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           dvips [ options ] file[.dvi]


           THIS MAN PAGE IS OBSOLETE!  See the Texinfo documentation instead.  You
           can read it either in Emacs or with the standalone info  program  which
           comes with the GNU texinfo distribution as
           The program dvips takes a DVI file file[.dvi] produced by  TeX  (or  by
           some  other  processor  such as GFtoDVI) and converts it to PostScript,
           normally sending the result directly to the  (laser)printer.   The  DVI
           file  may  be  specified  without  the  .dvi extension.  Fonts used may
           either be resident in the printer or defined as bitmaps in PK files, or
           a  'virtual' combination of both.  If the mktexpk program is installed,
           dvips will automatically invoke METAFONT to generate fonts  that  don't
           already exist.
           For  more  information, see the Texinfo manual dvips.texi, which should
           be installed somewhere on your system, hopefully accessible through the
           standard Info tree.


           -a     Conserve  memory  by  making  three  passes  over  the .dvi file
                  instead of two and only loading those characters actually  used.
                  Generally  only useful on machines with a very limited amount of
                  memory, like some PCs.
           -A     Print only odd pages (TeX pages, not sequence pages).
           -b num Generate num copies of each page, but duplicating the page  body
                  rather  than using the #numcopies option.  This can be useful in
                  conjunction with a header file setting  \bop-hook  to  do  color
                  separations or other neat tricks.
           -B     Print only even pages (TeX pages, not sequence pages).
           -c num Generate num copies of every page.  Default is 1.  (For collated
                  copies, see the -C option below.)
           -C num Create num copies, but collated (by replicating the data in  the
                  PostScript  file).  Slower than the -c option, but easier on the
                  hands, and faster than resubmitting  the  same  PostScript  file
                  multiple times.
           -d num Set  the  debug flags.  This is intended only for emergencies or
                  for unusual fact-finding expeditions; it will work only if dvips
                  has  been  compiled  with  the DEBUG option.  If nonzero, prints
                  additional information on standard error.  The number  is  taken
                  as  a set of independent bits.  The meaning of each bit follows.
                  1=specials; 2=paths; 4=fonts; 8=pages; 16=headers; 32=font  com-
                  pression;  64=files;  128=memory;  256=Kpathsea  stat(2)  calls;
           -e num Make sure that each character is placed at most this many pixels
                  from its 'true' resolution-independent position on the page. The
                  default value of this parameter is resolution dependent.  Allow-
                  ing  individual  characters  to  'drift'  from  their  correctly
                  rounded positions by a few  pixels,  while  regaining  the  true
                  position at the beginning of each new word, improves the spacing
                  of letters in words.
           -E     makes dvips attempt to generate an EPSF file with a tight bound-
                  ing  box.   This only works on one-page files, and it only looks
                  at marks made by characters  and  rules,  not  by  any  included
                  graphics.   In  addition, it gets the glyph metrics from the tfm
                  file, so characters that lie outside their enclosing tfm box may
                  confuse  it.   In  addition, the bounding box might be a bit too
                  loose if the character glyph has significant left or right  side
                  bearings.   Nonetheless,  this  option  works  well for creating
                  small EPSF files for equations or tables or the like.  (Note, of
                  course,  that dvips output is resolution dependent and thus does
                  not make very good EPSF files, especially if the images  are  to
                  be scaled; use these EPSF files with a great deal of care.)
           -f     Run  as  a  filter.   Read the .dvi file from standard input and
                  write the PostScript to standard  output.   The  standard  input
                  must  be  seekable,  so  it cannot be a pipe.  If you must use a
                  pipe, write a shell script that copies the pipe output to a tem-
                  porary  file  and  then  points dvips at this file.  This option
                  also disables the automatic reading of the  PRINTER  environment
                  variable, and turns off the automatic sending of control D if it
                  was turned on with the -F option or in the  configuration  file;
                  use -F after this option if you want both.
           -F     Causes  Control-D (ASCII code 4) to be appended as the very last
                  character of the PostScript file.  This is useful when dvips  is
                  driving  the  printer  directly  instead  of  working  through a
                  spooler, as is common on extremely small systems.  NOTE! DO  NOT
                  USE THIS OPTION!
           -G     Causes dvips to shift non-printing characters to higher-numbered
                  positions.  This may be useful sometimes.
           -h name
                  Prepend file name as an additional header file. (However, if the
                  name  is  simply '-' suppress all header files from the output.)
                  This header file gets added to the PostScript userdict.
           -i     Make each section be a separate  file.   Under  certain  circum-
                  stances,  dvips will split the document up into 'sections' to be
                  processed independently; this is most often done for memory rea-
                  sons.   Using this option tells dvips to place each section into
                  a separate file; the new file names are  created  replacing  the
                  suffix  of  the  supplied  output  file  name  by  a three-digit
                  sequence number.  This option is most often used in  conjunction
                  each  page  by  a quarter inch and draws cross-style crop marks.
                  It is mostly useful with typesetters that can set the page  size
           -K     This  option  causes  comments  in included PostScript graphics,
                  font files, and headers to be removed.  This is sometimes neces-
                  sary  to get around bugs in spoolers or PostScript post-process-
                  ing programs.  Specifically, the %%Page comments, when left  in,
                  often  cause  difficulties.   Use  of  this  flag can cause some
                  included graphics to fail, since the  PostScript  header  macros
                  from  some  software  packages read portions of the input stream
                  line by line, searching for a particular comment.   This  option
                  has been turned off by default because PostScript previewers and
                  spoolers have been getting better.
           -l num The last page printed will be the first one numbered num Default
                  is  the last page in the document.  If the num is prefixed by an
                  equals sign, then it (and any argument  to  the  -p  option)  is
                  treated  as  a  sequence  number, rather than a value to compare
                  with \count0 values.  Thus, using -l =9 will end with the  ninth
                  page of the document, no matter what the pages are actually num-
           -m     Specify manual feed for printer.
           -mode mode
                  Use mode as the Metafont device name for path searching and font
                  generation.   This overrides any value from configuration files.
                  With the default paths,  explicitly  specifying  the  mode  also
                  makes  the  program assume the fonts are in a subdirectory named
           -M     Turns off the automatic font generation facility.  If any  fonts
                  are  missing, commands to generate the fonts are appended to the
                  file missfont.log in the current directory; this file  can  then
                  be executed and deleted to create the missing fonts.
           -n num At most num pages will be printed. Default is 100000.
           -N     Turns  off  structured comments; this might be necessary on some
                  systems that try to interpret PostScript comments in weird ways,
                  or  on  some PostScript printers.  Old versions of TranScript in
                  particular cannot handle modern Encapsulated PostScript.
                  This will disable the use of Omega extensions when  interpreting
                  DVI  files.   By default, the additional opcodes 129 and 134 are
                  recognized by dvips  as  Omega  extensions  and  interpreted  as
                  requests to set 2-byte characters. The only drawback is that the
                  virtual font array will (at  least  temporarily)  require  65536
                  positions  instead of the default 256 positions, i.e. the memory
                  requirements of dvips will be slightly larger. If you find  this
                  the automatic reading of the PRINTER environment  variable,  and
                  turns off the automatic sending of control D if it was turned on
                  with the -F option or in the configuration file;  use  -F  after
                  this option if you want both.
           -O offset
                  Move the origin by a certain amount.  The offset is a comma-sep-
                  arated pair of dimensions, such as .1in,-.3cm (in the same  syn-
                  tax  used  in the papersize special).  The origin of the page is
                  shifted from the default position (of one inch down, one inch to
                  the  right  from  the  upper  left  corner of the paper) by this
           -p num The first page printed will  be  the  first  one  numbered  num.
                  Default  is  the first page in the document.  If the num is pre-
                  fixed by an equals sign, then it (and any  argument  to  the  -l
                  option)  is treated as a sequence number, rather than a value to
                  compare with \count0 values.  Thus, using -p =3 will start  with
                  the  third  page  of  the document, no matter what the pages are
                  actually numbered.
           -pp pagelist
                  A comma-separated list of pages and ranges (a-b) may  be  given,
                  which  will  be interpreted as \count0 values.  Pages not speci-
                  fied will not be printed.  Multiple -pp options may be specified
                  or  all  pages  and  page  ranges  can be specified with one -pp
           -P printername
                  Sets up the output for the appropriate printer.  This is  imple-
                  mented by reading in config.printername , which can then set the
                  output pipe (as in, !lpr -Pprintername as well as the font paths
                  and  any  other defaults for that printer only.  Note
                  that is read before  config.printername  In  addition,
                  another file called ~/.dvipsrc is searched for immediately after
        ; this file is intended for user defaults.   If  no  -P
                  command  is  given, the environment variable PRINTER is checked.
                  If that variable exists, and a corresponding configuration  file
                  exists, that configuration file is read in.
           -q     Run  in  quiet mode.  Don't chatter about pages converted, etc.;
                  report nothing but errors to standard error.
           -r     Stack pages in reverse order.  Normally, page 1 will be  printed
                  Run  securely.   -R2  disables  both  shell command execution in
                  \special'{} (via backticks ' )  and  config  files  (via  the  E
                  option),  and  opening  of  any  absolute  filenames.  -R1 , the
                  default, forbids shell escapes but  allows  absolute  filenames.
                  -R0 allows both.  The config file option is z
                  priate  code  to select it.  (Currently known types include let-
                  ter, legal, ledger, a4, a3).  You can also specify -t landscape,
                  which  rotates  a  document by 90 degrees.  To rotate a document
                  whose size is not letter, you can use the -t option twice,  once
                  for  the  page size, and once for landscape.  You should not use
                  any -t option when the DVI file  already  contains  a  papersize
                  special,  as  is  done  by  some  LaTeX packages, notably hyper-
                  The upper left corner of each page in the .dvi  file  is  placed
                  one  inch  from the left and one inch from the top.  Use of this
                  option is highly dependent on the configuration file.  Note that
                  executing  the  letter or a4 or other PostScript operators cause
                  the document to be nonconforming and can cause it not  to  print
                  on  certain  printers, so the paper size should not execute such
                  an operator if at all possible.
           -T papersize
                  Set the paper size to the given pair of dimensions.  This option
                  takes  its  arguments in the same style as -O.  It overrides any
                  paper size special in the dvi file.
           -u psmapfile
                  Set psmapfile to be the file that  dvips  uses  for  looking  up
                  PostScript  font  aliases.  If psmapfile begins with a + charac-
                  ter, then the rest of the name is used as the name  of  the  map
                  file,  and  the  map  file  is appended to the list of map files
                  (instead of replacing the list).  In either case,  if  psmapfile
                  has no extension, then .map is added at the end.
           -U     Disable  a  PostScript  virtual  memory saving optimization that
                  stores the character metric information in the same string  that
                  is used to store the bitmap information.  This is only necessary
                  when driving the  Xerox  4045  PostScript  interpreter.   It  is
                  caused by a bug in that interpreter that results in 'garbage' on
                  the bottom of each character.  Not recommended unless  you  must
                  drive this printer.
           -v     Print the dvips version number and exit.
           -V     Download   non-resident   PostScript  fonts  as  bitmaps.   This
                  requires use of 'gsftopk' or 'pstopk' or some  other  such  pro-
                  gram(s)  in  order  to generate the required bitmap fonts; these
                  programs are supplied with dvips.
           -x num Set the magnification ratio to num/1000.  Overrides the magnifi-
                  cation  specified  in  the  .dvi  file.   Must be between 10 and
                  100000.  Instead of an integer, num may be  a  real  number  for
                  increased precision.
           -X num Set the horizontal resolution in dots per inch to num.
                  somewhat, especially on early 68000-based PostScript printers.


           mf(1), afm2tfm(1), tex(1), latex(1), lpr(1), dvips.texi.


           Dvipsk  uses  the same environment variables and algorithms for finding
           font files as TeX and its friends do.  See the  documentation  for  the
           Kpathsea library for details.  (Repeating it here is too cumbersome.)
           KPATHSEA_DEBUG: Trace Kpathsea lookups; set to -1 for complete tracing.
           PRINTER: see above.


           PostScript is a registered trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.


           Tomas Rokicki <>; extended to virtual  fonts  by
           Don   Knuth.    Path   searching  and  configuration  modifications  by
                                      27 May 2004                         DVIPS(1)

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