX"
           or "/vicepXX" where XX is "a" through "z" or "aa" though "iv". Up to
           255 partitions are allowed. The File Server expects that the /vicepXX
           directories are each on a dedicated filesystem. The File Server will
           only use a /vicepXX if it's a mountpoint for another filesystem, unless
           the file "/vicepXX/AlwaysAttach" exists. The data in the partition is a
           special format that can only be access using OpenAFS commands or an
           OpenAFS client.
           The File Server generates the following message when a partition is
           nearly full:
              No space left on device
           This command does not use the syntax conventions of the AFS command
           suites. Provide the command name and all option names in full.


           There are two strategies the File Server can use for attaching AFS
           volumes at startup and handling volume salvages.  The traditional
           method assumes all volumes are salvaged before the File Server starts
           and attaches all volumes at start before serving files.  The newer
           demand-attach method attaches volumes only on demand, salvaging them at
           operating systems the File Server uses native threads rather than the
           LWP threads, so using the -k argument to set the number of LWP threads
           has no effect.
           Do not specify both the -spare and -pctspare arguments. Doing so causes
           the File Server to exit, leaving an error message in the
           /var/log/openafs/FileLog file.
           Options that are available only on some system types, such as the -m
           and -lock options, appear in the output generated by the -help option
           only on the relevant system type.
           Currently, the maximum size of a volume is 2 terabytes (2^31 bytes) and
           the maximum size of a /vicepX partition on a fileserver is 2^64
           kilobytes. The maximum partition size in releases 1.4.7 and earlier is
           2 terabytes (2^31 bytes). The maximum partition size for 1.5.x releases
           1.5.34 and earlier is 2 terabytes as well.
           The maximum number of directory entries is 64,000 if all of the entries
           have names that are 15 octets or less in length. A name that is 15
           octets long requires the use of only one block in the directory.
           Additional sequential blocks are required to store entries with names
           that are longer than 15 octets. Each additional block provides an
           additional length of 32 octets for the name of the entry. Note that if
           file names use an encoding like UTF-8, a single character may be
           encoded into multiple octets.
           In real world use, the maximum number of objects in an AFS directory is
           usually between 16,000 and 25,000, depending on the average name


           -auditlog <log path>
               Turns on audit logging, and sets the path for the audit log.  The
               audit log records information about RPC calls, including the name
               of the RPC call, the host that submitted the call, the
               authenticated entity (user) that issued the call, the parameters
               for the call, and if the call succeeded or failed.
           -audit-interface (file | sysvmq)
               Specifies what audit interface to use. The "file" interface writes
               audit messages to the file passed to -auditlog. The "sysvmq"
               interface writes audit messages to a SYSV message (see msgget(2)
               and msgrcv(2)). The message queue the "sysvmq" interface writes to
               has the key "ftok(path, 1)", where "path" is the path specified in
               the -auditlog option.
               Defaults to "file".
           -d <debug level>
               Sets the detail level for the debugging trace written to the
               /var/log/openafs/FileLog file. Provide one of the following values,
           -spare <number of spare blocks>
               Specifies the number of additional kilobytes an application can
               store in a volume after the quota is exceeded. Provide a positive
               integer; a value of 0 prevents the volume from ever exceeding its
               quota. Do not combine this argument with the -pctspare argument.
           -pctspare <percentage spare>
               Specifies the amount by which the File Server allows a volume to
               exceed its quota, as a percentage of the quota. Provide an integer
               between 0 and 99. A value of 0 prevents the volume from ever
               exceeding its quota. Do not combine this argument with the -spare
           -b <buffers>
               Sets the number of directory buffers. Provide a positive integer.
           -l <large vnodes>
               Sets the number of large vnodes available in memory for caching
               directory elements. Provide a positive integer.
           -s <small nodes>
               Sets the number of small vnodes available in memory for caching
               file elements. Provide a positive integer.
           -vc <volume cachesize>
               Sets the number of volumes the File Server can cache in memory.
               Provide a positive integer.
           -w <call back wait interval>
               Sets the interval at which the daemon spawned by the File Server
               performs its maintenance tasks. Do not use this argument; changing
               the default value can cause unpredictable behavior.
           -cb <number of callbacks>
               Sets the number of callbacks the File Server can track. Provide a
               positive integer.
               Prints the following banner to /dev/console about every 10 minutes.
                  File Server is running at I<time>.
               Prevents the File Server from breaking the callbacks that Cache
               Managers hold on a volume that the File Server is reattaching after
               the volume was offline (as a result of the vos restore command, for
               example). Use of this flag is strongly discouraged.
           -implicit <admin mode bits>
               Defines the set of permissions granted by default to the
               system:administrators group on the ACL of every directory in a
               volume stored on the file server machine. Provide one or more of
               access data for which those machines now have the necessary ACL
           -busyat <redirect clients when queue > n>
               Defines the number of incoming RPCs that can be waiting for a
               response from the File Server before the File Server returns the
               error code "VBUSY" to the Cache Manager that sent the latest RPC.
               In response, the Cache Manager retransmits the RPC after a delay.
               This argument prevents the accumulation of so many waiting RPCs
               that the File Server can never process them all. Provide a positive
               integer.  The default value is 600.
           -rxpck <number of rx extra packets>
               Controls the number of Rx packets the File Server uses to store
               data for incoming RPCs that it is currently handling, that are
               waiting for a response, and for replies that are not yet complete.
               Provide a positive integer.
               Writes a trace of the File Server's operations on Rx packets to the
               file /var/log/openafs/rx_dbg.
               Writes a trace of the File Server's operations on Rx events (such
               as retransmissions) to the file /var/log/openafs/rx_dbg.
           -rxmaxmtu <bytes>
               Defines the maximum size of an MTU.  The value must be between the
               minimum and maximum packet data sizes for Rx.
               Allows the server to send and receive jumbograms. A jumbogram is a
               large-size packet composed of 2 to 4 normal Rx data packets that
               share the same header. The fileserver does not use jumbograms by
               default, as some routers are not capable of properly breaking the
               jumbogram into smaller packets and reassembling them.
               Deprecated; jumbograms are disabled by default.
               Force the fileserver to only bind to one IP address.
               By default, the RXKAD security layer will disallow access by
               Kerberos principals with a dot in the first component of their
               name. This is to avoid the confusion where principals user/admin
               and user.admin are both mapped to the user.admin PTS entry. Sites
               whose Kerberos realms don't have these collisions between principal
               names may disable this check by starting the server with this
           -realm <Kerberos realm name>
               Defines the Kerberos realm name for the File Server to use. If this
               argument is not provided, it uses the realm name corresponding to
               the cell listed in the local /etc/openafs/server/ThisCell file.
           -udpsize <size of socket buffer in bytes>
               Sets the size of the UDP buffer, which is 64 KB by default. Provide
               a positive integer, preferably larger than the default.
           -sendsize <size of send buffer in bytes>
               Sets the size of the send buffer, which is 16384 bytes by default.
           -abortthreshold <abort threshold>
               Sets the abort threshold, which is triggered when an AFS client
               sends a number of FetchStatus requests in a row and all of them
               fail due to access control or some other error. When the abort
               threshold is reached, the file server starts to slow down the
               responses to the problem client in order to reduce the load on the
               file server.
               The throttling behaviour can cause issues especially for some
               versions of the Windows OpenAFS client. When using Windows Explorer
               to navigate the AFS directory tree, directories with only "look"
               access for the current user may load more slowly because of the
               throttling. This is because the Windows OpenAFS client sends
               FetchStatus calls one at a time instead of in bulk like the Unix
               Open AFS client.
               Setting the threshold to 0 disables the throttling behavior. This
               option is available in OpenAFS versions 1.4.1 and later.
               Activates the collection of Rx statistics and allocates memory for
               their storage. For each connection with a specific UDP port on
               another machine, a separate record is kept for each type of RPC
               (FetchFile, GetStatus, and so on) sent or received. To display or
               otherwise access the records, use the Rx Monitoring API.
               Activates the collection of Rx statistics and allocates memory for
               their storage. A separate record is kept for each type of RPC
               (FetchFile, GetStatus, and so on) sent or received, aggregated over
               all connections to other machines. To display or otherwise access
               the records, use the Rx Monitoring API.
           -syslog [<loglevel]
               Use syslog instead of the normal logging location for the
               fileserver process.  If provided, log messages are at <loglevel>
               instead of the default LOG_USER.
           -vhandle-max-cachesize <max open files>
               Maximum number of available file handles.
           -vhandle-initial-cachesize <initial open file cache>
               Number of file handles set aside for I/O in the cache. Defaults to
           -vattachpar <number of volume attach threads>
               The number of threads assigned to attach and detach volumes.  The
               default is 1.  Warning: many of the I/O parallelism features of
               Demand-Attach Fileserver are turned off when the number of volume
               attach threads is only 1.
               This option is only meaningful for a file server built with
               pthreads support.
           -m <min percentage spare in partition>
               Specifies the percentage of each AFS server partition that the AIX
               version of the File Server creates as a reserve. Specify an integer
               value between 0 and 30; the default is 8%. A value of 0 means that
               the partition can become completely full, which can have serious
               negative consequences.  This option is not supported on platforms
               other than AIX.
               Prevents any portion of the fileserver binary from being paged
               (swapped) out of memory on a file server machine running the IRIX
               operating system.  This option is not supported on platforms other
               than IRIX.


           The following bos create command creates a traditional fs process on
           the file server machine "" that uses the large configuration
           size, and allows volumes to exceed their quota by 10%. Type the command
           on a single line:
              % bos create -server -instance fs -type fs \
                           -cmd "/usr/lib/openafs/fileserver -pctspare 10 -L" \
                           /usr/lib/openafs/volserver /usr/lib/openafs/salvager


           Sending process signals to the File Server Process can change its
           behavior in the following ways:
             Process          Signal       OS     Result
             File Server      XCPU        Unix    Prints a list of client IP
             File Server      USR2      Windows   Prints a list of client IP
             Other Servers    TERM        Any     Causes the process to quit.
             File Server      QUIT        Any     Causes the File Server to Quit.
                                                  Bos Server knows this.
           The basic metric of whether an AFS file server is doing well is the
           number of connections waiting for a thread, which can be found by
           running the following command:
              % rxdebug <server> | grep waiting_for | wc -l
           Each line returned by "rxdebug" that contains the text "waiting_for"
           represents a connection that's waiting for a file server thread.
           If the blocked connection count is ever above 0, the server is having
           problems replying to clients in a timely fashion.  If it gets above 10,
           roughly, there will be noticeable slowness by the user.  The total
           number of connections is a mostly irrelevant number that goes
           essentially monotonically for as long as the server has been running
           and then goes back down to zero when it's restarted.
           The most common cause of blocked connections rising on a server is some
           process somewhere performing an abnormal number of accesses to that
           server and its volumes.  If multiple servers have a blocked connection
           count, the most likely explanation is that there is a volume replicated
           between those servers that is absorbing an abnormally high access rate.
           To get an access count on all the volumes on a server, run:
              % vos listvol <server> -long
           and save the output in a file.  The results will look like a bunch of
           vos examine output for each volume on the server.  Look for lines like:
              40065 accesses in the past day (i.e., vnode references)
           and look for volumes with an abnormally high number of accesses.
           Anything over 10,000 is fairly high, but some volumes like root.cell
           and other volumes close to the root of the cell will have that many
           hits routinely.  Anything over 100,000 is generally abnormally high.
           The count resets about once a day.
           Another approach that can be used to narrow the possibilities for a
           replicated volume, when multiple servers are having trouble, is to find
           all replicated volumes for that server.  Run:
              % vos listvldb -server <server>
           where <server> is one of the servers having problems to refresh the
           VLDB cache, and then run:
           output of:
              % /usr/afsws/etc/rxdebug <server> -rxstats
           but the best way is to turn on debugging output from the file server.
           (Warning: This generates a lot of output into FileLog on the AFS
           server.)  To do this, log on to the AFS server, find the PID of the
           fileserver process, and do:
               kill -TSTP <pid>
           where <pid> is the PID of the file server process.  This will raise the
           debugging level so that you'll start seeing what people are actually
           doing on the server.  You can do this up to three more times to get
           even more output if needed.  To reset the debugging level back to
           normal, use (The following command will NOT terminate the file server):
               kill -HUP <pid>
           The debugging setting on the File Server should be reset back to normal
           when debugging is no longer needed.  Otherwise, the AFS server may well
           fill its disks with debugging output.
           The lines of the debugging output that are most useful for debugging
           load problems are:
               SAFS_FetchStatus,  Fid = 2003828163.77154.82248, Host
               SRXAFS_FetchData, Fid = 2003828163.77154.82248
           (The example above is partly truncated to highlight the interesting
           information).  The Fid identifies the volume and inode within the
           volume; the volume is the first long number.  So, for example, this
              % vos examine 2003828163
              pubsw.matlab61                   2003828163 RW    1040060 K  On-line
                  afssvr5.Stanford.EDU /vicepa
                  RWrite 2003828163 ROnly 2003828164 Backup 2003828165
                  MaxQuota    3000000 K
                  Creation    Mon Aug  6 16:40:55 2001
                  Last Update Tue Jul 30 19:00:25 2002
                  86181 accesses in the past day (i.e., vnode references)
                  RWrite: 2003828163    ROnly: 2003828164    Backup: 2003828165
                  number of sites -> 3
                     server afssvr5.Stanford.EDU partition /vicepa RW Site
                     server afssvr11.Stanford.EDU partition /vicepd RO Site
                     server afssvr5.Stanford.EDU partition /vicepa RO Site
           and from the Host information one can tell what system is accessing
           that volume.
           BosConfig(5), FileLog(5), bos_create(8), bos_getlog(8), fs_setacl(1),
           msgget(2), msgrcv(2), salvager(8), volserver(8), vos_examine(1)


           IBM Corporation 2000. <> All Rights Reserved.
           This documentation is covered by the IBM Public License Version 1.0.
           It was converted from HTML to POD by software written by Chas Williams
           and Russ Allbery, based on work by Alf Wachsmann and Elizabeth Cassell.

    OpenAFS 2012-04-18 FILESERVER(8)


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