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           The OpenSSL CONF library can be used to read configuration files.  It
           is used for the OpenSSL master configuration file openssl.cnf and in a
           few other places like SPKAC files and certificate extension files for
           the x509 utility. OpenSSL applications can also use the CONF library
           for their own purposes.
           A configuration file is divided into a number of sections. Each section
           starts with a line [ section_name ] and ends when a new section is
           started or end of file is reached. A section name can consist of
           alphanumeric characters and underscores.
           The first section of a configuration file is special and is referred to
           as the default section this is usually unnamed and is from the start of
           file until the first named section. When a name is being looked up it
           is first looked up in a named section (if any) and then the default
           The environment is mapped onto a section called ENV.
           Comments can be included by preceding them with the # character
           Each section in a configuration file consists of a number of name and
           value pairs of the form name=value
           The name string can contain any alphanumeric characters as well as a
           few punctuation symbols such as . , ; and _.
           The value string consists of the string following the = character until
           end of line with any leading and trailing white space removed.
           The value string undergoes variable expansion. This can be done by
           including the form $var or ${var}: this will substitute the value of
           the named variable in the current section. It is also possible to
           substitute a value from another section using the syntax $section::name
           or ${section::name}. By using the form $ENV::name environment variables
           can be substituted. It is also possible to assign values to environment
           variables by using the name ENV::name, this will work if the program
           looks up environment variables using the CONF library instead of
           calling ggeetteennvv(()) directly.
           It is possible to escape certain characters by using any kind of quote
           or the \ character. By making the last character of a line a \ a value
           string can be spread across multiple lines. In addition the sequences
           \n, \r, \b and \t are recognized.


           In OpenSSL 0.9.7 and later applications can automatically configure
           certain aspects of OpenSSL using the master OpenSSL configuration file,
           or optionally an alternative configuration file. The openssl utility
           includes this functionality: any sub command uses the master OpenSSL
           configuration file unless an option is used in the sub command to use
            openssl_conf = openssl_init
            oid_section = new_oids
            engines = engine_section
            ... new oids here ...
            ... engine stuff here ...
           Currently there are two configuration modules. One for ASN1 objects
           another for ENGINE configuration.
           This module has the name oid_section. The value of this variable points
           to a section containing name value pairs of OIDs: the name is the OID
           short and long name, the value is the numerical form of the OID.
           Although some of the openssl utility sub commands already have their
           own ASN1 OBJECT section functionality not all do. By using the ASN1
           OBJECT configuration module all the openssl utility sub commands can
           see the new objects as well as any compliant applications. For example:
            some_new_oid =
            some_other_oid =
           In OpenSSL 0.9.8 it is also possible to set the value to the long name
           followed by a comma and the numerical OID form. For example:
            shortName = some object long name,
           This ENGINE configuration module has the name engines. The value of
           this variable points to a section containing further ENGINE
           configuration information.
           The section pointed to by engines is a table of engine names (though
           see engine_id below) and further sections containing configuration
           informations specific to each ENGINE.
           Each ENGINE specific section is used to set default algorithms, load
           dynamic, perform initialization and send ctrls. The actual operation
           performed depends on the command name which is the name of the name
           value pair. The currently supported commands are listed below.
           The command engine_id is used to give the ENGINE name. If used this
           command must be first. For example:
            # This would normally handle an ENGINE named "foo"
            foo = foo_section
            # Override default name and use "myfoo" instead.
            engine_id = myfoo
           The command dynamic_path loads and adds an ENGINE from the given path.
           It is equivalent to sending the ctrls SO_PATH with the path argument
           followed by LIST_ADD with value 2 and LOAD to the dynamic ENGINE. If
           this is not the required behaviour then alternative ctrls can be sent
           directly to the dynamic ENGINE using ctrl commands.
           The command init determines whether to initialize the ENGINE. If the
           value is 0 the ENGINE will not be initialized, if 1 and attempt it made
           to initialized the ENGINE immediately. If the init command is not
           present then an attempt will be made to initialize the ENGINE after all
           commands in its section have been processed.
           The command default_algorithms sets the default algorithms an ENGINE
           will supply using the functions EENNGGIINNEE_sseett_ddeeffaauulltt_ssttrriinngg(())
           If the name matches none of the above command names it is assumed to be
           a ctrl command which is sent to the ENGINE. The value of the command is
           the argument to the ctrl command. If the value is the string EMPTY then
           no value is sent to the command.
           For example:
            # Configure ENGINE named "foo"
            foo = foo_section
            # Load engine from DSO
            dynamic_path = /some/path/
            # A foo specific ctrl.
            some_ctrl = some_value
            # Another ctrl that doesn't take a value.
            other_ctrl = EMPTY
            # Supply all default algorithms
            default_algorithms = ALL


           If a configuration file attempts to expand a variable that doesn't
           exist then an error is flagged and the file will not load. This can
           around by ignoring any characters before an initial . e.g.
            1.OU="My first OU"
            2.OU="My Second OU"


           Here is a sample configuration file using some of the features
           mentioned above.
            # This is the default section.
            RANDFILE= ${ENV::HOME}/.rnd
            [ section_one ]
            # We are now in section one.
            # Quotes permit leading and trailing whitespace
            any = " any variable name "
            other = A string that can \
            cover several lines \
            by including \\ characters
            message = Hello World\n
            [ section_two ]
            greeting = $section_one::message
           This next example shows how to expand environment variables safely.
           Suppose you want a variable called tmpfile to refer to a temporary
           filename. The directory it is placed in can determined by the the TEMP
           or TMP environment variables but they may not be set to any value at
           all. If you just include the environment variable names and the
           variable doesn't exist then this will cause an error when an attempt is
           made to load the configuration file. By making use of the default
           section both values can be looked up with TEMP taking priority and /tmp
           used if neither is defined:
            # The above value is used if TMP isn't in the environment
            # The above value is used if TEMP isn't in the environment


           Currently there is no way to include characters using the octal \nnn
           form. Strings are all null terminated so nulls cannot form part of the

    1.0.1e 2013-02-11 CONFIG(5)


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