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  • LINUX man pages
  • Linux Man Page Viewer


    The following form allows you to view linux man pages.

    Command:

    etext

    
    
    

    SYNOPSIS

           extern etext;
           extern edata;
           extern end;
    
    
    

    DESCRIPTION

           The addresses of these symbols indicate the end of various program seg-
           ments:
    
           etext  This is the first address past the end of the text segment  (the
                  program code).
    
           edata  This  is  the first address past the end of the initialized data
                  segment.
    
           end    This is the first address past the end of the uninitialized data
                  segment (also known as the BSS segment).
    
    
    

    CONFORMING TO

           Although  these  symbols  have long been provided on most UNIX systems,
           they are not standardized; use with caution.
    
    
    

    NOTES

           The program must explicitly declare these symbols; they are not defined
           in any header file.
    
           On some systems the names of these symbols are preceded by underscores,
           thus: _etext, _edata, and _end.  These symbols  are  also  defined  for
           programs compiled on Linux.
    
           At  the start of program execution, the program break will be somewhere
           near &end (perhaps at the start of the following page).   However,  the
           break  will change as memory is allocated via brk(2) or malloc(3).  Use
           sbrk(2) with an argument of zero to find the current value of the  pro-
           gram break.
    
    
    

    EXAMPLE

           When run, the program below produces output such as the following:
    
               $ ./a.out
               First address past:
                   program text (etext)       0x8048568
                   initialized data (edata)   0x804a01c
                   uninitialized data (end)   0x804a024
    
       Program source
    
           #include <stdio.h>
           #include <stdlib.h>
    
           extern char etext, edata, end; /* The symbols must have some type,
                                              or "gcc -Wall" complains */
    
    
    

    GNU 2008-07-17 END(3)

    
    
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