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           dpkg-shlibdeps [option...] [-e]executable [option...]


           dpkg-shlibdeps  calculates  shared library dependencies for executables
           named in its arguments. The dependencies are added to the  substitution
           variables  file  debian/substvars  as variable names shlibs:dependency-
           field where dependencyfield is a dependency field name. Any other vari-
           ables starting with shlibs: are removed from the file.
           dpkg-shlibdeps  has  two  possible  sources  of information to generate
           dependency information. Either symbols files or shlibs files. For  each
           binary that dpkg-shlibdeps analyzes, it finds out the list of libraries
           that it's linked with.  Then, for each library, it looks up either  the
           symbols  file,  or  the  shlibs file (if the former doesn't exist or if
           debian/shlibs.local contains the relevant dependency). Both  files  are
           supposed  to  be  provided  by  the  library package and should thus be
           available        as        /var/lib/dpkg/info/package.symbols        or
           /var/lib/dpkg/info/package.shlibs.  The  package  name is identified in
           two steps: find the library file on the system  (looking  in  the  same
           directories  that  would  use), then use dpkg -S library-file to
           lookup the package providing the library.
       Symbols files
           Symbols files contain finer-grained dependency information by providing
           the  minimum  dependency  for each symbol that the library exports. The
           script tries to find a symbols file associated to a library package  in
           the following places (first match is used):
                  Shared  library  information generated by the current build pro-
                  cess that also invoked dpkg-shlibdeps.  They  are  generated  by
                  dpkg-gensymbols(1).   They are only used if the library is found
                  in a package's build tree. The symbols file in that  build  tree
                  takes  precedence over symbols files from other binary packages.
                  Per-system overriding  shared  library  dependency  information.
                  arch  is  the  architecture  of  the current system (obtained by
                  dpkg-architecture -qDEB_HOST_ARCH).
           Output from "dpkg-query --control-path package symbols"
                  Package-provided shared library dependency information.   Unless
                  overridden   by   --admindir,   those   files   are  located  in
           While scanning the symbols used by all binaries, dpkg-shlibdeps  remem-
           bers  the (biggest) minimal version needed for each library. At the end
           of the process, it is able to write  out  the  minimal  dependency  for
           every  library used (provided that the information of the symbols files
           first file providing information for the library of interest is used:
                  Package-local  overriding shared library dependency information.
                  Per-system overriding shared library dependency information.
                  Shared library information generated by the current  build  pro-
                  cess  that  also  invoked dpkg-shlibdeps.  They are only used if
                  the library is found in a package's build tree. The shlibs  file
                  in that build tree takes precedence over shlibs files from other
                  binary packages.
           Output from "dpkg-query --control-path package shlibs"
                  Package-provided shared library dependency information.   Unless
                  overridden   by   --admindir,   those   files   are  located  in
                  Per-system default shared library dependency information.
           The extracted dependencies are then directly used (except if  they  are
           filtered  out  because  they  have  been identified as duplicate, or as
           weaker than another dependency).


           dpkg-shlibdeps interprets non-option  arguments  as  executable  names,
           just as if they'd been supplied as -eexecutable.
                  Include   dependencies  appropriate  for  the  shared  libraries
                  required by executable.
                  Add dependencies to be added  to  the  control  file  dependency
                  field  dependencyfield.   (The  dependencies  for this field are
                  placed in the variable shlibs:dependencyfield.)
                  The -ddependencyfield option takes effect  for  all  executables
                  after the option, until the next -ddependencyfield.  The default
                  dependencyfield is Depends.
                  If the same dependency entry (or set of alternatives) appears in
                  more   than   one  of  the  recognised  dependency  field  names
                  Pre-Depends, Depends,  Recommends,  Enhances  or  Suggests  then
                  dpkg-shlibdeps will automatically remove the dependency from all
                  fields except the one representing the most important  dependen-
                  Read  overriding  shared  library  dependency  information  from
                  localshlibsfile instead of debian/shlibs.local.
                  Write substitution variables in substvarsfile;  the  default  is
           -v     Enable  verbose mode. Numerous messages are displayed to explain
                  what dpkg-shlibdeps does.
                  Exclude the package from the  generated  dependencies.  This  is
                  useful to avoid self-dependencies for packages which provide ELF
                  binaries (executables or library plugins) using a  library  con-
                  tained  in  the  same  package. This option can be used multiple
                  times to exclude several packages.
                  Look into pkgbuilddir first when trying to find a library.  This
                  is useful when the source package builds multiple flavors of the
                  same library and you want to ensure that you get the  dependency
                  from  a  given  binary package. You can use this option multiple
                  times: directories will be tried in the same order before direc-
                  tories of other binary packages.
                  Do  not  fail  if  dependency  information  can't be found for a
                  shared library.   Usage  of  this  option  is  discouraged,  all
                  libraries  should  provide  dependency  information (either with
                  shlibs files, or with symbols files) even if they  are  not  yet
                  used by other packages.
                  value  is  a  bit field defining the set of warnings that can be
                  emitted by dpkg-shlibdeps.  Bit 0 (value=1) enables the  warning
                  "symbol  sym used by binary found in none of the libraries", bit
                  1 (value=2) enables the warning "dependency on library could  be
                  avoided"  and  bit  2  (value=4)  enables  the  warning  "binary
                  shouldn't be linked with library".  The default value is 3:  the
                  first  two  warnings are active by default, the last one is not.
                  Set value to 7 if you want all warnings to be active.
                  Change the location of the dpkg database. The  default  location
                  is /var/lib/dpkg.
           -h, --help
                  Show the usage message and exit.
                  needs to be linked with an additional library during  the  build
                  process (option -llibrary of the linker).
           binary  contains an unresolvable reference to symbol sym: it's probably
           a plugin
                  The  indicated symbol has not been found in the libraries linked
                  with the binary. The binary is most likely a plugin and the sym-
                  bol  is probably provided by the program that loads this plugin.
                  In theory a plugin doesn't have any SONAME but this binary  does
                  have one and as such it could not be clearly identified as such.
                  However the fact that the  binary  is  stored  in  a  non-public
                  directory is a strong indication that's it's not a normal shared
                  library. If the binary is really a plugin, then  disregard  this
                  warning.  But  there's  always  the possibility that it's a real
                  library and that programs linking to it are using  an  RPATH  so
                  that  the  dynamic loader finds it. In that case, the library is
                  broken and needs to be fixed.
           dependency on library could be avoided if binaries were  not  uselessly
           linked against it (they use none of its symbols).
                  None of the binaries that are linked with library use any of the
                  symbols provided by the library. By fixing all the binaries, you
                  would avoid the dependency associated to  this  library  (unless
                  the same dependency is also generated by another library that is
                  really used).
           binary shouldn't be linked with library (it uses none of its  symbols).
                  The binary is linked to a library that it doesn't need. It's not
                  a problem but some small performance improvements in binary load
                  time can be obtained by not linking this library to this binary.
                  This  warning  checks the same information than the previous one
                  but does it for each binary instead of doing the check  globally
                  on all binaries analyzed.


           dpkg-shlibdeps  will  fail  if it can't find a public library used by a
           binary or if this library  has  no  associated  dependency  information
           (either shlibs file or symbols file). A public library has a SONAME and
           is versioned ( A private  library  (like  a  plugin)
           should not have a SONAME and doesn't need to be versioned.
           couldn't  find  library  library-soname  needed by binary (its RPATH is
                  The  binary uses a library called library-soname but dpkg-shlib-
                  deps has been unable to find the library.   dpkg-shlibdeps  cre-
                  ates  a  list  of directories to check as following: directories
                  listed in  the  RPATH  of  the  binary,  directories  listed  in
                  /etc/, directories listed in the LD_LIBRARY_PATH envi-
                  ronment  variable,  and  standard  public   directories   (/lib,
                  /usr/lib,  /lib32,  /usr/lib32,  /lib64,  /usr/lib64).  Then  it
                  checks those directories in the  package's  build  tree  of  the
                  binary  being  analyzed,  in the packages' build trees indicated
                  library-file  but  dpkg-shlibdeps  has  been  unable to find any
                  dependency information for that library. To find out the  depen-
                  dency,  it has tried to map the library to a Debian package with
                  the help of dpkg -S library-file.  Then it  checked  the  corre-
                  sponding shlibs and symbols files in /var/lib/dpkg/info/, and in
                  the various package's build trees (debian/*/DEBIAN/).
                  This failure can be caused by a bad or missing shlibs or symbols
                  file  in the package of the library. It might also happen if the
                  library is built within the  same  source  package  and  if  the
                  shlibs  files  has  not yet been created (in which case you must
                  fix debian/rules to create the shlibs before calling dpkg-shlib-
                  deps).  Bad RPATH can also lead to the library being found under
                  a     non-canonical     name     (example:      /usr/lib/openof-
            instead    of   /usr/lib/lib-
         that's not associated to any package,  dpkg-shlib-
                  deps tries to work around this by trying to fallback on a canon-
                  ical name (using realpath(3)) but it might not always work. It's
                  always  best  to clean up the RPATH of the binary to avoid prob-
                  Calling dpkg-shlibdeps in verbose mode (-v)  will  provide  much
                  more  information  about  where  it tried to find the dependency
                  information. This might be useful if you  don't  understand  why
                  it's giving you this error.


           deb-shlibs(5), deb-symbols(5), dpkg-gensymbols(1).


           Copyright (C) 1995-1996 Ian Jackson
           Copyright (C) 2000 Wichert Akkerman
           Copyright (C) 2006 Frank Lichtenheld
           Copyright (C) 2007-2008 Raphael Hertzog
           This  is free software; see the GNU General Public Licence version 2 or
           later for copying conditions. There is NO WARRANTY.

    Debian Project 2011-08-14 dpkg-shlibdeps(1)


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