Toll Free Numbers
  • Last 5 Forum Topics
    Last post

The Web Only This Site



  • MARC

    Mailing list ARChives
    - Search by -


    Computing Dictionary

  • Text Link Ads
  • LINUX man pages
  • Linux Man Page Viewer

    The following form allows you to view linux man pages.





           dpkg [option...] action


           This  manual is intended for users wishing to understand dpkg's command
           line options and package states in more detail than  that  provided  by
           dpkg --help.
           It  should not be used by package maintainers wishing to understand how
           dpkg will install their packages. The descriptions of  what  dpkg  does
           when installing and removing packages are particularly inadequate.


           dpkg  is  a  tool to install, build, remove and manage Debian packages.
           The primary and more user-friendly front-end for dpkg  is  aptitude(1).
           dpkg  itself  is controlled entirely via command line parameters, which
           consist of exactly one action and zero or  more  options.  The  action-
           parameter tells dpkg what to do and options control the behavior of the
           action in some way.
           dpkg can also be used as a front-end to dpkg-deb(1) and  dpkg-query(1).
           The list of supported actions can be found later on in the ACTIONS sec-
           tion. If any such action is encountered  dpkg  just  runs  dpkg-deb  or
           dpkg-query with the parameters given to it, but no specific options are
           currently passed to them, to use any such option the back-ends need  to
           be called directly.


           dpkg  maintains  some  usable information about available packages. The
           information is divided in three classes: states, selection  states  and
           flags. These values are intended to be changed mainly with dselect.
                  The package is not installed on your system.
                  Only the configuration files of the package exist on the system.
                  The installation of the package has been started, but  not  com-
                  pleted for some reason.
                  The package is unpacked, but not configured.
                  The  package is unpacked and configuration has been started, but
                  not yet completed for some reason.
                  The package awaits trigger processing by another package.
                  The  package  is  selected  for  deinstallation (i.e. we want to
                  remove all files, except configuration files).
           purge  The package is selected to be purged (i.e.  we  want  to  remove
                  everything from system directories, even configuration files).
                  A  package  marked  reinst-required is broken and requires rein-
                  stallation. These packages cannot be removed, unless forced with
                  option --force-remove-reinstreq.


           -i, --install package-file...
                  Install  the  package. If --recursive or -R option is specified,
                  package-file must refer to a directory instead.
                  Installation consists of the following steps:
                  1. Extract the control files of the new package.
                  2. If another version of the same package was  installed  before
                  the new installation, execute prerm script of the old package.
                  3. Run preinst script, if provided by the package.
                  4.  Unpack  the  new files, and at the same time back up the old
                  files, so that if something goes wrong, they can be restored.
                  5. If another version of the same package was  installed  before
                  the new installation, execute the postrm script of the old pack-
                  age. Note that this script is executed after the preinst  script
                  of  the  new  package, because new files are written at the same
                  time old files are removed.
                  6. Configure the package. See --configure for detailed  informa-
                  tion about how this is done.
           --unpack package-file...
                  Unpack the package, but don't configure it. If --recursive or -R
                  option is specified, package-file  must  refer  to  a  directory
           --configure package...|-a|--pending
                  Configure  a package which has been unpacked but not yet config-
                  ured.  If -a or --pending  is  given  instead  of  package,  all
                  unpacked but unconfigured packages are configured.
                  To  reconfigure a package which has already been configured, try
                  the dpkg-reconfigure(8) command instead.
           -r, --remove, -P, --purge package...|-a|--pending
                  Remove  an  installed  package. -r or --remove remove everything
                  except conffiles. This may avoid having to reconfigure the pack-
                  age  if  it  is  reinstalled later. (Conffiles are configuration
                  files that are listed in the DEBIAN/conffiles control file).  -P
                  or  --purge  removes  everything,  including conffiles. If -a or
                  --pending is given instead of a package name, then all  packages
                  unpacked,   but   marked   to  be  removed  or  purged  in  file
                  /var/lib/dpkg/status, are removed or purged, respectively. Note:
                  some  configuration  files might be unknown to dpkg because they
                  are created and handled  separately  through  the  configuration
                  scripts. In that case, dpkg won't remove them by itself, but the
                  package's postrm script (which is called by dpkg), has  to  take
                  care of their removal during purge. Of course, this only applies
                  to files in system directories, not configuration files  written
                  to individual users' home directories.
                  Removing of a package consists of the following steps:
                  1. Run prerm script
                  2. Remove the installed files
                  3. Run postrm script
           --update-avail, --merge-avail Packages-file
                  Update  dpkg's  and  dselect's idea of which packages are avail-
                  able. With action --merge-avail,  old  information  is  combined
                  with information from Packages-file. With action --update-avail,
                  old information is replaced with the information  in  the  Pack-
                  ages-file.  The  Packages-file distributed with Debian is simply
                  named Packages. dpkg keeps its record of available  packages  in
                  A  simpler one-shot command to retrieve and update the available
                  file is dselect update. Note that this file is mostly useless if
                  you don't use dselect but an APT-based frontend: APT has its own
                  system to keep track of available packages.
           -A, --record-avail package-file...
                  Update dpkg and dselect's idea of which packages  are  available
                  with  information  from the package package-file. If --recursive
                  or -R option is specified, package-file must refer to  a  direc-
                  tory instead.
                  Now obsolete and a no-op as dpkg will automatically forget unin-
                  stalled unavailable packages.
                  Erase the existing information about what  packages  are  avail-
                  should be in the format 'package state', where state is  one  of
                  install, hold, deinstall or purge. Blank lines and comment lines
                  beginning with '#' are also permitted.
                  Set the requested state of every non-essential package to  dein-
                  stall.    This   is  intended  to  be  used  immediately  before
                  --set-selections, to deinstall any packages not in list given to
                  Searches  for  packages selected for installation, but which for
                  some reason still haven't been installed.
                  Print architecture of packages dpkg installs  (for  exam-
                  ple, "i386").
           --foreign-architecture architecture
                  Add  architecture  to the list of architectures for which
                  packages can be installed without using --force-architec-
                  ture,  in  addition to the architecture dpkg is built for
                  (i.e.: the output of --print-architecture).
                  Print a space-separated list of the  extra  architectures
                  dpkg is configured to allow packages to be installed for.
           --compare-versions ver1 op ver2
                  Compare version numbers, where op is a  binary  operator.
                  dpkg  returns success (zero result) if the specified con-
                  dition is satisfied, and failure (nonzero result)  other-
                  wise.  There are two groups of operators, which differ in
                  how they treat an empty ver1  or  ver2.  These  treat  an
                  empty version as earlier than any version: lt le eq ne ge
                  gt. These treat an empty version as later than  any  ver-
                  sion:  lt-nl  le-nl  ge-nl gt-nl. These are provided only
                  for compatibility with control file syntax: < << <= =  >=
                  >> >.
           --command-fd n
                  Accept  a  series of commands on input file descriptor n.
                  Note: additional options set on  the  command  line,  and
                  through  this  file  descriptor, are not reset for subse-
                  quent commands executed during the same run.
           --help Display a brief help message.
                  Give help about the --force-thing options.
                  -e, --control filename [directory]
                      Extract control-information from a package.
                  -x, --extract archive directory
                      Extract the files contained by package.
                  -X, --vextract archive directory
                      Extract and display the filenames contained by a
                  -f, --field  archive [control-field...]
                      Display control field(s) of a package.
                  --fsys-tarfile archive
                      Display the filesystem tar-file contained by a
                      Debian package.
                  -I, --info archive [control-file...]
                      Show information about a package.
           dpkg-query actions
                  See  dpkg-query(1) for more information about the follow-
                  ing actions.
                  -l, --list package-name-pattern...
                      List packages matching given pattern.
                  -s, --status package-name...
                      Report status of specified package.
                  -L, --listfiles package-name...
                      List files installed to your system from package-name.
                  -S, --search filename-search-pattern...
                      Search for a filename from installed packages.
                  -p, --print-avail package-name...
                      Display details about package-name, as found in
                      /var/lib/dpkg/available. Users of APT-based frontends
                      should use apt-cache show package-name instead.


           All options can be specified both on the command line and in the
           dpkg  configuration  file /etc/dpkg/dpkg.cfg or the files on the
           configuration directory /etc/dpkg/dpkg.cfg.d/. Each line in  the
           configuration  file is either an option (exactly the same as the
           command line option but without leading dashes) or a comment (if
           it starts with a #).
                  Change after how many errors dpkg will abort. The default
                  is 50.
           -B, --auto-deconfigure
                  When a package is removed, there is  a  possibility  that
                  another  installed  package depended on the removed pack-
                  age. Specifying this option will cause  automatic  decon-
                  figuration  of  the package which depended on the removed
                          40   Dependencies and conflicts
                         400   Lots of dependencies/conflicts output
                       10000   Trigger activation and processing
                       20000   Lots of output regarding triggers
                       40000   Silly amounts of output regarding triggers
                        1000   Lots of drivel about e.g. the dpkg/info dir
                        2000   Insane amounts of drivel
           --force-things, --no-force-things, --refuse-things
                  Force or refuse (no-force and refuse mean the same thing)
                  to do some things. things is a comma  separated  list  of
                  things  specified  below. --force-help displays a message
                  describing them.  Things marked with (*)  are  forced  by
                  Warning:  These options are mostly intended to be used by
                  experts only.  Using  them  without  fully  understanding
                  their effects may break your whole system.
                  all: Turns on (or off) all force options.
                  downgrade(*): Install a package, even if newer version of
                  it is already installed.
                  Warning: At present  dpkg  does  not  do  any  dependency
                  checking on downgrades and therefore will not warn you if
                  the downgrade breaks the dependency of some  other  pack-
                  age.  This  can  have  serious  side effects, downgrading
                  essential system components can even make your whole sys-
                  tem unusable. Use with care.
                  configure-any:  Configure also any unpacked but unconfig-
                  ured packages on which the current package depends.
                  hold: Process packages even when marked "hold".
                  remove-reinstreq: Remove a package, even if  it's  broken
                  and marked to require reinstallation. This may, for exam-
                  ple, cause parts of the package to remain on the  system,
                  which will then be forgotten by dpkg.
                  remove-essential:  Remove, even if the package is consid-
                  ered essential. Essential packages  contain  mostly  very
                  basic  Unix commands. Removing them might cause the whole
                  system to stop working, so use with caution.
                  depends: Turn all dependency problems into warnings.
                  depends-version: Don't care about versions when  checking
                  default action is preferred.
                  confold:  If a conffile has been modified always keep the
                  old version without prompting, unless the --force-confdef
                  is  also  specified,  in which case the default action is
                  confdef: If a conffile has been  modified  always  choose
                  the default action. If there is no default action it will
                  stop  to  ask  the   user   unless   --force-confnew   or
                  --force-confold is also been given, in which case it will
                  use that to decide the final action.
                  confask: If a conffile has been modified always offer  to
                  replace  it  with the version in the package, even if the
                  version  in  the  package  did  not  change.  If  any  of
                  --force-confmiss,  --force-confnew,  --force-confold,  or
                  --force-confdef is also given, it will be used to  decide
                  the final action.
                  overwrite:  Overwrite  one  package's file with another's
                  overwrite-dir  Overwrite  one  package's  directory  with
                  another's file.
                  overwrite-diverted:  Overwrite  a  diverted  file with an
                  undiverted version.
                  unsafe-io:  Do  not  perform  safe  I/O  operations  when
                  unpacking.  Currently  this  implies  not performing file
                  system syncs before file renames, which is known to cause
                  substantial performance degradation on some file systems,
                  unfortunately the ones that require the safe I/O  on  the
                  first  place  due  to  their unreliable behaviour causing
                  zero-length files on abrupt system crashes.
                  Note: For ext4, the main offender, consider using instead
                  the mount option nodelalloc, which will fix both the per-
                  formance degradation and the data safety issues, the lat-
                  ter  by  making  the  file system not produce zero-length
                  files on abrupt system  crashes  with  any  software  not
                  doing syncs before atomic renames.
                  Warning:  Using  this option might improve performance at
                  the cost of losing data, use with care.
                  architecture: Process even  packages  with  wrong  or  no
                  bad-version: Process even packages with wrong versions.
           --no-act, --dry-run, --simulate
                  Do  everything  which  is  supposed to be done, but don't
                  write any changes. This is used to see what would  happen
                  with  the  specified  action,  without actually modifying
                  Be sure to give --no-act before the action-parameter,  or
                  you  might  end  up  with undesirable results. (e.g. dpkg
                  --purge foo --no-act will first  purge  package  foo  and
                  then try to purge package --no-act, even though you prob-
                  ably expected it to actually do nothing)
           -R, --recursive
                  Recursively handle all  regular  files  matching  pattern
                  *.deb  found at specified directories and all of its sub-
                  directories. This can be used  with  -i,  -A,  --install,
                  --unpack and --avail actions.
           -G     Don't  install  a  package if a newer version of the same
                  package  is  already  installed.  This  is  an  alias  of
                  Change  default  administrative directory, which contains
                  many  files  that  give  information  about   status   of
                  installed  or  uninstalled  packages,  etc.  (Defaults to
                  Change default installation directory which refers to the
                  directory  where packages are to be installed. instdir is
                  also the directory passed  to  chroot(2)  before  running
                  package's  installation  scripts,  which  means  that the
                  scripts see instdir as a root directory.  (Defaults to /)
                  Changing  root  changes  instdir  to  dir and admindir to
           -O, --selected-only
                  Only process the packages that are selected for installa-
                  tion. The actual marking is done with dselect or by dpkg,
                  when it handles packages. For example, when a package  is
                  removed, it will be marked selected for deinstallation.
           -E, --skip-same-version
                  Don't  install  the  package  if  the same version of the
                  package is already installed.
                  Set an invoke hook command to be run via "sh  -c"  before
                  ified patterns during install.
                  Warning: take into account that depending on the excluded
                  paths you might completely break your  system,  use  with
                  The  glob  patterns  use  the  same wildcards used in the
                  shell, were  '*'  matches  any  sequence  of  characters,
                  including  the  empty  string  and also '/'. For example,
                  '/usr/*/READ*'  matches  '/usr/share/doc/package/README'.
                  As  usual,  '?'  matches  any  single  character  (again,
                  including '/'). And '[' starts a character  class,  which
                  can contain a list of characters, ranges and complementa-
                  tions. See glob(7) for detailed information  about  glob-
                  bing.  Note:  the current implementation might re-include
                  more directories and symlinks than needed, to be  on  the
                  safe side and avoid possible unpack failures, future work
                  might fix this.
                  This can be used to remove all paths except some particu-
                  lar ones; a typical case is:
                  to  remove  all  documentation files except the copyright
                  These two options can be specified  multiple  times,  and
                  interleaved  with  each  other. Both are processed in the
                  given order, with the last rule that matches a file  name
                  making the decision.
           --status-fd n
                  Send  machine-readable package status and progress infor-
                  mation to file descriptor n. This option can be specified
                  multiple  times.  The information is generally one record
                  per line, in one of the following forms:
                  status: package: status
                         Package status changed; status is as in the status
                  status: package : error : extended-error-message
                         An   error  occurred.  Any  possible  newlines  in
                         extended-error-message will be converted to spaces
                         before output.
                  status:  file  :  conffile-prompt : 'real-old' 'real-new'
                  useredited distedited
                         User is being asked a conffile question.
                  instead of the default /var/log/dpkg.log. If this  option
                  is  given  multiple times, the last filename is used. Log
                  messages are of  the  form  'YYYY-MM-DD  HH:MM:SS  status
                  state  pkg  installed-version' for status change updates;
                  'YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS action pkg installed-version  avail-
                  able-version' for actions where action is one of install,
                  upgrade, remove, purge; and 'YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS conffile
                  filename decision' for conffile changes where decision is
                  either install or keep.
                  Do not try to verify package signatures.
                  Do not run any triggers in  this  run  (activations  will
                  still  be recorded).  If used with --configure package or
                  --triggers-only package then the named  package  postinst
                  will  still be run even if only a triggers run is needed.
                  Use of this option may leave  packages  in  the  improper
                  triggers-awaited and triggers-pending states. This can be
                  fixed later by running: dpkg --configure --pending.
                  Cancels a previous --no-triggers.


                  Configuration file with default options.
                  Default log file (see  /etc/dpkg/dpkg.cfg(5)  and  option
           The  other  files listed below are in their default directories,
           see option --admindir to see how to change  locations  of  these
                  List of available packages.
                  Statuses of available packages. This file contains infor-
                  mation about whether a package is marked for removing  or
                  not,  whether  it  is  installed or not, etc. See section
                  INFORMATION ABOUT PACKAGES for more info.
                  The status file is backed up daily  in  /var/backups.  It
                  can  be  useful if it's lost or corrupted due to filesys-
                  tems troubles.
           The following files are components  of  a  binary  package.  See
           deb(5) for more information about them:
           HOME   If  set,  dpkg will use it as the directory from which to
                  read the user specific configuration file.
           TMPDIR If set, dpkg will use it as the  directory  in  which  to
                  create temporary files and directories.
           PAGER  The  program  dpkg will execute when displaying the conf-
           SHELL  The program dpkg will execute when starting a new  shell.
                  Sets  the number of columns dpkg should use when display-
                  ing formatted text. Currently only used by -l.
                  Defined by dpkg on the  shell  spawned  on  the  conffile
                  prompt  to  examine  the  situation. Current valid value:
                  Defined by dpkg on the  shell  spawned  on  the  conffile
                  prompt to examine the situation. Contains the path to the
                  old conffile.
                  Defined by dpkg on the  shell  spawned  on  the  conffile
                  prompt to examine the situation. Contains the path to the
                  new conffile.
                  Defined by dpkg on the maintainer script  environment  to
                  the version of the currently running dpkg instance.
                  Defined  by  dpkg on the maintainer script environment to
                  the package name being handled.
                  Defined by dpkg on the maintainer script  environment  to
                  the architecture the package got built for.
                  Defined  by  dpkg on the maintainer script environment to
                  the name of the script running (preinst, postinst, prerm,


           To list packages related to the editor vi(1):
                dpkg -l '*vi*'
           To see the entries in /var/lib/dpkg/available of two packages:
           To make a local copy of the package selection states:
                dpkg --get-selections >myselections
           You might transfer this file to another computer, and install it
           there with:
                dpkg --clear-selections
                dpkg --set-selections <myselections
           Note that this will not actually install or remove anything, but
           just set the selection state on the requested packages. You will
           need some other application to actually download and install the
           requested packages. For example, run apt-get dselect-upgrade.
           Ordinarily, you will find that dselect(1) provides a more conve-
           nient way to modify the package selection states.


           Additional functionality can be gained by installing any of  the
           following packages: apt, aptitude and debsums.


           aptitude(1),  apt(1),  dselect(1),  dpkg-deb(1),  dpkg-query(1),
           deb(5), deb-control(5), dpkg.cfg(5), and dpkg-reconfigure(8).


           --no-act usually gives less information than might be helpful.


           See /usr/share/doc/dpkg/THANKS for the list of people  who  have
           contributed to dpkg.

    Debian Project 2011-08-14 dpkg(1)


  • Linux

    The Distributions


    The Software


    The News


  • Toll Free

Toll Free Numbers
Copyright © 1999 - 2016 by LinuxGuruz