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    Command:

    eqn

    
    
    

    SYNOPSIS

           eqn [ -rvCNR ] [ -dxy ] [ -Tname ] [ -Mdir ] [ -fF ] [ -sn ] [ -pn ]
               [ -mn ] [ files... ]
    
           It is possible to have whitespace between a command line option and its
           parameter.
    
    
    

    DESCRIPTION

           This manual page describes the GNU version of eqn, which is part of the
           groff document formatting system.  eqn compiles descriptions  of  equa-
           tions  embedded  within troff input files into commands that are under-
           stood by troff.  Normally, it should be invoked using the -e option  of
           groff.   The  syntax  is quite compatible with Unix eqn.  The output of
           GNU eqn cannot be processed with Unix troff; it must be processed  with
           GNU  troff.   If  no  files are given on the command line, the standard
           input will be read.  A filename of - will cause the standard  input  to
           be read.
    
           eqn  searches  for  the file eqnrc in the directories given with the -M
           option      first,      then       in       /usr/lib64/groff/site-tmac,
           /usr/share/groff/site-tmac, and finally in the standard macro directory
           /usr/share/groff/1.18.1.4/tmac.  If it  exists,  eqn  will  process  it
           before the other input files.  The -R option prevents this.
    
           GNU eqn does not provide the functionality of neqn: it does not support
           low-resolution, typewriter-like devices  (although  it  may  work  ade-
           quately for very simple input).
    
    
    

    OPTIONS

           -dxy   Specify  delimiters  x and y for the left and right end, respec-
                  tively, of in-line  equations.   Any  delim  statements  in  the
                  source file overrides this.
    
           -C     Recognize  .EQ  and  .EN even when followed by a character other
                  than space or newline.
    
           -N     Don't allow newlines within delimiters.  This option allows  eqn
                  to recover better from missing closing delimiters.
    
           -v     Print the version number.
    
           -r     Only one size reduction.
    
           -mn    The  minimum  point-size  is n.  eqn will not reduce the size of
                  subscripts or superscripts to a smaller size than n.
    
           -Tname The output is for device name.  The only effect of  this  is  to
                  define a macro name with a value of 1.  Typically eqnrc will use
                  this to provide definitions appropriate for the  output  device.
                  The default output device is ps.
    
           -Mdir  Search dir for eqnrc before the default directories.
    
    
    

    USAGE

           Only the differences between GNU eqn and Unix eqn are described here.
    
           Most of the new features of GNU eqn are based on TeX.  There  are  some
           references  to the differences between TeX and GNU eqn below; these may
           safely be ignored if you do not know TeX.
    
       Automatic spacing
           eqn gives each component of an equation a type, and adjusts the spacing
           between components using that type.  Possible types are:
    
           ordinary     an ordinary character such as 1 or x;
    
           operator     a large operator such as ?;
    
           binary       a binary operator such as +;
    
           relation     a relation such as =;
    
           opening      a opening bracket such as (;
    
           closing      a closing bracket such as );
    
           punctuation  a punctuation character such as ,;
    
           inner        a subformula contained within brackets;
    
           suppress     spacing that suppresses automatic spacing adjustment.
    
           Components of an equation get a type in one of two ways.
    
           type t e
                  This  yields  an equation component that contains e but that has
                  type t, where t is one of the types mentioned above.  For  exam-
                  ple, times is defined as
    
                         type "binary" \(mu
    
                  The name of the type doesn't have to be quoted, but quoting pro-
                  tects from macro expansion.
    
           chartype t text
                  Unquoted groups of characters are split up into individual char-
                  acters,  and  the  type  of  each  character  is looked up; this
                  changes the type that is stored for each character; it says that
                  the characters in text from now on have type t.  For example,
    
                         chartype "punctuation" .,;:
    
                  would  make  the  characters .,;: have type punctuation whenever
                  they subsequently appeared in an equation.  The type t can  also
                  be  letter  or  digit;  in these cases chartype changes the font
                  fractions.  For example, sum is defined as
    
                         { type "operator" vcenter size +5 \(*S }
    
           e1 accent e2
                  This  sets  e2 as an accent over e1.  e2 is assumed to be at the
                  correct height for a lowercase letter; e2  will  be  moved  down
                  according  if  e1  is taller or shorter than a lowercase letter.
                  For example, hat is defined as
    
                         accent { "^" }
    
                  dotdot, dot, tilde, vec and dyad  are  also  defined  using  the
                  accent primitive.
    
           e1 uaccent e2
                  This  sets e2 as an accent under e1.  e2 is assumed to be at the
                  correct height for a character without a descender; e2  will  be
                  moved  down  if e1 has a descender.  utilde is pre-defined using
                  uaccent as a tilde accent below the baseline.
    
           split "text"
                  This has the same effect as simply
    
                         text
    
                  but text is not subject to macro expansion because it is quoted;
                  text will be split up and the spacing between individual charac-
                  ters will be adjusted.
    
           nosplit text
                  This has the same effect as
    
                         "text"
    
                  but because text is not quoted  it  will  be  subject  to  macro
                  expansion;  text  will  not  be split up and the spacing between
                  individual characters will not be adjusted.
    
           e opprime
                  This is a variant of prime that acts as an operator  on  e.   It
                  produces  a  different  result  from  prime  in  a  case such as
                  A opprime sub 1: with opprime the 1 will  be  tucked  under  the
                  prime  as a subscript to the A (as is conventional in mathemati-
                  cal typesetting), whereas with prime the 1 will be  a  subscript
                  to  the  prime character.  The precedence of opprime is the same
                  as that of bar and under, which is higher than  that  of  every-
                  thing  except  accent and uaccent.  In unquoted text a ' that is
                  not the first character will be treated like opprime.
    
           special text e
                  This constructs a new object from e using a troff(1) macro named
    
                         .EQ
                         define cancel 'special Ca'
                         .EN
                         .de Ca
                         .ds 0s \Z'\\*(0s'\v'\\n(0du'\D'l \\n(0wu -\\n(0hu-\\n(0du'\v'\\n(0hu'
                         ..
    
                  Then you could cancel an expression e with cancel { e }
    
                  Here's a more complicated construct that draws a  box  round  an
                  expression:
    
                         .EQ
                         define box 'special Bx'
                         .EN
                         .de Bx
                         .ds 0s \Z'\h'1n'\\*(0s'\
                         \Z'\v'\\n(0du+1n'\D'l \\n(0wu+2n 0'\D'l 0 -\\n(0hu-\\n(0du-2n'\
                         \D'l -\\n(0wu-2n 0'\D'l 0 \\n(0hu+\\n(0du+2n''\h'\\n(0wu+2n'
                         .nr 0w +2n
                         .nr 0d +1n
                         .nr 0h +1n
                         ..
    
       Customization
           The  appearance of equations is controlled by a large number of parame-
           ters. These can be set using the set command.
    
           set p n
                  This sets parameter p to value n ; n is an integer.   For  exam-
                  ple,
    
                         set x_height 45
    
                  says that eqn should assume an x height of 0.45 ems.
    
                  Possible parameters are as follows.  Values are in units of hun-
                  dredths of an em unless otherwise  stated.   These  descriptions
                  are intended to be expository rather than definitive.
    
                  minimum_size            eqn  will  not set anything at a smaller
                                          point-size than this.  The value  is  in
                                          points.
    
                  fat_offset              The  fat primitive emboldens an equation
                                          by overprinting two copies of the  equa-
                                          tion horizontally offset by this amount.
    
                  over_hang               A fraction bar will be longer  by  twice
                                          this  amount  than  the  maximum  of the
                                          widths of the numerator and denominator;
                                          combined  height  and  depth of at least
                                          this many thousandths of twice the maxi-
                                          mum  amount  by  which  the sub-equation
                                          that the delimiters enclose extends away
                                          from the axis.
    
                  delimiter_shortfall     Extensible  delimiters produced with the
                                          left and right primitives  will  have  a
                                          combined  height and depth not less than
                                          the  difference  of  twice  the  maximum
                                          amount  by  which  the sub-equation that
                                          the delimiters enclose extends away from
                                          the axis and this amount.
    
                  null_delimiter_space    This  much  horizontal space is inserted
                                          on each side of a fraction.
    
                  script_space            The width of subscripts and superscripts
                                          is increased by this amount.
    
                  thin_space              This  amount  of  space is automatically
                                          inserted after punctuation characters.
    
                  medium_space            This amount of  space  is  automatically
                                          inserted on either side of binary opera-
                                          tors.
    
                  thick_space             This amount of  space  is  automatically
                                          inserted on either side of relations.
    
                  x_height                The  height of lowercase letters without
                                          ascenders such as x.
    
                  axis_height             The height above  the  baseline  of  the
                                          center  of  characters  such as + and -.
                                          It is important that this value is  cor-
                                          rect for the font you are using.
    
                  default_rule_thickness  This  should set to the thickness of the
                                          \(ru character, or the thickness of hor-
                                          izontal   lines  produced  with  the  \D
                                          escape sequence.
    
                  num1                    The  over  command  will  shift  up  the
                                          numerator by at least this amount.
    
                  num2                    The  smallover command will shift up the
                                          numerator by at least this amount.
    
                  denom1                  The over command  will  shift  down  the
                                          denominator by at least this amount.
    
                                          its will be shifted up by at least  this
                                          amount.  This is usually less than sup2.
    
                  sub1                    Subscripts will normally be shifted down
                                          by at least this amount.
    
                  sub2                    When  there  is  both  a subscript and a
                                          superscript,  the  subscript   will   be
                                          shifted down by at least this amount.
    
                  sup_drop                The baseline of a superscript will be no
                                          more than this much amount below the top
                                          of  the  object on which the superscript
                                          is set.
    
                  sub_drop                The baseline of a subscript will  be  at
                                          least  this much below the bottom of the
                                          object on which the subscript is set.
    
                  big_op_spacing1         The baseline of an upper limit  will  be
                                          at  least this much above the top of the
                                          object on which the limit is set.
    
                  big_op_spacing2         The baseline of a lower limit will be at
                                          least  this much below the bottom of the
                                          object on which the limit is set.
    
                  big_op_spacing3         The bottom of an upper limit will be  at
                                          least  this  much  above  the top of the
                                          object on which the limit is set.
    
                  big_op_spacing4         The top of a  lower  limit  will  be  at
                                          least  this much below the bottom of the
                                          object on which the limit is set.
    
                  big_op_spacing5         This much vertical space will  be  added
                                          above and below limits.
    
                  baseline_sep            The  baselines  of the rows in a pile or
                                          matrix will normally be this far  apart.
                                          In  most  cases  this should be equal to
                                          the sum of num1 and denom1.
    
                  shift_down              The midpoint between  the  top  baseline
                                          and  the  bottom baseline in a matrix or
                                          pile will be shifted down by  this  much
                                          from  the  axis.   In  most  cases  this
                                          should be equal to axis_height.
    
                  column_sep              This much space will  be  added  between
                                          columns in a matrix.
    
                  body_depth              The  amount  by  which  the depth of the
                                          equation exceeds this will be  added  as
                                          extra  space  after  the line containing
                                          the equation (using  \x.)   The  default
                                          value is 35.
    
                  nroff                   If  this  is non-zero, then ndefine will
                                          behave like define and tdefine  will  be
                                          ignored,  otherwise  tdefine will behave
                                          like define and ndefine will be ignored.
                                          The  default  value  is 0 (This is typi-
                                          cally changed to 1 by the eqnrc file for
                                          the  ascii,  latin1,  utf8,  and  cp1047
                                          devices.)
    
                  A more precise description of the role of many of these  parame-
                  ters can be found in Appendix H of The TeXbook.
    
       Macros
           Macros  can  take  arguments.  In a macro body, $n where n is between 1
           and 9, will be replaced by the n-th argument if  the  macro  is  called
           with  arguments;  if  there  are  fewer  than  n  arguments, it will be
           replaced by nothing.  A word containing a left  parenthesis  where  the
           part of the word before the left parenthesis has been defined using the
           define command will be recognized as a macro call with arguments; char-
           acters  following the left parenthesis up to a matching right parenthe-
           sis will be treated as comma-separated arguments; commas inside  nested
           parentheses do not terminate an argument.
    
           sdefine name X anything X
                  This is like the define command, but name will not be recognized
                  if called with arguments.
    
           include "file"
                  Include the contents of file.  Lines of file beginning with  .EQ
                  or .EN will be ignored.
    
           ifdef name X anything X
                  If  name  has  been defined by define (or has been automatically
                  defined because name is the  output  device)  process  anything;
                  otherwise ignore anything.  X can be any character not appearing
                  in anything.
    
       Fonts
           eqn normally uses at least two fonts to set an equation: an italic font
           for  letters, and a roman font for everything else.  The existing gfont
           command changes the font that is used as the italic font.   By  default
           this  is  I.   The  font  that is used as the roman font can be changed
           using the new grfont command.
    
           grfont f
                  Set the roman font to f.
    
           /usr/share/groff/1.18.1.4/tmac/eqnrc
                  Initialization file.
    
    
    

    BUGS

           Inline equations will be set at the point size that is current  at  the
           beginning of the input line.
    
    
    

    SEE ALSO

           groff(1), troff(1), groff_font(5), The TeXbook
    
    
    

    Groff Version 1.18.1.4 05 October 2001 EQN(1)

    
    
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