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           badblocks  [  -svwnf  ]  [  -b  block-size ] [ -c blocks_at_once ] [ -e
           max_bad_blocks ] [ -d read_delay_factor ] [ -i input_file ] [  -o  out-
           put_file  ] [ -p num_passes ] [ -t test_pattern ] device [ last-block ]
           [ first-block ]


           badblocks is used to search for bad blocks on a device (usually a  disk
           partition).   device  is  the  special file corresponding to the device
           (e.g /dev/hdc1).  last-block is the last block to be checked; if it  is
           not  specified,  the  last  block  on  the device is used as a default.
           first-block is an optional parameter specifying the starting block num-
           ber  for  the  test, which allows the testing to start in the middle of
           the disk.  If it is not specified the first block on the disk  is  used
           as a default.
           Important  note:  If  the output of badblocks is going to be fed to the
           e2fsck or mke2fs programs, it is important that the block size is prop-
           erly  specified,  since  the block numbers which are generated are very
           dependent on the block size in use by the filesystem.  For this reason,
           it  is  strongly recommended that users not run badblocks directly, but
           rather use the -c option of the e2fsck and mke2fs programs.


           -b block-size
                  Specify the size of blocks in bytes.  The default is 1024.
           -c number of blocks
                  is the number of blocks which are tested at a time.  The default
                  is 64.
           -e max bad block count
                  Specify a maximum number of bad blocks before aborting the test.
                  The default is 0, meaning the test will continue until  the  end
                  of the test range is reached.
           -d read delay factor
                  This parameter, if passed and non-zero, will cause bad blocks to
                  sleep between reads if there were no errors encountered  in  the
                  read  operation; the delay will be calculated as a percentage of
                  the time it took for the read  operation  to  be  performed.  In
                  other  words,  a value of 100 will cause each read to be delayed
                  by the amount the previous read took, and  a  value  of  200  by
                  twice the amount.
           -f     Normally,  badblocks  will  refuse  to do a read/write or a non-
                  destructive test on a device which is mounted, since either  can
                  cause the system to potentially crash and/or damage the filesys-
                  tem even if it is mounted read-only.   This  can  be  overridden
                  using  the  -f  flag, but should almost never be used --- if you
                  think you're smarter than the badblocks program, you almost cer-
                  tainly  aren't.  The only time when this option might be safe to
                  destructive  read-only  test  is  done.  This option must not be
                  combined with the -w option, as they are mutually exclusive.
           -o output_file
                  Write the list of bad blocks to  the  specified  file.   Without
                  this option, badblocks displays the list on its standard output.
                  The format of this file is suitable for use by the -l option  in
                  e2fsck(8) or mke2fs(8).
           -p num_passes
                  Repeat  scanning  the disk until there are no new blocks discov-
                  ered in num_passes consecutive scans of the disk.  Default is 0,
                  meaning badblocks will exit after the first pass.
           -s     Show  the  progress  of the scan by writing out rough percentage
                  completion of the current badblocks pass over  the  disk.   Note
                  that  badblocks  may  do  multiple test passes over the disk, in
                  particular if the -p or -w option is requested by the user.
           -t test_pattern
                  Specify a test pattern to be read (and written) to disk  blocks.
                  The  test_pattern  may  either  be a numeric value between 0 and
                  ULONG_MAX-1 inclusive, or the  word  "random",  which  specifies
                  that  the block should be filled with a random bit pattern.  For
                  read/write (-w) and non-destructive (-n) modes, one or more test
                  patterns  may  be specified by specifying the -t option for each
                  test pattern desired.  For read-only mode only a single  pattern
                  may  be specified and it may not be "random".  Read-only testing
                  with a pattern assumes that the specified pattern has previously
                  been  written to the disk - if not, large numbers of blocks will
                  fail verification.  If multiple patterns are specified then  all
                  blocks  will be tested with one pattern before proceeding to the
                  next pattern.
           -v     Verbose mode.
           -w     Use write-mode test. With this option, badblocks scans  for  bad
                  blocks  by  writing  some  patterns  (0xaa, 0x55, 0xff, 0x00) on
                  every block of the device, reading every block and comparing the
                  contents.   This  option may not be combined with the -n option,
                  as they are mutually exclusive.
           -X     Internal flag only to be used by e2fsck(8)  and  mke2fs(8).   It
                  bypasses the exclusive mode in-use device safety check.


           Never use the -w option on a device containing an existing file system.
           This option erases data!  If you want to do write-mode  testing  on  an
           existing  file system, use the -n option instead.  It is slower, but it
           will preserve your data.
           The -e option will cause badblocks to output a possibly incomplete list
           e2fsck(8), mke2fs(8)

    E2fsprogs version 1.41.12 May 2010 BADBLOCKS(8)


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