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    Command:

    atop

    
    
    

    SYNOPSIS

           Interactive usage:
    
           atop [-g|-m|-d|-n|-u|-p|-s|-c|-v|-o] [-C|-M|-D|-N|-A] [-af1x] [-L line-
           len] [-Plabel[,label]...]  [ interval [ samples ]]
    
           Writing and reading raw logfiles:
    
           atop -w rawfile [-a] [-S] [ interval [ samples ]]
           atop   -r   [    rawfile    ]    [-b    hh:mm    ]    [-e    hh:mm    ]
           [-g|-m|-d|-n|-u|-p|-s|-c|-v|-o]  [-C|-M|-D|-N|-A]  [-f1x]  [-L linelen]
           [-Plabel[,label]...]
    
    
    

    DESCRIPTION

           The program atop is an interactive monitor to view the load on a  Linux
           system.   It  shows  the  occupation  of  the  most  critical  hardware
           resources (from a performance point of view) on system level, i.e. cpu,
           memory, disk and network.
           It  also  shows  which processes are responsible for the indicated load
           with respect to cpu- and memory load on process level.   Disk  load  is
           shown if per process "storage accounting" is active in the kernel or if
           the kernel patch 'cnt' has been installed.  Network load is only  shown
           per process if the kernel patch 'cnt' has been installed.
    
           Every  interval  (default:  10  seconds) information is shown about the
           resource occupation on system level (cpu,  memory,  disks  and  network
           layers),  followed by a list of processes which have been active during
           the last interval (note that all processes that were  unchanged  during
           the  last interval are not shown, unless the key 'a' has been pressed).
           If the list of active processes does not entirely fit  on  the  screen,
           only the top of the list is shown (sorted in order of activity).
           The  intervals  are  repeated  till the number of samples (specified as
           command argument) is reached, or till the key 'q' is pressed in  inter-
           active mode.
    
           When  atop is started, it checks whether the standard output channel is
           connected to a screen, or to a file/pipe. In the first case it produces
           screen  control  codes  (via  the ncurses library) and behaves interac-
           tively; in the second case it produces flat ASCII-output.
    
           In interactive mode, the output of atop scales dynamically to the  cur-
           rent dimensions of the screen/window.
           If the window is resized horizontally, columns will be added or removed
           automatically. For this purpose, every column has a particular  weight.
           The  columns with the highest weigths that fit within the current width
           will be shown.
           If the window is resized vertically, lines of the process-list will  be
           added or removed automatically.
    
           Furthermore in interactive mode the output of atop can be controlled by
           pressing particular keys.  However it is also possible to specify  such
           key as flag on the command line. In the latter case atop will switch to
           way atop can also show the activity of a process during the interval in
           which it is finished.
           Whenever  the last incarnation of atop stops (either by pressing 'q' or
           by 'kill -15'), it switches off the process accounting mechanism again.
           You  should  never  terminate atop by 'kill -9', because then it has no
           chance to stop process accounting; as a result the accounting file  may
           consume a lot of disk space after a while.
    
           With  the  environment variable ATOPACCT the name of a specific process
           accounting file can be specified (accounting should have been activated
           on  beforehand). When this environment variable is present but its con-
           tents is empty, process accounting will not be used at all.
    
           Notice that root-privileges are required to switch on process  account-
           ing  in  the  kernel. You can start atop as root or specify setuid-root
           privileges to the executable file.  In the latter case,  atop  switches
           on  process accounting and immediately drops the root-privileges again.
    
    
    

    COLORS

           For the resource consumption on system level, atop uses colors to indi-
           cate  that  a critical occupation percentage has been (almost) reached.
           A critical occupation percentage means that is likely  that  this  load
           causes  a  noticable  negative  performance  influence for applications
           using this resource. The critical percentage depends  on  the  type  of
           resource: e.g. the performance influence of a disk with a busy percent-
           age of 80% might be more noticable for  applications/user  than  a  CPU
           with a busy percentage of 90%.
           Currently  atop  uses  the  following  default  values  to  calculate a
           weighted percentage per resource:
    
            Processor
                A busy percentage of 90% or higher is considered 'critical'.
    
            Disk
                A busy percentage of 70% or higher is considered 'critical'.
    
            Network
                A busy percentage of 90% or higher for the load of an interface is
                considered 'critical'.
    
            Memory
                An  occupation percentage of 90% is considered 'critical'.  Notice
                that this occupation percentage is the accumulated memory consump-
                tion  of the kernel (including slab) and all processes; the memory
                for the page cache ('cache' and 'buff' in  the  MEM-line)  is  not
                implied!
                If  the  number  of pages swapped out ('swout' in the PAG-line) is
                larger than 10 per  second,  the  memory  resource  is  considered
                'critical'.   A  value  of  at  least  1  per second is considered
                'almost critical'.
                If the committed virtual memory exceeds  the  limit  ('vmcom'  and
    
           it  is  almost  critical), the entire screen line is colored cyan. This
           'almost critical percentage' (one value for all resources) can be modi-
           fied in the configuration file (see separate man-page of atoprc).
    
           With the key 'x' (or flag -x), line coloring can be suppressed.
    
    
    

    INTERACTIVE COMMANDS

           When  running  atop  interactively (no output redirection), keys can be
           pressed to control the output. In general, lower case keys can be  used
           to  show other information for the active processes and upper case keys
           can be used to influence the sort order of the active process list.
    
           g    Show generic output (default).
    
                Per process the following fields are shown in case  of  a  window-
                width of 80 positions: process-id, cpu consumption during the last
                interval in system- and user mode, the virtual and resident memory
                growth of the process.
                The  subsequent columns depend on the used kernel: When the kernel
                patch 'cnt' has been installed, the  number  of  read-  and  write
                transfers on disk, and the number of received and transmitted net-
                work packets are shown for each process.  When the kernel patch is
                not  installed  and  the  kernel supports "storage accounting" (>=
                2.6.20), the data transfer for read/write on disk, the status  and
                exit  code  are  shown for each process.  When the kernel patch is
                not installed and the kernel does not  support  "storage  account-
                ing",  the  username,  number  of threads in the thread group, the
                status and exit code are shown.
                The last columns contain the state, the occupation percentage  for
                the choosen resource (default: cpu) and the process name.
    
                When  more  than  80 positions are available, other information is
                added.
    
           m    Show memory related output.
    
                Per process the following fields are shown in case  of  a  window-
                width  of 80 positions: process-id, minor and major memory faults,
                size of virtual shared text, total  virtual  process  size,  total
                resident  process  size,  virtual  and resident growth during last
                interval, memory occupation percentage and process name.
    
                When more than 80 positions are available,  other  information  is
                added.
    
           d    Show disk-related output.
    
                When  "storage  accounting" is active in the kernel, the following
                fields are shown: process-id,  amount  of  data  read  from  disk,
                Per process the following fields are shown in case  of  a  window-
                width  of 80 positions: process-id, number of received TCP packets
                with the average size per packet (in bytes), number  of  sent  TCP
                packets  with  the  average  size per packet (in bytes), number of
                received UDP packets with the average size per packet (in  bytes),
                number  of  sent  UDP packets with the average size per packet (in
                bytes), and received and sent raw packets (e.g. ICMP) in one  col-
                umn, the network occupation percentage and process name.
                This  information  can  only  be  shown when kernel patch 'cnt' is
                installed.
    
                When more than 80 positions are available,  other  information  is
                added.
    
           s    Show scheduling characteristics.
    
                Per  process  the  following fields are shown in case of a window-
                width of 80 positions: process-id,  number  of  threads  in  state
                'running' (R), number of threads in state 'interruptible sleeping'
                (S), number of threads in state  'uninterruptible  sleeping'  (D),
                scheduling policy (normal timesharing, realtime round-robin, real-
                time fifo), nice value, priority, realtime priority, current  pro-
                cessor,  status,  exit  code, state, the occupation percentage for
                the choosen resource and the process name.
    
                When more than 80 positions are available,  other  information  is
                added.
    
           v    Show various process characteristics.
    
                Per  process  the  following fields are shown in case of a window-
                width of 80 positions: process-id, user name and group, start date
                and  time,  status  (e.g.  exit code if the process has finished),
                state, the occupation percentage for the choosen resource and  the
                process name.
    
                When  more  than  80 positions are available, other information is
                added.
    
           c    Show the command line of the process.
    
                Per process the following fields are shown: process-id, the  occu-
                pation  percentage  for  the choosen resource and the command line
                including arguments.
    
           o    Show the user-defined line of the process.
    
                In the configuration file the keyword ownprocline can be specified
                on disk is shown.  When the kernel patch 'cnt' has been installed,
                the number of received and sent network packets are shown.
                The last columns contain the accumulated occupation percentage for
                the choosen resource (default: cpu) and the user name.
    
           p    Show the process activity accumulated per  program  (i.e.  process
                name).
    
                Per  program  the  following fields are shown: number of processes
                active or terminated during last interval (or in total if combined
                with  command 'a'), accumulated cpu consumption during last inter-
                val in system- and user mode, the  current  virtual  and  resident
                memory space consumed by active processes (or all processes of the
                user if combined with command 'a').
                When the  kernel  patch  'cnt'  has  been  installed  or  "storage
                accounting"  is active, the accumulated read- and write throughput
                on disk is shown.  When the kernel patch 'cnt' has been installed,
                the number of received and sent network packets are shown.
                The last columns contain the accumulated occupation percentage for
                the choosen resource (default: cpu) and the program name.
    
           C    Sort the current list in the order of cpu  consumption  (default).
                The one-but-last column changes to ''CPU''.
    
           M    Sort the current list in the order of resident memory consumption.
                The one-but-last column changes to ''MEM''.
    
           D    Sort the current list in the order of disk accesses  issued.   The
                one-but-last column changes to ''DSK''.
    
           N    Sort   the   current   list   in  the  order  of  network  packets
                received/transmitted.  The one-but-last column changes to ''NET''.
    
           A    Sort  the current list automatically in the order of the most busy
                system resource during this  interval.   The  one-but-last  column
                shows either ''ACPU'', ''AMEM'', ''ADSK'' or ''ANET'' (the preced-
                ing  'A'  indicates  automatic  sorting-order).   The  most   busy
                resource  is determined by comparing the weighted busy-percentages
                of the system resources, as described earlier in the section  COL-
                ORS.
                This  option  remains valid until another sorting-order is explic-
                itly selected again.
                A sorting-order for disk is only possible when  the  kernel  patch
                'cnt'  is installed or "storage accounting" is active.  A sorting-
                order for network is only possible when the kernel patch 'cnt'  is
                installed.
    
           z    The pause key can be used to freeze the current situation in order
                to investigate the output on the screen. While atop is paused, the
                keys described above can be  pressed  to  show  other  information
                about  the  current  list of processes.  Whenever the pause key is
                pressed again, atop will continue with a next sample.
    
           i    Modify the interval timer (default: 10 seconds).  If  an  interval
                timer of 0 is entered, the interval timer is switched off. In that
                case a new sample can only be triggered manually by  pressing  the
                key 't'.
    
           t    Trigger a new sample manually. This key can be pressed if the cur-
                rent sample should be finished before the timer has  exceeded,  or
                if  no  timer  is set at all (interval timer defined as 0). In the
                latter case atop can be used as a stopwatch to  measure  the  load
                being  caused  by  a  particular  application transaction, without
                knowing on beforehand how many seconds this transaction will last.
    
                When  viewing  the contents of a raw file, this key can be used to
                show the next sample from the file.
    
           T    When viewing the contents of a raw file, this key can be  used  to
                show the previous sample from the file.
    
           b    When  viewing  the contents of a raw file, this key can be used to
                branch to a certain timestamp within the file (either  forward  or
                backward).
    
           r    Reset  all counters to zero to see the system and process activity
                since boot again.
    
                When viewing the contents of a raw file, this key can be  used  to
                rewind to the beginning of the file again.
    
           U    Specify  a  search  string  for  specific  user names as a regular
                expression.  From now on, only (active) processes  will  be  shown
                from  a  user  which  matches  the regular expression.  The system
                statistics are still system wide.  If  the  Enter-key  is  pressed
                without  specifying  a name, active processes of all users will be
                shown again.
                Whether this key is active or not can be seen in the header  line.
    
           P    Specify  a  search  string for specific process names as a regular
                expression.  From now on, only processes will be shown with a name
                which  matches  the regular expression.  The system statistics are
                interval.  With this key you can force atop to show lines of inac-
                tive resources as well.
                Whether  this key is active or not can be seen in the header line.
    
           1    Show relevant counters as an average per  second  (in  the  format
                '..../s') instead of as a total during the interval (toggle).
                Whether  this key is active or not can be seen in the header line.
    
           l    Limit the number of system level lines for the  counters  per-cpu,
                the active disks and the network interfaces.  By default lines are
                shown of all cpu's, disks and network interfaces which  have  been
                active during the last interval.  Limiting these lines can be use-
                ful on systems with huge number  cpu's,  disks  or  interfaces  in
                order  to be able to run atop on a screen/window with e.g. only 24
                lines.
                For all mentioned resources the maximum number  of  lines  can  be
                specified interactively. When using the flag -l the maximum number
                of per-cpu lines is set to 0, the maximum number of disk lines  to
                5  and  the  maximum number of interface lines to 3.  These values
                can be modified again in interactive mode.
    
           k    Send a signal to an active process (a.k.a. kill a process).
    
           q    Quit the program.
    
           ^F   Show the next page of the process list (forward).
    
           ^B   Show the previous page of the process list (backward).
    
           ^L   Redraw the screen.
    
    
    

    RAW DATA STORAGE

           In order to store system- and process level  statistics  for  long-term
           analysis  (e.g.  to check the system load and the active processes run-
           ning yesterday between 3:00 and 4:00 PM), atop can  store  the  system-
           and  process level statistics in compressed binary format in a raw file
           with the flag -w followed by the filename.  If this file already exists
           and  is  recognized as a raw data file, atop will append new samples to
           the file (starting with a sample  which  reflects  the  activity  since
           boot); if the file does not exist, it will be created.
           By  default  only  processes which have been active during the interval
           are stored in the raw file. When the flag -a  is  specified,  all  pro-
           cesses will be stored.
           The  interval  (default:  10  seconds)  and number of samples (default:
           infinite) can be passed as last arguments. Instead  of  the  number  of
           the begin of the file.
           When output is redirected to a file or pipe, atop prints all samples in
           plain  ASCII.  The  default  line length is 80 characters in that case;
           with the flag -L followed by an alternate line length, more  (or  less)
           columns will be shown.
           With  the  flag -b (begin time) and/or -e (end time) followed by a time
           argument of the form HH:MM, a certain time period within the  raw  file
           can be selected.
    
           The  Debian  package automatically starts up atop via init, rotation of
           the logfiles is done with logrotate. Therefore,  the  suggested  layout
           with  cron scripts in /etc/atop as described in the upstream package is
           not necessary for Debian.
    
    
    

    OUTPUT DESCRIPTION

           The first sample shows  the  system  level  activity  since  boot  (the
           elapsed  time in the header shows the time since boot).  Note that par-
           ticular counters could have reached their maximum value (several times)
           and started by zero again, so do not rely on these figures.
    
           For  every  sample  atop  first shows the lines related to system level
           activity. If a particular system resource has not been used during  the
           interval,  the  entire  line related to this resource is suppressed. So
           the number of system level lines may vary for each sample.
           After that a list is shown of processes which have been  active  during
           the  last  interval. This list is by default sorted on cpu consumption,
           but this order  can  be  changed  by  the  keys  which  are  previously
           described.
    
           If  values  have  to  be  shown  by atop which do not fit in the column
           width, another notation is used. If e.g. a  cpu-consumption  of  233216
           milliseconds  should  be  shown in a column width of 4 positions, it is
           shown as '233s' (in seconds).  For large memory figures,  another  unit
           is  chosen  if  the value does not fit (Mb instead of Kb, Gb instead of
           Mb).  For other values, a kind of  exponent  notation  is  used  (value
           123456789 shown in a column of 5 positions gives 123e6).
    
    
    

    OUTPUT DESCRIPTION - SYSTEM LEVEL

           The system level information consists of the following output lines:
    
           PRC  Process level totals.
                This  line  contains  the  total  cpu time consumed in system mode
                ('sys') and in user mode ('user'), the total number  of  processes
                present  at  this  moment  ('#proc'),  the total number of threads
                present at this moment in  state  'running'  ('#trun'),  'sleeping
                interruptible'    ('#tslpi')    and   'sleeping   uninterruptible'
                ('#tslpu'), the number of zombie processes ('#zombie'), the number
                of clone system calls ('clones'), and the number of processes that
                ended during the interval ('#exit', which  shows  '?'  if  process
                accounting is not used).
                If  the  screen-width does not allow all of these counters, only a
                consumed in user mode ('user') for all active processes (including
                processes running with a nice value larger than  zero),  the  per-
                centage of cpu time spent for interrupt handling ('irq') including
                softirq, the percentage of unused cpu time while no processes were
                waiting  for  disk-I/O  ('idle'), and the percentage of unused cpu
                time while at least one process was waiting for disk-I/O ('wait').
                In  case of per-cpu occupation, the last column shows the cpu num-
                ber and the wait percentage ('w') for that  cpu.   The  number  of
                lines showing the per-cpu occupation can be limited.
    
                For  virtual  machines  the  steal-percentage  is shown ('steal'),
                reflecting the percentage of cpu  time  stolen  by  other  virtual
                machines running on the same hardware.
                For  physical  machines  hosting one or more virtual machines, the
                guest-percentage is shown ('guest'), reflecting the percentage  of
                cpu time used by the virtual machines.
    
                In  case  of  frequency-scaling, all previously mentioned CPU-per-
                centages are relative to the used scaling of the  CPU  during  the
                interval.  If e.g. a CPU has been active for 50% in user mode dur-
                ing the interval while the frequency-scaling of that was 40%, then
                only  20%  of  the  full capacity of the CPU has been used in user
                mode.
                In case that the kernel module 'cpufreq_stats'  is  active  (after
                issueing 'modprobe cpufreq_stats'), the average frequency ('avgf')
                and the average scaling percentage ('avgscal') is shown. Otherwise
                the  current frequency ('curf') and the current scaling percentage
                ('curscal') is shown at the moment that the sample is taken.
    
                If the screen-width does not allow all of these counters,  only  a
                relevant subset is shown.
    
           CPL  CPU load information.
                This  line contains the load average figures reflecting the number
                of threads that are available to run on a CPU (i.e.  part  of  the
                runqueue)  or  that  are  waiting  for disk I/O. These figures are
                averaged over 1 ('avg1'), 5 ('avg5') and 15 ('avg15') minutes.
                Furthermore the number of context switches ('csw'), the number  of
                serviced interrupts ('intr') and the number of available cpu's are
                shown.
    
                If the screen-width does not allow all of these counters,  only  a
                relevant subset is shown.
    
           MEM  Memory occupation.
                This  line  contains  the total amount of physical memory ('tot'),
                the amount of memory which is currently free ('free'), the  amount
                of  memory  in  use  as page cache ('cache'), the amount of memory
                within the page cache that has to be flushed  to  disk  ('dirty'),
                the  amount  of  memory used for filesystem meta data ('buff') and
                ory space for processes. The kernel only verifies whether the com-
                mitted space exceeds the limit if strict  overcommit  handling  is
                configured (vm.overcommit_memory is 2).
    
           PAG  Paging frequency.
                This line contains the number of scanned pages ('scan') due to the
                fact that free memory drops below a particular threshold  and  the
                number  times  that  the  kernel  tries to reclaim pages due to an
                urgent need ('stall').
                Also the number of memory pages the system read  from  swap  space
                ('swin')  and  the number of memory pages the system wrote to swap
                space ('swout') are shown.
    
           LVM/MDD/DSK
                Logical volume/multiple device/disk utilization.
                Per active unit one line is produced,  sorted  on  unit  activity.
                Such line shows the name (e.g. VolGroup00-lvtmp for a logical vol-
                ume or sda for a hard disk), the busy percentage i.e. the  portion
                of  time  that  the  unit was busy handling requests ('busy'), the
                number of read requests  issued  ('read'),  the  number  of  write
                requests   issued  ('write'),  the  number  of  KiBytes  per  read
                ('KiB/r'), the number of KiBytes per write ('KiB/w'),  the  number
                of  MiBytes  per second throughput for reads ('MBr/s'), the number
                of MiBytes per second throughput for writes ('MBw/s'), the average
                queue  depth ('avq') and the average number of milliseconds needed
                by a request ('avio') for seek, latency and data transfer.
                If the screen-width does not allow all of these counters,  only  a
                relevant subset is shown.
    
                The  number  of  lines  showing the units can be limited per class
                (LVM, MDD or DSK) with the 'l' key  or  statically  (see  separate
                man-page  of  atoprc).  By specifying the value 0 for a particular
                class, no lines will be shown any more for that class.
    
           NET  Network utilization (TCP/IP).
                One line is shown for activity of the  transport  layer  (TCP  and
                UDP), one line for the IP layer and one line per active interface.
                For the transport layer, counters are shown concerning the  number
                of  received  TCP  segments  including  those  received  in  error
                ('tcpi'), the number of transmitted TCP segments  excluding  those
                containing  only  retransmitted octets ('tcpo'), the number of UDP
                datagrams received ('udpi'), the number of UDP datagrams transmit-
                ted ('udpo'), the number of active TCP opens ('tcpao'), the number
                of passive TCP opens ('tcppo'), the number of TCP output  retrans-
                missions  ('tcprs'), the number of TCP input errors ('tcpie'), the
                number of TCP output resets ('tcpie'), the number  of  TCP  output
                retransmissions  ('tcpor'),  the number of UDP no ports ('udpnp'),
                and the number of UDP input errors ('tcpie').
                If the screen-width does not allow all of these counters,  only  a
    
                For every active network interface one line is  shown,  sorted  on
                the interface activity.  Such line shows the name of the interface
                and its busy percentage in the first column.  The busy  percentage
                for  half  duplex  is  determined by comparing the interface speed
                with the number of bits transmitted and received per  second;  for
                full  duplex  the  interface speed is compared with the highest of
                either the transmitted or the received bits.  When  the  interface
                speed  can  not  be  determined (e.g. for the loopback interface),
                '---' is shown instead of the percentage.
                Furthermore the number of received packets ('pcki'), the number of
                transmitted   packets  ('pcko'),  the  effective  amount  of  bits
                received per second ('si'), the effective amount of bits transmit-
                ted per second ('so'), the number of collisions ('coll'), the num-
                ber of received multicast packets ('mlti'), the number  of  errors
                while  receiving  a  packet  ('erri'),  the number of errors while
                transmitting a packet ('erro'), the  number  of  received  packets
                dropped  ('drpi'),  and  the number of transmitted packets dropped
                ('drpo').
                If the screen-width does not allow all of these counters,  only  a
                relevant subset is shown.
                The number of lines showing the network interfaces can be limited.
    
    
    

    OUTPUT DESCRIPTION - PROCESS LEVEL

           Following the system level information, the processes  are  shown  from
           which  the  resource  utilization has changed during the last interval.
           These processes might have used cpu time or  issued  disk-  or  network
           requests.  However a process is also shown if part of it has been paged
           out due to lack of memory  (while  the  process  itself  was  in  sleep
           state).
    
           Per  process the following fields may be shown (in alphabetical order),
           depending on the current output mode as described in the section INTER-
           ACTIVE COMMANDS and depending on the current width of your window:
    
           AVGRSZ   The average size of one read-action on disk.
    
           AVGWSZ   The average size of one write-action on disk.
    
           CMD      The  name  of  the  process.   This  name can be surrounded by
                    "less/greater than" signs ('<name>') which means that the pro-
                    cess has finished during the last interval.
                    Behind  the abbreviation 'CMD' in the header line, the current
                    page number and the total number of pages of the process  list
                    are shown.
    
           COMMAND-LINE
                    The  full  command  line of the process (including arguments),
                    is running on or has recently been running on.
    
           DSK      The occupation percentage of this process related to the total
                    load that is  produced  by  all  processes  (i.e.  total  disk
                    accesses by all processes during the last interval).
                    This  information  is shown when per process "storage account-
                    ing" is active in the kernel or when the  kernel  patch  'cnt'
                    has been installed.
    
           EGID     Effective group-id under which this process executes.
    
           ENDATE   Date  that  the  process  has been finished. If the process is
                    still running, this field shows 'active'.
    
           ENTIME   Time that the process has been finished.  If  the  process  is
                    still running, this field shows 'active'.
    
           EUID     Effective user-id under which this process executes.
    
           EXC      The exit code of a terminated process (second position of col-
                    umn 'ST' is E) or the fatal signal number (second position  of
                    column 'ST' is S or C).
    
           FSGID    Filesystem group-id under which this process executes.
    
           FSUID    Filesystem user-id under which this process executes.
    
           MAJFLT   The  number  of  page  faults issued by this process that have
                    been solved by creating/loading the requested memory page.
    
           MEM      The occupation percentage  of  this  process  related  to  the
                    available capacity for this resource on system level.
    
           MINFLT   The  number  of  page  faults issued by this process that have
                    been solved by reclaiming the requested memory page  from  the
                    free list of pages.
    
           NET      The occupation percentage of this process related to the total
                    load that is produced by all processes (i.e.  network  packets
                    transferred by all processes during the last interval).
                    not part of the standard process accounting  record.   However
                    when  the kernel patch 'acct' is installed, this value will be
                    shown properly.
    
           POLI     The policies 'norm' (normal,  which  is  SCHED_OTHER),  'btch'
                    (batch)  and 'idle' refer to timesharing processes.  The poli-
                    cies 'fifo' (SCHED_FIFO)  and  'rr'  (round  robin,  which  is
                    SCHED_RR) refer to realtime processes.
    
           PPID     Parent process-id.  If a process has been started and finished
                    during the last interval, value 0 is shown because the  parent
                    process-id  is  not  part  of  the standard process accounting
                    record.  However when the kernel patch  'acct'  is  installed,
                    this value will be shown properly.
    
           PRI      The  process' priority ranges from 0 (highest priority) to 139
                    (lowest priority). Priority 0 to 99 are used for realtime pro-
                    cesses (fixed priority independent of their behavior) and pri-
                    ority 100 to 139 for timesharing processes (variable  priority
                    depending on their recent CPU consumption and the nice value).
    
           RAWRCV   The number of raw datagrams received by  this  process.   This
                    information  can  only  be  shown  when  kernel patch 'cnt' is
                    installed.
                    If a process has finished during the last interval,  no  value
                    is  shown  since  network  counters  are not registered in the
                    standard process accounting record.  However when  the  kernel
                    patch 'acct' is installed, this value will be shown.
    
           RAWSND   The number of raw datagrams sent by this process.  This infor-
                    mation can only be shown when kernel patch 'cnt' is installed.
                    If  a  process has finished during the last interval, no value
                    is shown since network counters  are  not  registered  in  the
                    standard  process  accounting record.  However when the kernel
                    patch 'acct' is installed, this value will be shown.
    
           RDDSK    When the kernel maintains standard io statistics (>= 2.6.20):
                    The read data transfer issued physically on disk  (so  reading
                    from the disk cache is not accounted for).
    
                    When the kernel patch 'cnt' is installed:
                    The  number  of  read  accesses  issued physically on disk (so
                    reading from the disk cache is not accounted for).
    
           RGID     The real group-id under which the process executes.
                    patch 'acct' is installed, this value will be shown.
    
           RNET     The  number  of TCP- and UDP packets received by this process.
                    This information can only be shown when kernel patch 'cnt'  is
                    installed.
                    If  a  process has finished during the last interval, no value
                    is shown since network counters are not part of  the  standard
                    process  accounting  record.   However  when  the kernel patch
                    'acct' is installed, this value will be shown.
    
           RSIZE    The total resident memory usage consumed by this  process  (or
                    user).
                    If  a  process has finished during the last interval, no value
                    is shown since resident memory occupation is not part  of  the
                    standard  process  accounting record.  However when the kernel
                    patch 'acct' is installed, this value will be shown.
    
           RTPR     Realtime priority according the POSIX standard.  Value can  be
                    0  for a timesharing process (policy 'norm', 'btch' or 'idle')
                    or ranges from 1 (lowest) till 99  (highest)  for  a  realtime
                    process (policy 'rr' or 'fifo').
    
           RUID     The real user-id under which the process executes.
    
           S        The  current  state of the main thread of the process: 'R' for
                    running (currently processing or in  the  runqueue),  'S'  for
                    sleeping  interruptible  (wait for an event to occur), 'D' for
                    sleeping non-interruptible, 'Z' for zombie (waiting to be syn-
                    chronized with its parent process), 'T' for stopped (suspended
                    or traced), 'W' for swapping, and  'E'  (exit)  for  processes
                    which have finished during the last interval.
    
           SGID     The saved group-id of the process.
    
           SNET     The  number  of  TCP- and UDP packets transmitted by this pro-
                    cess.  This information can only be shown  when  kernel  patch
                    'cnt' is installed.
                    If  a  process has finished during the last interval, no value
                    is shown since network-counters are not part of  the  standard
                    process  accounting  record.   However  when  the kernel patch
                    'acct' is installed, this value will be shown.
    
           ST       The status of a process.
                    The first position indicates if the process has  been  started
    
           STDATE   The start date of the process.
    
           STTIME   The start time of the process.
    
           SUID     The saved user-id of the process.
    
           SYSCPU   CPU time consumption of this process in  system  mode  (kernel
                    mode), usually due to system call handling.
    
           TCPRASZ  The  average  size  of  a received TCP buffer in bytes (by the
                    process).  This information can  only  be  shown  when  kernel
                    patch  'cnt'  is  installed.   When the kernel patch 'acct' is
                    installed as well, this value will also be shown when  a  pro-
                    cess has finished during the last interval.
    
           TCPRCV   The  number of receive requests issued by this process for TCP
                    sockets.  This information can only be shown when kernel patch
                    'cnt' is installed.  When the kernel patch 'acct' is installed
                    as well, this value will also be shown when a process has fin-
                    ished during the last interval.
    
           TCPSASZ  The  average size of a transmitted TCP buffer in bytes (by the
                    process).  This information can  only  be  shown  when  kernel
                    patch  'cnt'  is  installed.   When the kernel patch 'acct' is
                    installed as well, this value will also be shown when  a  pro-
                    cess has finished during the last interval.
    
           TCPSND   The  number  of  send  requests issued by this process for TCP
                    sockets, and the average size per  transfer  in  bytes.   This
                    information  can  only  be  shown  when  kernel patch 'cnt' is
                    installed.  When the kernel patch 'acct' is installed as well,
                    this value will also be shown when a process has finished dur-
                    ing the last interval.
    
           THR      Total number of threads  within  this  process.   All  related
                    threads  are  contained in a thread group, represented by atop
                    as one line.
    
                    On Linux 2.4 systems it is hardly possible to determine  which
                    threads (i.e. processes) are related to the same thread group.
                    Every thread is represented by atop as a separate line.
    
           TOTRSZ   The total amount of data  physically  read  from  disk.   This
                    'interruptible sleeping' (S).
    
           TSLPU    Number of threads within this process that are  in  the  state
                    'uninterruptible sleeping' (D).
    
           UDPRASZ  The  average  size  of  a  received UDP packet in bytes.  This
                    information can only be  shown  when  kernel  patch  'cnt'  is
                    installed.  When the kernel patch 'acct' is installed as well,
                    this value will also be shown when a process has finished dur-
                    ing the last interval.
    
           UDPRCV   The  number of receive requests issued by this process for UDP
                    sockets.  This information can only be shown when kernel patch
                    'cnt' is installed.  When the kernel patch 'acct' is installed
                    as well, this value will also be shown when a process has fin-
                    ished during the last interval.
    
           UDPSASZ  The  average size of a transmitted UDP packets in bytes.  This
                    information can only be  shown  when  kernel  patch  'cnt'  is
                    installed.  When the kernel patch 'acct' is installed as well,
                    this value will also be shown when a process has finished dur-
                    ing the last interval.
    
           UDPSND   The  number  of  send  requests issued by this process for TCP
                    sockets, and the average size per  transfer  in  bytes.   This
                    information  can  only  be  shown  when  kernel patch 'cnt' is
                    installed.  When the kernel patch 'acct' is installed as well,
                    this value will also be shown when a process has finished dur-
                    ing the last interval.
    
           USRCPU   CPU time consumption of this process in user mode, due to pro-
                    cessing the own program text.
    
           VGROW    The amount of virtual memory that the process has grown during
                    the last interval. A virtual growth  can  be  caused  by  e.g.
                    issueing a malloc() or attaching a shared memory segment. Note
                    that a virtual growth can also be negative by e.g. issueing  a
                    free()  or  detaching  a shared memory segment.  For a process
                    which started during the last  interval,  the  virtual  growth
                    reflects the total virtual size of the process at that moment.
                    If a process has finished during the last interval,  no  value
                    is  shown  since  virtual memory occupation is not part of the
                    standard process accounting record.  However when  the  kernel
                    patch 'acct' is installed, this value will be shown.
    
                    The write data transfer issued physically on disk (so  writing
                    to  the  disk  cache  is  not accounted for).  This counter is
                    maintained for the application process that writes its data to
                    the  cache  (assuming that this data is physically transferred
                    to disk later on). Notice that disk I/O needed for swapping is
                    not taken into account.
    
                    When the kernel patch 'cnt' is installed:
                    The  number  of  write  accesses issued physically on disk (so
                    writing to the disk  cache  is  not  accounted  for).  Usually
                    application  processes  just transfer their data to the cache,
                    while the physical write accesses are done later on by  kernel
                    daemons  like  pdflush.   Note that the number read- and write
                    accesses are not separately maintained in the standard process
                    accounting  record.   This  means that only one value is given
                    for read's and write's in case a process has  finished  during
                    the  last  interval.   However when the kernel patch 'acct' is
                    installed, these values will be shown separately.
    
           WCANCL   When the kernel patch 'cnt' is not installed, but  the  kernel
                    maintains standard io statistics (>= 2.6.20):
                    The  write data transfer previously accounted for this process
                    or another process that has been cancelled.   Suppose  that  a
                    process  writes  new  data  to a file and that data is removed
                    again before the cache buffers  have  been  flushed  to  disk.
                    Then  the  original  process  shows the written data as WRDSK,
                    while the process that removes/truncates the  file  shows  the
                    unflushed removed data as WCANCL.
    
    
    

    PARSEABLE OUTPUT

           With  the flag -P followed by a list of one or more labels (comma-sepa-
           rated), parseable output is produced for each sample.  The labels  that
           can  be  specified for system-level statistics correspond to the labels
           (first verb of each line) that can be found in the interactive  output:
           "CPU",  "cpu" "CPL" "MEM", "SWP", "PAG", "LVM", "MDD", "DSK" and "NET".
           For process-level statistics special labels are introduced: "PRG" (gen-
           eral),  "PRC"  (cpu),  "PRM" (memory), "PRD" (disk, only if the kernel-
           patch has been installed) and "PRN" (network, only if the  kernel-patch
           has been installed).
           With  the  label  "ALL",  all  system- and process-level statistics are
           shown.
    
           For every interval all requested lines are shown whereafter atop  shows
           a  line just containing the label "SEP" as a separator before the lines
           for the next sample are generated.
           When a sample contains the values since boot, atop shows  a  line  just
           containing  the label "RESET" before the lines for this sample are gen-
           erated.
    
           The first part of  each  output-line  consists  of  the  following  six
           fields: label (the name of the label), host (the name of this machine),
                    wait mode (clock-ticks), consumption for all CPU's in irq mode
                    (clock-ticks), consumption  for  all  CPU's  in  softirq  mode
                    (clock-ticks), consumption for all CPU's in steal mode (clock-
                    ticks), and consumption for all CPU's in  guest  mode  (clock-
                    ticks).
    
           cpu      Subsequent  fields: total number of clock-ticks per second for
                    this machine, processor-number, consumption for  this  CPU  in
                    system  mode  (clock-ticks),  consumption for this CPU in user
                    mode (clock-ticks), consumption for this CPU in user mode  for
                    niced  processes  (clock-ticks),  consumption  for this CPU in
                    idle mode (clock-ticks), consumption for this CPU in wait mode
                    (clock-ticks),  consumption  for  this CPU in irq mode (clock-
                    ticks), consumption for  this  CPU  in  softirq  mode  (clock-
                    ticks),  consumption for this CPU in steal mode (clock-ticks),
                    and consumption for this CPU in guest mode (clock-ticks).
    
           CPL      Subsequent fields: number of processors, load average for last
                    minute,  load  average for last five minutes, load average for
                    last fifteen minutes, number of context-switches,  and  number
                    of device interrupts.
    
           MEM      Subsequent fields: page size for this machine (in bytes), size
                    of physical memory (pages), size of free memory (pages),  size
                    of  page  cache (pages), size of buffer cache (pages), size of
                    slab (pages), and number of dirty pages in cache.
    
           SWP      Subsequent fields: page size for this machine (in bytes), size
                    of  swap  (pages),  size of free swap (pages), 0 (future use),
                    size of committed space (pages), and limit for committed space
                    (pages).
    
           PAG      Subsequent fields: page size for this machine (in bytes), num-
                    ber of page scans, number of allocstalls, 0 (future use), num-
                    ber of swapins, and number of swapouts.
    
           LVM/MDD/DSK
                    For every logical volume/multiple device/hard disk one line is
                    shown.
                    Subsequent fields: name, number of milliseconds spent for I/O,
                    number  of  reads  issued,  number  of sectors transferred for
                    reads, number of writes issued, and number of  sectors  trans-
                    ferred for write.
    
           NET      First  one line is produced for the upper layers of the TCP/IP
                    stack.
                    Subsequent  fields:  the  verb  "upper",  number  of   packets
                    received  by TCP, number of packets transmitted by TCP, number
                    of packets received by UDP, number of packets  transmitted  by
                    UDP,  number  of  packets  received  by  IP, number of packets
                    transmitted by IP, number of packets delivered to higher  lay-
                    ers by IP, and number of packets forwarded by IP.
                    ber of threads in state 'uninterruptible sleeping' (D), effec-
                    tive uid, effective gid, saved uid, saved gid, filesystem uid,
                    filesystem gid, and elapsed time (hertz).
    
           PRC      For every process one line is shown.
                    Subsequent fields: PID, name (between brackets), state,  total
                    number  of  clock-ticks  per second for this machine, CPU-con-
                    sumption in user mode (clockticks), CPU-consumption in  system
                    mode  (clockticks),  nice  value, priority, realtime priority,
                    scheduling policy, current CPU, and sleep average.
    
           PRM      For every process one line is shown.
                    Subsequent fields: PID, name (between brackets),  state,  page
                    size   for  this  machine  (in  bytes),  virtual  memory  size
                    (Kbytes), resident memory size (Kbytes),  shared  text  memory
                    size (Kbytes), virtual memory growth (Kbytes), resident memory
                    growth (Kbytes), number of minor page faults,  and  number  of
                    major page faults.
    
           PRD      For every process one line is shown.
                    Subsequent  fields:  PID, name (between brackets), state, ker-
                    nel-patch installed ('y' or 'n'), standard io statistics  used
                    ('y'  or  'n'),  number of reads on disk, cumulative number of
                    sectors read, number of writes on disk, cumulative  number  of
                    sectors written, and cancelled number of written sectors.
                    If  the  kernel  patch  is  not installed and the standard I/O
                    statistics (>= 2.6.20) are not used, the disk I/O counters per
                    process are not relevant.  When the kernel patch is installed,
                    the counter 'cancelled number of written sectors' is not rele-
                    vant.   When  only  the  standard  io statistics are used, the
                    counters 'number of reads on disk' and 'number  of  writes  on
                    disk' are not relevant.
    
           PRN      For every process one line is shown.
                    Subsequent  fields:  PID, name (between brackets), state, ker-
                    nel-patch installed ('y' or 'n'), number of TCP-packets trans-
                    mitted,  cumulative size of TCP-packets transmitted, number of
                    TCP-packets received, cumulative size of TCP-packets received,
                    number  of  UDP-packets  transmitted,  cumulative size of UDP-
                    packets transmitted, number of UDP-packets  received,  cumula-
                    tive  size  of  UDP-packets transmitted, number of raw packets
                    transmitted, and number of raw packets received.
                    If the kernel patch is not installed, the network I/O counters
                    per process are not relevant.
    
    
    

    EXAMPLES

           To  monitor the current system load interactively with an interval of 5
           seconds:
    
             atop 5
    
           View the contents of this file interactively:
    
             atop -r /tmp/atop.raw
    
           View the processor- and disk-utilization of this file in parseable for-
           mat:
    
             atop -PCPU,DSK -r /tmp/atop.raw
    
           View the contents of today's standard logfile interactively:
    
             atop -r
    
           View  the  contents of the standard logfile of the day before yesterday
           interactively:
    
             atop -r yy
    
           View the contents of the standard logfile of 2010, January 7 from 02:00
           PM onwards interactively:
    
             atop -r 20100107 -b 14:00
    
    
    

    FILES

           /tmp/atop.d/atop.acct
                File  in  which  the  kernel  writes the accounting records if the
                standard   accounting    to    the    file    /var/log/pacct    or
                /var/account/pacct is not used.
    
           /etc/atoprc
                Configuration  file  containing  system-wide  default values.  See
                related man-page.
    
           ~/.atoprc
                Configuration  file  containing  personal  default  values.    See
                related man-page.
    
           /var/log/atop.log[.X]
                Raw  file,  where  X  is the age in days as added by logrotate(1).
                This name is used by atop as default name for the input file  when
                using the -r flag.
                All  binary  system-  and process-level data in this file has been
                stored in compressed format.
    
    
    

    SEE ALSO

           atopsar(1), atoprc(5), logrotate(8)
           http://www.atoptool.nl
    
    
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