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    Command:

    dot

    
           twopi - filter for radial layouts of graphs
           circo - filter for circular layout of graphs
           fdp - filter for drawing undirected graphs
           sfdp - filter for drawing large undirected graphs
    
    
    

    SYNOPSIS

           dot  [-(G|N|E)name=value]  [-Tlang]  [-llibfile] [-ooutfile] [-Klayout]
           [-O] [-P] [-v] [-V] [files]
           neato [-(G|N|E)name=value] [-Tlang] [-llibfile]  [-n[1|2]]  [-ooutfile]
           [-Klayout] [-O] [-P] [-v] [-V] [files]
           twopi  [-(G|N|E)name=value] [-Tlang] [-llibfile] [-ooutfile] [-Klayout]
           [-O] [-P] [-v] [-V] [files]
           circo [-(G|N|E)name=value] [-Tlang] [-llibfile] [-ooutfile]  [-Klayout]
           [-O] [-P] [-v] [-V] [files]
           fdp  [-(G|N|E)name=value]  [-Tlang]  [-llibfile] [-ooutfile] [-Klayout]
           [-O] [-P] [-v] [-V] [files]
           sfdp [-(G|N|E)name=value] [-Tlang] [-llibfile]  [-ooutfile]  [-Klayout]
           [-O] [-P] [-v] [-V] [files]
    
    
    

    DESCRIPTION

           dot draws directed graphs.  It works well on DAGs and other graphs that
           can be drawn as hierarchies.   It  reads  attributed  graph  files  and
           writes  drawings.   By default, the output format dot is the input file
           with layout coordinates appended.
    
           neato draws undirected graphs using ''spring'' models (see  Kamada  and
           Kawai,  Information  Processing Letters 31:1, April 1989).  Input files
           must be formatted in the dot attributed graph  language.   By  default,
           the  output  of  neato  is  the  input  graph  with  layout coordinates
           appended.
    
           twopi draws graphs using a radial layout (see G.  Wills,  Symposium  on
           Graph  Drawing  GD'97, September, 1997).  Basically, one node is chosen
           as the center and put at the origin.  The remaining nodes are placed on
           a  sequence  of  concentric  circles  centered about the origin, each a
           fixed radial distance from the previous circle.  All nodes  distance  1
           from  the  center  are placed on the first circle; all nodes distance 1
           from a node on the first circle are placed on the second circle; and so
           forth.
    
           circo  draws graphs using a circular layout (see Six and Tollis, GD '99
           and ALENEX '99, and Kaufmann and Wiese, GD '02.)  The  tool  identifies
           biconnected  components  and draws the nodes of the component on a cir-
           cle. The block-cutpoint tree is then laid out using a recursive  radial
           algorithm.  Edge  crossings within a circle are minimized by placing as
           many edges on the circle's perimeter as possible.   In  particular,  if
           the  component is outerplanar, the component will have a planar layout.
    
           If a node belongs to multiple non-trivial biconnected  components,  the
           layout  puts  the  node  in  one of them. By default, this is the first
           non-trivial component found in the search from the root component.
    
           example:  ''dot  -Tpng:''  and  to force a particular variant, use, for
           example: ''dot -Tpng:gd''
    
           Traditionally, dot supports the  following:  -Tps  (PostScript),  -Tsvg
           -Tsvgz  (Structured  Vector  Graphics),  -Tfig  (XFIG  graphics), -Tmif
           (FrameMaker graphics), -Thpgl (HP pen plotters),  and  -Tpcl  (Laserjet
           printers),  -Tpng -Tgif (bitmap graphics), -Tdia (GTK+ based diagrams),
           -Timap (imagemap files for httpd servers for each node or edge that has
           a non-null "href" attribute.), -Tcmapx (client-side imagemap for use in
           html and xhtml).  Additional less common or more special-purpose output
           formats   can  be  found  at  http://www.graphviz.org/cvs/doc/info/out-
           put.html.)
    
           Alternative plugins providing support for a given output format can  be
           found from the error message resulting from appending a ':' to the for-
           mat. e.g. -Tpng: The first plugin listed is always the default.
    
           The -P switch can be used to produce a graph  of  all  output  variants
           supported by plugins in the local installation of graphviz.
    
    
    

    GRAPH FILE LANGUAGE

           Here  is a synopsis of the graph file language, traditionally using the
           extension .dot, for graphs:
    
           [strict] (graph|digraph) name { statement-list }
           Is the top level graph. If the graph is strict then multiple edges  are
           not  allowed  between  the  same  pairs  of nodes.  If it is a directed
           graph, indicated by digraph, then the edgeop must be "->". If it is  an
           undirected graph then the edgeop must be "--".  Statements may be:
    
           name=val;
           node [name=val];
           edge [name=val];
           Set  default graph, node, or edge attribute name to val.  Any subgraph,
           node, or edge appearing after this inherits the new default attributes.
    
           n0 [name0=val0,name1=val1,...];
           Creates  node n0 (if it does not already exist) and sets its attributes
           according to the optional list.
    
           n0 edgeop n1 edgeop ... edgeop nn [name0=val0,name1=val1,...];
           Creates edges between nodes n0, n1, ..., nn and sets  their  attributes
           according to the optional list.  Creates nodes as necessary.
    
           [subgraph name] { statement-list }
           Creates  a  subgraph.  Subgraphs may be used in place of n0, ..., nn in
           the above statements to create edges.  [subgraph name] is optional;  if
           missing, the subgraph is assigned an internal name.
    
           Comments may be /*C-like*/ or //C++-like.
    
           the -K commandline option.
    
           margin=f sets the page margin (included in the page size).
    
           nodesep=f sets the minimum separation between nodes.
    
           ranksep=f sets the minimum separation between ranks.
    
           ordering=out  constrains  order of out-edges in a subgraph according to
           their file sequence.
    
           rankdir=LR|RL|BT  requests  a  left-to-right,  right-to-left,  or  bot-
           tom-to-top, drawing.
    
           pagedir=[TBLR][TBLR] sets the major and minor order of pagination.
    
           rank=same  (or min or max) in a subgraph constrains the rank assignment
           of its nodes.   If a subgraph's name has the prefix cluster, its  nodes
           are  drawn  in  a  distinct  rectangle  of the layout.  Clusters may be
           nested.
    
           rotate=90 sets landscape mode.  (orientation=land is backward  compati-
           ble but obsolete.)
    
           center=n a non-zero value centers the drawing on the page.
    
           nslimit=f  or mclimit=f adjusts the bound on the number of network sim-
           plex  or  mincross  iterations  by  the  given  ratio.   For   example,
           mclimit=2.0 runs twice as long.
    
           layers="id:id:id:id"  is  a  sequence  of layer identifiers for overlay
           diagrams.  The PostScript array variable layercolorseq sets the assign-
           ment of colors to layers. The least index is 1 and each element must be
           a 3-element array to be interpreted as a color coordinate.
    
           color=colorvalue sets foreground color (bgcolor for background).
    
           href="url" the default url for image map files;  in  PostScript  files,
           the  base URL for all relative URLs, as recognized by Acrobat Distiller
           3.0 and up.
    
           URL="url" ("URL" is a synonym for "href".)
    
           stylesheet="file.css" includes a reference to a stylesheet in -Tsvg and
           -Tsvgz outputs.  Ignored by other formats.
    
           splines.  If  set to true, edges are drawn as splines.  If set to poly-
           line, edges are drawn as polylines.  If set to ortho, edges  are  drawn
           as  orthogonal  polylines.   In  all  of these cases, the nodes may not
           overlap.  If splines=false or splines=line, edges  are  drawn  as  line
           segments.   The  default  is true for dot, and false for all other lay-
           outs.
           If no leaf nodes exists, an arbitrary node is picked as center.
    
           ranksep=val.  Specifies  the  radial  distance  in  inches  between the
           sequence of rings. The default is 0.75.
    
           overlap=mode. This specifies what twopi should do if any nodes overlap.
           If  mode  is  "false",  the program uses Voronoi diagrams to adjust the
           nodes to eliminate overlaps. If mode is "scale",  the  layout  is  uni-
           formly scaled up, preserving node sizes, until nodes no longer overlap.
           The latter technique removes overlaps  while  preserving  symmetry  and
           structure,  while  the  former  removes  overlaps  more  compactly  but
           destroys symmetries.  If mode is "true" (the default), no repositioning
           is done.
    
           (circo-specific attributes)
           root=nodename.  Specifies  the  name  of  a  node occurring in the root
           block. If the graph is disconnected, the root  node  attribute  can  be
           used to specify additional root blocks.
    
           mindist=value.  Sets  the  minimum separation between all nodes. If not
           specified then circo uses a default value of 1.0.
    
           (fdp-specific attributes)
           K=val. Sets the default ideal node separation in the layout.
    
           maxiter=val. Sets the maximum number of iterations used to  layout  the
           graph.
    
           start=val. Adjusts the random initial placement of nodes with no speci-
           fied position.  If val is is an integer, it is used as the seed for the
           random  number  generator.   If  val  is  not an integer, a random sys-
           tem-generated integer, such as the process ID or current time, is  used
           as the seed.
    
    
    

    NODE ATTRIBUTES

           height=d  or  width=d  sets  minimum  height  or  width.  Adding fixed-
           size=true forces these to be the actual size (text labels are ignored).
    
           shape=record polygon epsf builtin_polygon
           builtin_polygon  is  one of: plaintext ellipse oval circle egg triangle
           box diamond trapezium parallelogram  house  hexagon  octagon  note  tab
           box3d  component.   (Polygons  are defined or modified by the following
           node attributes: regular, peripheries, sides,  orientation,  distortion
           and  skew.)   epsf uses the node's shapefile attribute as the path name
           of an external EPSF file to be automatically loaded for the node shape.
    
           label=text  where  text  may include escaped newlines \n, \l, or \r for
           center, left, and right justified lines.  The string '\N' value will be
           the outline color.
    
           fontcolor=colorvalue sets the label text color.
    
           A  colorvalue  may  be  "h,s,v"  (hue, saturation, brightness) floating
           point numbers between 0 and 1, or an X11 color name such as white black
           red  green  blue yellow magenta cyan or burlywood, or a "#rrggbb" (red,
           green, blue, 2 hex characters each) value.
    
           style=filled solid dashed dotted bold invis or any Postscript code.
    
           layer=id or id:id or "all" sets the node's active  layers.   The  empty
           string means no layers (invisible).
    
           The following attributes apply only to polygon shape nodes:
    
           regular=n  if n is non-zero then the polygon is made regular, i.e. sym-
           metric about the x and y axis,  otherwise  the  polygon  takes  on  the
           aspect ratio of the label.  builtin_polygons that are not already regu-
           lar are made regular by  this  attribute.   builtin_polygons  that  are
           already  regular  are  not affected (i.e.  they cannot be made asymmet-
           ric).
    
           peripheries=n sets the number of periphery lines drawn around the poly-
           gon.    This   value  supersedes  the  number  of  periphery  lines  of
           builtin_polygons.
    
           sides=n sets the number of sides to the  polygon.  n<3  results  in  an
           ellipse.  This attribute is ignored by builtin_polygons.
    
           orientation=f  sets  the  orientation  of the first apex of the polygon
           counterclockwise from the vertical, in degrees.  f may  be  a  floating
           point  number.   The  orientation  of  labels  is  not affected by this
           attribute.  This attribute is  added  to  the  initial  orientation  of
           builtin_polygons.
    
           distortion=f  sets the amount of broadening of the top and narrowing of
           the bottom of the polygon  (relative  to  its  orientation).   Floating
           point  values  between  -1  and  +1  are  suggested.  This attribute is
           ignored by builtin_polygons.
    
           skew=f sets the amount of right-displacement of the top  and  left-dis-
           placement  of  the bottom of the polygon (relative to its orientation).
           Floating point values between -1 and +1 are suggested.  This  attribute
           is ignored by builtin_polygons.
    
           href="url"  sets  the  url for the node in imagemap, PostScript and SVG
           files.  The substrings '\N' and '\G' are substituted in the same manner
           as  for  the  node label attribute.  Additionally the substring '\L' is
           substituted with the node label string.
    
           URL="url" ("URL" is a synonym for "href".)
           out  labels  to still have tooltips thus permitting denser graphs.  The
           substrings '\N' and '\G' are substituted in the same manner as for  the
           node  label  attribute.  Additionally the substring '\L' is substituted
           with the node label string.
    
           (circo-specific attributes)
           root=true/false. This specifies that the  block  containing  the  given
           node be treated as the root of the spanning tree in the layout.
    
           (fdp-specific attributes)
           pin=val.  If  val  is "true", the node will remain at its initial posi-
           tion.
    
    
    

    EDGE ATTRIBUTES

           minlen=n where n is an integer factor that applies to the  edge  length
           (ranks for normal edges, or minimum node separation for flat edges).
    
           weight=n  where n is the integer cost of the edge.  Values greater than
           1 tend to shorten the edge.  Weight 0 flat edges are ignored for order-
           ing nodes.
    
           label=text  where  text  may include escaped newlines \n, \l, or \r for
           centered, left, or right justified lines.  If  the  substring  '\T'  is
           found  in  a  label  it will be replaced by the tail_node name.  If the
           substring '\H' is found in a label it will be replaced by the head_node
           name.   If  the  substring  '\E'  value  is found in a label it will be
           replaced by: tail_node_name->head_node_name If the  substring  '\G'  is
           found  in  a  label  it  will  be  replaced  by the graph name.  or by:
           tail_node_name--head_node_name for undirected graphs.
    
           fontsize=n sets the label type size to n points.
    
           fontname=name sets the label font family name.
    
           fontcolor=colorvalue sets the label text color.
    
           style=solid dashed dotted bold invis
    
           color=colorvalue sets the line color for edges.
    
           color=colorvaluelist a ':' separated list of colorvalue creates  paral-
           lel edges, one edge for each color.
    
           dir=forward back both none controls arrow direction.
    
           tailclip,headclip=false disables endpoint shape clipping.
    
           href="url"  sets  the  url for the node in imagemap, PostScript and SVG
           files.  The substrings '\T', '\H', '\E' and '\G' are substituted in the
           as the edge label string.  The substrings '\T', '\H', '\E' and '\G' are
           substituted in the same manner as for the edge label attribute.   Addi-
           tionally  the substring '\L' is substituted with the edge label string.
    
           arrowhead,arrowtail=none, normal, inv, dot, odot, invdot, invodot, tee,
           empty, invempty, open, halfopen, diamond, odiamond, box, obox, crow.
    
           arrowsize                                 (norm_length=10,norm_width=5,
           inv_length=6,inv_width=7,dot_radius=2)
    
           headlabel,taillabel=string for port labels.   labelfontcolor,labelfont-
           name,labelfontsize  for  head  and  tail  labels.  The substrings '\T',
           '\H', '\E' and '\G' are substituted in the same manner as for the  edge
           label  attribute.   Additionally the substring '\L' is substituted with
           the edge label string.
    
           headhref="url" sets the url for the head port in  imagemap,  PostScript
           and  SVG  files.   The substrings '\T', '\H', '\E' and '\G' are substi-
           tuted in the same manner as for the edge label attribute.  Additionally
           the substring '\L' is substituted with the edge label string.
    
           headURL="url" ("headURL" is a synonym for "headhref".)
    
           headtarget="headtarget"  is  a  target string for client-side imagemaps
           and SVG, effective when edge heads have a URL.  The  headtarget  string
           is  used  to determine which window of the browser is used for the URL.
           If the  headtarget  string  is  empty,  the  default,  then  headtarget
           defaults  to  the  same  value  as target for the edge.  The substrings
           '\T', '\H', '\E' and '\G' are substituted in the same manner as for the
           edge  label  attribute.  Additionally the substring '\L' is substituted
           with the edge label string.
    
           headtooltip="tooltip" is a tooltip  string  for  client-side  imagemaps
           effective  when  head ports have a URL.  The tooltip string defaults to
           be the same as the headlabel string.  The substrings  '\T',  '\H',  and
           '\E'  are  substituted  in  the  same  manner  as  for  the  edge label
           attribute.  Additionally the substring '\L'  is  substituted  with  the
           edge label string.
    
           tailhref="url"  sets  the url for the tail port in imagemap, PostScript
           and SVG files.  The substrings '\T', '\H', '\E' and  '\G'  are  substi-
           tuted in the same manner as for the edge label attribute.  Additionally
           the substring '\L' is substituted with the edge label string.
    
           tailURL="url" ("tailURL" is a synonym for "tailhref".)
    
           tailtarget="tailtarget" is a target string  for  client-side  imagemaps
           and  SVG,  effective when edge tails have a URL.  The tailtarget string
           is used to determine which window of the browser is used for  the  URL.
           If  the  tailtarget  string  is  empty,  the  default,  then tailtarget
           defaults to the same value as target  for  the  edge.   The  substrings
           '\T', '\H', '\E' and '\G' are substituted in the same manner as for the
    
           samehead,sametail  aim  edges  having  the same value to the same port,
           using the average landing point.
    
           constraint=false causes an edge to be ignored for rank assignment.
    
           layer=id or id:id or "all" sets the edge's active  layers.   The  empty
           string means no layers (invisible).
    
           (neato-specific attributes)
           w=f  sets the weight (spring constant) of an edge to the given floating
           point value.  The default is 1.0; greater values  make  the  edge  tend
           more toward its optimal length.
    
           len=f sets the optimal length of an edge.  The default is 1.0.
    
           (fdp-specific attributes)
           weight=f  sets the weight of an edge to the given floating point value.
           The default is 1.0; greater values make the edge tend more  toward  its
           optimal length.
    
    
    

    COMMAND LINE OPTIONS

           -G sets a default graph attribute.
           -N sets a default node attribute.
           -E  sets  a  default edge attribute.  Example: -Gsize="7,8" -Nshape=box
           -Efontsize=8
    
           -lfile loads custom PostScript library  files.   Usually  these  define
           custom  shapes  or  styles.   If  -l  is  given by itself, the standard
           library is omitted.
    
           -Tlang sets the output language as described above.
    
           -n[1|2] (no-op) If set, neato assumes nodes  have  already  been  posi-
           tioned  and  all  nodes  have a pos attribute giving the positions.  It
           then performs an  optional  adjustment  to  remove  node-node  overlap,
           depending on the value of the overlap attribute, computes the edge lay-
           outs, depending on the value of the splines attribute,  and  emits  the
           graph  in  the  appropriate  format.  If num is supplied, the following
           actions occur:
               num = 1
           Equivalent to -n.
               num > 1
           Use node positions as specified, with no adjustment to remove node-node
           overlaps,  and  use  any  edge  layouts  already  specified  by the pos
           attribute.  neato computes an edge layout for any edge  that  does  not
           have  a  pos attribute.  As usual, edge layout is guided by the splines
           attribute.
    
           -Klayout override the default layout  engine  implied  by  the  command
           digraph test123 {
                   a -> b -> c;
                   a -> {x y};
                   b [shape=box];
                   c [label="hello\nworld",color=blue,fontsize=24,
                        fontname="Palatino-Italic",fontcolor=red,style=filled];
                   a -> z [label="hi", weight=100];
                   x -> z [label="multi-line\nlabel"];
                   edge [style=dashed,color=red];
                   b -> x;
                   {rank=same; b x}
           }
    
           graph test123 {
                   a -- b -- c;
                   a -- {x y};
                   x -- c [w=10.0];
                   x -- y [w=5.0,len=3];
           }
    
    
    

    CAVEATS

           Edge splines can overlap unintentionally.
    
           Flat edge labels are slightly broken.   Intercluster  edge  labels  are
           totally broken.
    
           Because unconstrained optimization is employed, node boxes can possibly
           overlap or touch unrelated edges.  All existing spring  embedders  seem
           to have this limitation.
    
           Apparently  reasonable attempts to pin nodes or adjust edge lengths and
           weights can cause instability.
    
    
    

    AUTHORS

           Stephen C. North <north@research.att.com>
           Emden R. Gansner <erg@research.att.com>
           John C. Ellson <ellson@research.att.com>
    
           The  bitmap   driver   (PNG,   GIF   etc)   is   by   Thomas   Boutell,
           <http://www.boutell.com/gd>
    
           The  Truetype font renderer is from the Freetype Project (David Turner,
           Robert  Wilhelm,  and  Werner  Lemberg)  (who  can  be   contacted   at
           freetype-devel@lists.lrz-muenchen.de).
    
    
    

    SEE ALSO

           This  man  page contains only a small amount of the information related
           to the Graphviz layout programs. The most complete information  can  be
           found  at  http://www.graphviz.org/Documentation.php, especially in the
           on-line reference pages. Most of these documents are also available  in
           the doc and doc/info subtrees in the source and binary distributions.
    
    
                                    23 August 2004                          DOT(1)
    
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