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    Command:

    ca

    
    
    

    SYNOPSIS

           openssl ca [-verbose] [-config filename] [-name section] [-gencrl]
           [-revoke file] [-crl_reason reason] [-crl_hold instruction]
           [-crl_compromise time] [-crl_CA_compromise time] [-crldays days]
           [-crlhours hours] [-crlexts section] [-startdate date] [-enddate date]
           [-days arg] [-md arg] [-policy arg] [-keyfile arg] [-key arg] [-passin
           arg] [-cert file] [-selfsign] [-in file] [-out file] [-notext] [-outdir
           dir] [-infiles] [-spkac file] [-ss_cert file] [-preserveDN]
           [-noemailDN] [-batch] [-msie_hack] [-extensions section] [-extfile
           section] [-engine id] [-subj arg] [-utf8] [-multivalue-rdn]
    
    
    

    DESCRIPTION

           The ca command is a minimal CA application. It can be used to sign
           certificate requests in a variety of forms and generate CRLs it also
           maintains a text database of issued certificates and their status.
    
           The options descriptions will be divided into each purpose.
    
    
    

    CA OPTIONS

           -config filename
               specifies the configuration file to use.
    
           -name section
               specifies the configuration file section to use (overrides
               default_ca in the ca section).
    
           -in filename
               an input filename containing a single certificate request to be
               signed by the CA.
    
           -ss_cert filename
               a single self signed certificate to be signed by the CA.
    
           -spkac filename
               a file containing a single Netscape signed public key and challenge
               and additional field values to be signed by the CA. See the SPKAC
               FORMAT section for information on the required format.
    
           -infiles
               if present this should be the last option, all subsequent arguments
               are assumed to the the names of files containing certificate
               requests.
    
           -out filename
               the output file to output certificates to. The default is standard
               output. The certificate details will also be printed out to this
               file.
    
           -outdir directory
               the directory to output certificates to. The certificate will be
               written to a filename consisting of the serial number in hex with
               ".pem" appended.
               certificate requests were signed with (given with -keyfile).
               Cerificate requests signed with a different key are ignored.  If
               -spkac, -ss_cert or -gencrl are given, -selfsign is ignored.
    
               A consequence of using -selfsign is that the self-signed
               certificate appears among the entries in the certificate database
               (see the configuration option database), and uses the same serial
               number counter as all other certificates sign with the self-signed
               certificate.
    
           -passin arg
               the key password source. For more information about the format of
               arg see the PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS section in openssl(1).
    
           -verbose
               this prints extra details about the operations being performed.
    
           -notext
               don't output the text form of a certificate to the output file.
    
           -startdate date
               this allows the start date to be explicitly set. The format of the
               date is YYMMDDHHMMSSZ (the same as an ASN1 UTCTime structure).
    
           -enddate date
               this allows the expiry date to be explicitly set. The format of the
               date is YYMMDDHHMMSSZ (the same as an ASN1 UTCTime structure).
    
           -days arg
               the number of days to certify the certificate for.
    
           -md alg
               the message digest to use. Possible values include md5, sha1 and
               mdc2.  For full list of digests see openssl dgst -h output. This
               option also applies to CRLs.
    
           -policy arg
               this option defines the CA "policy" to use. This is a section in
               the configuration file which decides which fields should be
               mandatory or match the CA certificate. Check out the POLICY FORMAT
               section for more information.
    
           -msie_hack
               this is a legacy option to make ca work with very old versions of
               the IE certificate enrollment control "certenr3". It used
               UniversalStrings for almost everything. Since the old control has
               various security bugs its use is strongly discouraged. The newer
               control "Xenroll" does not need this option.
    
           -preserveDN
               Normally the DN order of a certificate is the same as the order of
               the fields in the relevant policy section. When this option is set
    
           -batch
               this sets the batch mode. In this mode no questions will be asked
               and all certificates will be certified automatically.
    
           -extensions section
               the section of the configuration file containing certificate
               extensions to be added when a certificate is issued (defaults to
               x509_extensions unless the -extfile option is used). If no
               extension section is present then, a V1 certificate is created. If
               the extension section is present (even if it is empty), then a V3
               certificate is created. See the:w x509v3_config(5) manual page for
               details of the extension section format.
    
           -extfile file
               an additional configuration file to read certificate extensions
               from (using the default section unless the -extensions option is
               also used).
    
           -engine id
               specifying an engine (by its unique id string) will cause ca to
               attempt to obtain a functional reference to the specified engine,
               thus initialising it if needed. The engine will then be set as the
               default for all available algorithms.
    
           -subj arg
               supersedes subject name given in the request.  The arg must be
               formatted as /type0=value0/type1=value1/type2=..., characters may
               be escaped by \ (backslash), no spaces are skipped.
    
           -utf8
               this option causes field values to be interpreted as UTF8 strings,
               by default they are interpreted as ASCII. This means that the field
               values, whether prompted from a terminal or obtained from a
               configuration file, must be valid UTF8 strings.
    
           -multivalue-rdn
               this option causes the -subj argument to be interpretedt with full
               support for multivalued RDNs. Example:
    
               /DC=org/DC=OpenSSL/DC=users/UID=123456+CN=John Doe
    
               If -multi-rdn is not used then the UID value is 123456+CN=John Doe.
    
    
    

    CRL OPTIONS

           -gencrl
               this option generates a CRL based on information in the index file.
    
           -crldays num
               the number of days before the next CRL is due. That is the days
               from now to place in the CRL nextUpdate field.
    
           -crlhours num
    
           -crl_hold instruction
               This sets the CRL revocation reason code to certificateHold and the
               hold instruction to instruction which must be an OID. Although any
               OID can be used only holdInstructionNone (the use of which is
               discouraged by RFC2459) holdInstructionCallIssuer or
               holdInstructionReject will normally be used.
    
           -crl_compromise time
               This sets the revocation reason to keyCompromise and the compromise
               time to time. time should be in GeneralizedTime format that is
               YYYYMMDDHHMMSSZ.
    
           -crl_CA_compromise time
               This is the same as crl_compromise except the revocation reason is
               set to CACompromise.
    
           -crlexts section
               the section of the configuration file containing CRL extensions to
               include. If no CRL extension section is present then a V1 CRL is
               created, if the CRL extension section is present (even if it is
               empty) then a V2 CRL is created. The CRL extensions specified are
               CRL extensions and not CRL entry extensions.  It should be noted
               that some software (for example Netscape) can't handle V2 CRLs. See
               x509v3_config(5) manual page for details of the extension section
               format.
    
    
    

    CONFIGURATION FILE OPTIONS

           The section of the configuration file containing options for ca is
           found as follows: If the -name command line option is used, then it
           names the section to be used. Otherwise the section to be used must be
           named in the default_ca option of the ca section of the configuration
           file (or in the default section of the configuration file). Besides
           default_ca, the following options are read directly from the ca
           section:
            RANDFILE
            preserve
            msie_hack With the exception of RANDFILE, this is probably a bug and
           may change in future releases.
    
           Many of the configuration file options are identical to command line
           options. Where the option is present in the configuration file and the
           command line the command line value is used. Where an option is
           described as mandatory then it must be present in the configuration
           file or the command line equivalent (if any) used.
    
           oid_file
               This specifies a file containing additional OBJECT IDENTIFIERS.
               Each line of the file should consist of the numerical form of the
               object identifier followed by white space then the short name
               followed by white space and finally the long name.
    
           private_key
               same as the -keyfile option. The file containing the CA private
               key. Mandatory.
    
           RANDFILE
               a file used to read and write random number seed information, or an
               EGD socket (see RAND_egd(3)).
    
           default_days
               the same as the -days option. The number of days to certify a
               certificate for.
    
           default_startdate
               the same as the -startdate option. The start date to certify a
               certificate for. If not set the current time is used.
    
           default_enddate
               the same as the -enddate option. Either this option or default_days
               (or the command line equivalents) must be present.
    
           default_crl_hours default_crl_days
               the same as the -crlhours and the -crldays options. These will only
               be used if neither command line option is present. At least one of
               these must be present to generate a CRL.
    
           default_md
               the same as the -md option. The message digest to use. Mandatory.
    
           database
               the text database file to use. Mandatory. This file must be present
               though initially it will be empty.
    
           unique_subject
               if the value yes is given, the valid certificate entries in the
               database must have unique subjects.  if the value no is given,
               several valid certificate entries may have the exact same subject.
               The default value is yes, to be compatible with older (pre 0.9.8)
               versions of OpenSSL.  However, to make CA certificate roll-over
               easier, it's recommended to use the value no, especially if
               combined with the -selfsign command line option.
    
           serial
               a text file containing the next serial number to use in hex.
               Mandatory.  This file must be present and contain a valid serial
               number.
    
           crlnumber
               a text file containing the next CRL number to use in hex. The crl
               number will be inserted in the CRLs only if this file exists. If
               this file is present, it must contain a valid CRL number.
    
           x509_extensions
           msie_hack
               the same as -msie_hack
    
           policy
               the same as -policy. Mandatory. See the POLICY FORMAT section for
               more information.
    
           name_opt, cert_opt
               these options allow the format used to display the certificate
               details when asking the user to confirm signing. All the options
               supported by the x509 utilities -nameopt and -certopt switches can
               be used here, except the no_signame and no_sigdump are permanently
               set and cannot be disabled (this is because the certificate
               signature cannot be displayed because the certificate has not been
               signed at this point).
    
               For convenience the values ca_default are accepted by both to
               produce a reasonable output.
    
               If neither option is present the format used in earlier versions of
               OpenSSL is used. Use of the old format is strongly discouraged
               because it only displays fields mentioned in the policy section,
               mishandles multicharacter string types and does not display
               extensions.
    
           copy_extensions
               determines how extensions in certificate requests should be
               handled.  If set to none or this option is not present then
               extensions are ignored and not copied to the certificate. If set to
               copy then any extensions present in the request that are not
               already present are copied to the certificate. If set to copyall
               then all extensions in the request are copied to the certificate:
               if the extension is already present in the certificate it is
               deleted first. See the WARNINGS section before using this option.
    
               The main use of this option is to allow a certificate request to
               supply values for certain extensions such as subjectAltName.
    
    
    

    POLICY FORMAT

           The policy section consists of a set of variables corresponding to
           certificate DN fields. If the value is "match" then the field value
           must match the same field in the CA certificate. If the value is
           "supplied" then it must be present. If the value is "optional" then it
           may be present. Any fields not mentioned in the policy section are
           silently deleted, unless the -preserveDN option is set but this can be
           regarded more of a quirk than intended behaviour.
    
    
    

    SPKAC FORMAT

           The input to the -spkac command line option is a Netscape signed public
           key and challenge. This will usually come from the KEYGEN tag in an
           HTML form to create a new private key.  It is however possible to
           create SPKACs using the spkac utility.
           demoCA/private and demoCA/newcerts would be created. The CA certificate
           would be copied to demoCA/cacert.pem and its private key to
           demoCA/private/cakey.pem. A file demoCA/serial would be created
           containing for example "01" and the empty index file demoCA/index.txt.
    
           Sign a certificate request:
    
            openssl ca -in req.pem -out newcert.pem
    
           Sign a certificate request, using CA extensions:
    
            openssl ca -in req.pem -extensions v3_ca -out newcert.pem
    
           Generate a CRL
    
            openssl ca -gencrl -out crl.pem
    
           Sign several requests:
    
            openssl ca -infiles req1.pem req2.pem req3.pem
    
           Certify a Netscape SPKAC:
    
            openssl ca -spkac spkac.txt
    
           A sample SPKAC file (the SPKAC line has been truncated for clarity):
    
            SPKAC=MIG0MGAwXDANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAANLADBIAkEAn7PDhCeV/xIxUg8V70YRxK2A5
            CN=Steve Test
            emailAddress=steve@openssl.org
            0.OU=OpenSSL Group
            1.OU=Another Group
    
           A sample configuration file with the relevant sections for ca:
    
            [ ca ]
            default_ca      = CA_default            # The default ca section
    
            [ CA_default ]
    
            dir            = ./demoCA              # top dir
            database       = $dir/index.txt        # index file.
            new_certs_dir  = $dir/newcerts         # new certs dir
    
            certificate    = $dir/cacert.pem       # The CA cert
            serial         = $dir/serial           # serial no file
            private_key    = $dir/private/cakey.pem# CA private key
            RANDFILE       = $dir/private/.rand    # random number file
    
            default_days   = 365                   # how long to certify for
            default_crl_days= 30                   # how long before next CRL
            default_md     = md5                   # md to use
            emailAddress           = optional
    
    
    

    FILES

           Note: the location of all files can change either by compile time
           options, configuration file entries, environment variables or command
           line options.  The values below reflect the default values.
    
            /usr/local/ssl/lib/openssl.cnf - master configuration file
            ./demoCA                       - main CA directory
            ./demoCA/cacert.pem            - CA certificate
            ./demoCA/private/cakey.pem     - CA private key
            ./demoCA/serial                - CA serial number file
            ./demoCA/serial.old            - CA serial number backup file
            ./demoCA/index.txt             - CA text database file
            ./demoCA/index.txt.old         - CA text database backup file
            ./demoCA/certs                 - certificate output file
            ./demoCA/.rnd                  - CA random seed information
    
    
    

    ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

           OPENSSL_CONF reflects the location of master configuration file it can
           be overridden by the -config command line option.
    
    
    

    RESTRICTIONS

           The text database index file is a critical part of the process and if
           corrupted it can be difficult to fix. It is theoretically possible to
           rebuild the index file from all the issued certificates and a current
           CRL: however there is no option to do this.
    
           V2 CRL features like delta CRLs are not currently supported.
    
           Although several requests can be input and handled at once it is only
           possible to include one SPKAC or self signed certificate.
    
    
    

    BUGS

           The use of an in memory text database can cause problems when large
           numbers of certificates are present because, as the name implies the
           database has to be kept in memory.
    
           The ca command really needs rewriting or the required functionality
           exposed at either a command or interface level so a more friendly
           utility (perl script or GUI) can handle things properly. The scripts
           CA.sh and CA.pl help a little but not very much.
    
           Any fields in a request that are not present in a policy are silently
           deleted. This does not happen if the -preserveDN option is used. To
           enforce the absence of the EMAIL field within the DN, as suggested by
           RFCs, regardless the contents of the request' subject the -noemailDN
           option can be used. The behaviour should be more friendly and
           configurable.
    
           Cancelling some commands by refusing to certify a certificate can
           create an empty file.
           request contains a basicConstraints extension with CA:TRUE and the
           copy_extensions value is set to copyall and the user does not spot this
           when the certificate is displayed then this will hand the requestor a
           valid CA certificate.
    
           This situation can be avoided by setting copy_extensions to copy and
           including basicConstraints with CA:FALSE in the configuration file.
           Then if the request contains a basicConstraints extension it will be
           ignored.
    
           It is advisable to also include values for other extensions such as
           keyUsage to prevent a request supplying its own values.
    
           Additional restrictions can be placed on the CA certificate itself.
           For example if the CA certificate has:
    
            basicConstraints = CA:TRUE, pathlen:0
    
           then even if a certificate is issued with CA:TRUE it will not be valid.
    
    
    

    SEE ALSO

           req(1), spkac(1), x509(1), CA.pl(1), config(5), x509v3_config(5)
    
    
    

    1.0.1e 2016-01-07 CA(1)

    
    
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