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           co [options] file ...


           co  retrieves a revision from each RCS file and stores it into the cor-
           responding working file.
           Pathnames matching an RCS suffix denote RCS files;  all  others  denote
           working files.  Names are paired as explained in ci(1).
           Revisions  of an RCS file can be checked out locked or unlocked.  Lock-
           ing a revision prevents overlapping updates.  A  revision  checked  out
           for  reading  or  processing  (e.g.,  compiling) need not be locked.  A
           revision checked out for editing and later  checkin  must  normally  be
           locked.   Checkout with locking fails if the revision to be checked out
           is currently locked by another  user.   (A  lock  can  be  broken  with
           rcs(1).)   Checkout  with locking also requires the caller to be on the
           access list of the RCS file, unless he is the owner of the file or  the
           superuser,  or  the  access list is empty.  Checkout without locking is
           not subject to accesslist restrictions, and  is  not  affected  by  the
           presence of locks.
           A  revision  is  selected  by  options  for  revision or branch number,
           checkin date/time, author, or state.  When the  selection  options  are
           applied in combination, co retrieves the latest revision that satisfies
           all of them.  If  none  of  the  selection  options  is  specified,  co
           retrieves  the  latest  revision  on  the  default branch (normally the
           trunk, see the -b option of rcs(1)).  A revision or branch  number  can
           be  attached  to  any of the options -f, -I, -l, -M, -p, -q, -r, or -u.
           The options -d (date), -s (state), and -w (author) retrieve from a sin-
           gle  branch,  the  selected branch, which is either specified by one of
           -f, ..., -u, or the default branch.
           A co command applied to an RCS file with no revisions creates  a  zero-
           length  working  file.   co  always  performs keyword substitution (see


                  retrieves the latest revision whose number is less than or equal
                  to  rev.   If rev indicates a branch rather than a revision, the
                  latest revision on that branch is retrieved.  If rev is omitted,
                  the  latest revision on the default branch (see the -b option of
                  rcs(1)) is retrieved.  If rev is $, co determines  the  revision
                  number  from  keyword  values in the working file.  Otherwise, a
                  revision is composed of one or more numeric or  symbolic  fields
                  separated  by  periods.   If  rev begins with a period, then the
                  default branch (normally the trunk) is prepended to it.  If  rev
                  is  a  branch number followed by a period, then the latest revi-
                  sion on that branch is used.  The numeric equivalent of  a  sym-
                  bolic  field  is  specified  with  the -n option of the commands
                  ci(1) and rcs(1).
           -kkv   Generate keyword strings using the default form, e.g. $Revision:
                  5.13 $ for the Revision keyword.  A locker's name is inserted in
                  the  value of the Header, Id, and Locker keyword strings only as
                  a file is being locked, i.e. by ci -l and co -l.   This  is  the
           -kkvl  Like -kkv, except that a locker's name is always inserted if the
                  given revision is currently locked.
           -kk    Generate only keyword names in keyword strings; omit their  val-
                  ues.   See  KEYWORD  SUBSTITUTION  below.   For example, for the
                  Revision keyword, generate  the  string  $Revision$  instead  of
                  $Revision:  5.13 $.  This option is useful to ignore differences
                  due to keyword substitution when comparing  different  revisions
                  of  a file.  Log messages are inserted after $Log$ keywords even
                  if -kk is specified, since this tends to  be  more  useful  when
                  merging changes.
           -ko    Generate  the  old  keyword  string, present in the working file
                  just before it was checked in.  For example,  for  the  Revision
                  keyword,  generate the string $Revision: 1.1 $ instead of $Revi-
                  sion: 5.13 $ if that is how the string appeared  when  the  file
                  was checked in.  This can be useful for file formats that cannot
                  tolerate any changes to substrings that happen to take the  form
                  of keyword strings.
           -kb    Generate  a  binary  image of the old keyword string.  This acts
                  like -ko, except it performs all working file input  and  output
                  in  binary mode.  This makes little difference on Posix and Unix
                  hosts, but on DOS-like hosts one should use rcs -i -kb  to  ini-
                  tialize an RCS file intended to be used for binary files.  Also,
                  on all hosts, rcsmerge(1) normally refuses to merge  files  when
                  -kb is in effect.
           -kv    Generate  only keyword values for keyword strings.  For example,
                  for the Revision keyword, generate the string  5.13  instead  of
                  $Revision:  5.13 $.  This can help generate files in programming
                  languages where it is hard  to  strip  keyword  delimiters  like
                  $Revision: $  from a string.  However, further keyword substitu-
                  tion cannot be performed once the keyword names are removed,  so
                  this option should be used with care.  Because of this danger of
                  losing keywords, this option cannot be combined with -l, and the
                  owner  write  permission  of  the working file is turned off; to
                  edit the file later, check it out again without -kv.
                  prints the retrieved revision on the standard output rather than
                  storing  it  in the working file.  This option is useful when co
                  is part of a pipe.
                         8:00 pm lt
                         4:00 AM, Jan. 12, 1990           default is UTC
                         1990-01-12 04:00:00+00           ISO 8601 (UTC)
                         1990-01-11 20:00:00-08           ISO 8601 (local time)
                         1990/01/12 04:00:00              traditional RCS format
                         Thu Jan 11 20:00:00 1990 LT      output of ctime(3) + LT
                         Thu Jan 11 20:00:00 PST 1990     output of date(1)
                         Fri Jan 12 04:00:00 GMT 1990
                         Thu, 11 Jan 1990 20:00:00 -0800  Internet RFC 822
                         12-January-1990, 04:00 WET
                  Most  fields in the date and time can be defaulted.  The default
                  time zone is normally UTC, but this can be overridden by the  -z
                  option.   The  other  defaults are determined in the order year,
                  month, day, hour, minute, and second  (most  to  least  signifi-
                  cant).   At  least  one  of  these fields must be provided.  For
                  omitted fields that are of higher significance than the  highest
                  provided field, the time zone's current values are assumed.  For
                  all  other  omitted  fields,  the  lowest  possible  values  are
                  assumed.   For  example, without -z, the date 20, 10:30 defaults
                  to 10:30:00 UTC of the 20th of the UTC time zone's current month
                  and year.  The date/time must be quoted if it contains spaces.
                  Set the modification time on the new working file to be the date
                  of the retrieved revision.  Use this option with  care;  it  can
                  confuse make(1).
                  retrieves the latest revision on the selected branch whose state
                  is set to state.
           -S     Turns on same user locks.  When this is enabled the user  cannot
                  check out the same file twice.
           -T     Preserve  the  modification time on the RCS file even if the RCS
                  file changes because a lock is added or  removed.   This  option
                  can  suppress extensive recompilation caused by a make(1) depen-
                  dency of some other copy of the working file on  the  RCS  file.
                  Use  this  option  with care; it can suppress recompilation even
                  when it is needed, i.e. when the change of  lock  would  mean  a
                  change to keyword strings in the other working file.
                  retrieves  the  latest revision on the selected branch which was
                  checked in by the user with login name login.  If  the  argument
                  login is omitted, the caller's login is assumed.
                  generates  a  new revision which is the join of the revisions on
                  joinlist.  This option is largely obsoleted by  rcsmerge(1)  but
                  is retained for backwards compatibility.
                  changes that lead from rev1 to rev2  undone.   If  changes  from
                  rev2  to rev1 overlap with changes from rev2 to rev3, co reports
                  overlaps as described in merge(1).
                  For the initial pair, rev2 can be omitted.  The default  is  the
                  common ancestor.  If any of the arguments indicate branches, the
                  latest revisions on those branches are assumed.  The options  -l
                  and -u lock or unlock rev1.
           -V     Print RCS's version number.
           -Vn    Emulate  RCS  version n, where n can be 3, 4, or 5.  This can be
                  useful when interchanging RCS files with others who are  running
                  older  versions of RCS.  To see which version of RCS your corre-
                  spondents are running, have them invoke rcs -V; this works  with
                  newer  versions  of  RCS.   If it doesn't work, have them invoke
                  rlog on an RCS file; if none of the first few  lines  of  output
                  contain  the string branch: it is version 3; if the dates' years
                  have just two digits, it is version 4; otherwise, it is  version
                  5.   An  RCS  file generated while emulating version 3 loses its
                  default branch.  An RCS revision generated while emulating  ver-
                  sion  4  or  earlier  has  a  time stamp that is off by up to 13
                  hours.  A revision extracted while emulating version 4  or  ear-
                  lier  contains  abbreviated  dates  of the form yy/mm/dd and can
                  also contain different white space and line prefixes in the sub-
                  stitution for $Log$.
                  Use  suffixes to characterize RCS files.  See ci(1) for details.
           -zzone specifies the date output format in  keyword  substitution,  and
                  specifies  the  default time zone for date in the -ddate option.
                  The zone should be empty, a numeric UTC offset, or  the  special
                  string  LT  for local time.  The default is an empty zone, which
                  uses the traditional RCS format of UTC  without  any  time  zone
                  indication  and  with  slashes separating the parts of the date;
                  otherwise, times are output in ISO 8601 format  with  time  zone
                  indication.  For example, if local time is January 11, 1990, 8pm
                  Pacific Standard Time, eight hours west of UTC, then the time is
                  output as follows:
                         option    time output
                         -z        1990/01/12 04:00:00        (default)
                         -zLT      1990-01-11 20:00:00-08
                         -z+05:30  1990-01-12 09:30:00+05:30
                  The  -z  option does not affect dates stored in RCS files, which
                  are always UTC.


           Strings of the form $keyword$ and $keyword:...$ embedded  in  the  text
           are replaced with strings of the form $keyword:value$ where keyword and
           $Date$ The date and time the revision was checked in.   With  -zzone  a
                  numeric  time  zone  offset  is appended; otherwise, the date is
                  A standard header containing the full pathname of the RCS  file,
                  the  revision  number, the date and time, the author, the state,
                  and the locker (if locked).  With -zzone  a  numeric  time  zone
                  offset is appended to the date; otherwise, the date is UTC.
           $Id$   Same  as  $Header$,  except  that  the RCS filename is without a
                  The login name of the user who locked the revision (empty if not
           $Log$  The  log  message  supplied during checkin, preceded by a header
                  containing the RCS filename, the revision  number,  the  author,
                  and  the  date and time.  With -zzone a numeric time zone offset
                  is appended; otherwise, the date is UTC.  Existing log  messages
                  are  not  replaced.   Instead,  the  new log message is inserted
                  after $Log:...$.  This is useful  for  accumulating  a  complete
                  change log in a source file.
                  Each  inserted  line is prefixed by the string that prefixes the
                  $Log$ line.   For  example,  if  the  $Log$  line  is  "// $Log:
         $",  RCS  prefixes each line of the log with "// ".  This
                  is useful for languages with comments that go to the end of  the
                  line.  The convention for other languages is to use a " * " pre-
                  fix inside a multiline comment.  For example,  the  initial  log
                  comment of a C program conventionally is of the following form:
                          * $Log$
                  For  backwards  compatibility with older versions of RCS, if the
                  log prefix is /* or  (*  surrounded  by  optional  white  space,
                  inserted  log  lines contain a space instead of / or (; however,
                  this usage is obsolescent and should not be relied on.
           $Name$ The symbolic name used to check out the revision, if  any.   For
                  example,  co -rJoe  generates  $Name: Joe $.  Plain co generates
                  just $Name:  $.
                  The name of the RCS file without a path.
                  The revision number assigned to the revision.
                  space    \040
                  $        \044
                  \        \\


           The working file inherits the read and execute permissions from the RCS
           file.  In addition, the owner write permission is turned on, unless -kv
           is set or the file is checked out unlocked and locking is set to strict
           (see rcs(1)).
           If  a  file  with  the  name of the working file exists already and has
           write permission, co aborts the checkout, asking beforehand  if  possi-
           ble.   If the existing working file is not writable or -f is given, the
           working file is deleted without asking.


           co accesses files much as ci(1) does, except that it does not  need  to
           read the working file unless a revision number of $ is specified.


                  options  prepended  to  the  argument list, separated by spaces.
                  See ci(1) for details.


           The RCS  pathname,  the  working  pathname,  and  the  revision  number
           retrieved  are  written  to  the diagnostic output.  The exit status is
           zero if and only if all operations were successful.


           Author: Walter F. Tichy.
           Manual Page Revision: 5.13; Release Date: 1995/06/01.
           Copyright (C) 1982, 1988, 1989 Walter F. Tichy.
           Copyright (C) 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995 Paul Eggert.


           rcsintro(1),  ci(1),  ctime(3),  date(1),  ident(1),  make(1),  rcs(1),
           rcsclean(1), rcsdiff(1), rcsmerge(1), rlog(1), rcsfile(5)
           Walter  F. Tichy, RCS--A System for Version Control, Software--Practice
           & Experience 15, 7 (July 1985), 637-654.


           Links to the RCS and working files are not preserved.
           There is no way to selectively  suppress  the  expansion  of  keywords,
           except  by  writing them differently.  In nroff and troff, this is done
           by embedding the null-character \& into the keyword.

    GNU 1995/06/01 CO(1)


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