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    Command:

    as

    
    
    

    SYNOPSIS

           as [-a[cdghlns][=file]] [--alternate] [-D]
            [--debug-prefix-map old=new]
            [--defsym sym=val] [-f] [-g] [--gstabs]
            [--gstabs+] [--gdwarf-2] [--help] [-I dir] [-J]
            [-K] [-L] [--listing-lhs-width=NUM]
            [--listing-lhs-width2=NUM] [--listing-rhs-width=NUM]
            [--listing-cont-lines=NUM] [--keep-locals] [-o
            objfile] [-R] [--reduce-memory-overheads] [--statistics]
            [-v] [-V] [-verbose] [--verbose] [-version] [--version]
            [-W] [--warn] [--fatal-warnings] [-w] [-x] [-Z]
            [@FILE] [--target-help] [target-options]
            [--|files ...]
    
           Target Alpha options:
              [-mcpu]
              [-mdebug | -no-mdebug]
              [-replace | -noreplace]
              [-relax] [-g] [-Gsize]
              [-F] [-32addr]
    
           Target ARC options:
              [-marc[5|6|7|8]]
              [-EB|-EL]
    
           Target ARM options:
              [-mcpu=processor[+extension...]]
              [-march=architecture[+extension...]]
              [-mfpu=floating-point-format]
              [-mfloat-abi=abi]
              [-meabi=ver]
              [-mthumb]
              [-EB|-EL]
              [-mapcs-32|-mapcs-26|-mapcs-float|
               -mapcs-reentrant]
              [-mthumb-interwork] [-k]
    
           Target CRIS options:
              [--underscore | --no-underscore]
              [--pic] [-N]
              [--emulation=criself | --emulation=crisaout]
              [--march=v0_v10 | --march=v10 | --march=v32 |
           --march=common_v10_v32]
    
           Target D10V options:
              [-O]
    
           Target D30V options:
              [-O|-n|-N]
    
           Target H8/300 options:
              [-h-tick-hex]
              [-mtune=itanium1|-mtune=itanium2]
              [-munwind-check=warning|-munwind-check=error]
              [-mhint.b=ok|-mhint.b=warning|-mhint.b=error]
              [-x|-xexplicit] [-xauto] [-xdebug]
    
           Target IP2K options:
              [-mip2022|-mip2022ext]
    
           Target M32C options:
              [-m32c|-m16c] [-relax] [-h-tick-hex]
    
           Target M32R options:
              [--m32rx|--[no-]warn-explicit-parallel-conflicts|
              --W[n]p]
    
           Target M680X0 options:
              [-l] [-m68000|-m68010|-m68020|...]
    
           Target M68HC11 options:
              [-m68hc11|-m68hc12|-m68hcs12]
              [-mshort|-mlong]
              [-mshort-double|-mlong-double]
              [--force-long-branches] [--short-branches]
              [--strict-direct-mode] [--print-insn-syntax]
              [--print-opcodes] [--generate-example]
    
           Target MCORE options:
              [-jsri2bsr] [-sifilter] [-relax]
              [-mcpu=[210|340]] Target MICROBLAZE options:
    
           Target MIPS options:
              [-nocpp] [-EL] [-EB] [-O[optimization level]]
              [-g[debug level]] [-G num] [-KPIC] [-call_shared]
              [-non_shared] [-xgot [-mvxworks-pic]
              [-mabi=ABI] [-32] [-n32] [-64] [-mfp32] [-mgp32]
              [-march=CPU] [-mtune=CPU] [-mips1] [-mips2]
              [-mips3] [-mips4] [-mips5] [-mips32] [-mips32r2]
              [-mips64] [-mips64r2]
              [-construct-floats] [-no-construct-floats]
              [-trap] [-no-break] [-break] [-no-trap]
              [-mfix7000] [-mno-fix7000]
              [-mips16] [-no-mips16]
              [-msmartmips] [-mno-smartmips]
              [-mips3d] [-no-mips3d]
              [-mdmx] [-no-mdmx]
              [-mdsp] [-mno-dsp]
              [-mdspr2] [-mno-dspr2]
              [-mmt] [-mno-mt]
              [-mdebug] [-no-mdebug]
              [-mpdr] [-mno-pdr]
    
           Target MMIX options:
              [-mpwrx|-mpwr2|-mpwr|-m601|-mppc|-mppc32|-m603|-m604|
               -m403|-m405|-mppc64|-m620|-mppc64bridge|-mbooke]
              [-mcom|-many|-maltivec|-mvsx] [-memb]
              [-mregnames|-mno-regnames]
              [-mrelocatable|-mrelocatable-lib]
              [-mlittle|-mlittle-endian|-mbig|-mbig-endian]
              [-msolaris|-mno-solaris]
    
           Target RX options:
              [-mlittle-endian|-mbig-endian]
              [-m32bit-ints|-m16bit-ints]
              [-m32bit-doubles|-m64bit-doubles]
    
           Target s390 options:
              [-m31|-m64] [-mesa|-mzarch] [-march=CPU]
              [-mregnames|-mno-regnames]
              [-mwarn-areg-zero]
    
           Target SCORE options:
              [-EB][-EL][-FIXDD][-NWARN]
              [-SCORE5][-SCORE5U][-SCORE7][-SCORE3]
              [-march=score7][-march=score3]
              [-USE_R1][-KPIC][-O0][-G num][-V]
    
           Target SPARC options:
              [-Av6|-Av7|-Av8|-Asparclet|-Asparclite
               -Av8plus|-Av8plusa|-Av9|-Av9a]
              [-xarch=v8plus|-xarch=v8plusa] [-bump]
              [-32|-64]
    
           Target TIC54X options:
            [-mcpu=54[123589]|-mcpu=54[56]lp] [-mfar-mode|-mf]
            [-merrors-to-file <filename>|-me <filename>]
    
           Target Z80 options:
             [-z80] [-r800]
             [ -ignore-undocumented-instructions] [-Wnud]
             [ -ignore-unportable-instructions] [-Wnup]
             [ -warn-undocumented-instructions] [-Wud]
             [ -warn-unportable-instructions] [-Wup]
             [ -forbid-undocumented-instructions] [-Fud]
             [ -forbid-unportable-instructions] [-Fup]
    
           Target Xtensa options:
            [--[no-]text-section-literals] [--[no-]absolute-literals]
            [--[no-]target-align] [--[no-]longcalls]
            [--[no-]transform]
            [--rename-section oldname=newname]
    
    
    

    DESCRIPTION

           GNU as is really a family of assemblers.  If you use (or have used) the
           GNU assembler on one architecture, you should find a fairly similar
           also a file.)
    
           You give as a command line that has zero or more input file names.  The
           input files are read (from left file name to right).  A command line
           argument (in any position) that has no special meaning is taken to be
           an input file name.
    
           If you give as no file names it attempts to read one input file from
           the as standard input, which is normally your terminal.  You may have
           to type ctl-D to tell as there is no more program to assemble.
    
           Use -- if you need to explicitly name the standard input file in your
           command line.
    
           If the source is empty, as produces a small, empty object file.
    
           as may write warnings and error messages to the standard error file
           (usually your terminal).  This should not happen when  a compiler runs
           as automatically.  Warnings report an assumption made so that as could
           keep assembling a flawed program; errors report a grave problem that
           stops the assembly.
    
           If you are invoking as via the GNU C compiler, you can use the -Wa
           option to pass arguments through to the assembler.  The assembler
           arguments must be separated from each other (and the -Wa) by commas.
           For example:
    
                   gcc -c -g -O -Wa,-alh,-L file.c
    
           This passes two options to the assembler: -alh (emit a listing to
           standard output with high-level and assembly source) and -L (retain
           local symbols in the symbol table).
    
           Usually you do not need to use this -Wa mechanism, since many compiler
           command-line options are automatically passed to the assembler by the
           compiler.  (You can call the GNU compiler driver with the -v option to
           see precisely what options it passes to each compilation pass,
           including the assembler.)
    
    
    

    OPTIONS

           @file
               Read command-line options from file.  The options read are inserted
               in place of the original @file option.  If file does not exist, or
               cannot be read, then the option will be treated literally, and not
               removed.
    
               Options in file are separated by whitespace.  A whitespace
               character may be included in an option by surrounding the entire
               option in either single or double quotes.  Any character (including
               a backslash) may be included by prefixing the character to be
               included with a backslash.  The file may itself contain additional
               @file options; any such options will be processed recursively.
               -am include macro expansions
    
               -an omit forms processing
    
               -as include symbols
    
               =file
                   set the name of the listing file
    
               You may combine these options; for example, use -aln for assembly
               listing without forms processing.  The =file option, if used, must
               be the last one.  By itself, -a defaults to -ahls.
    
           --alternate
               Begin in alternate macro mode.
    
           -D  Ignored.  This option is accepted for script compatibility with
               calls to other assemblers.
    
           --debug-prefix-map old=new
               When assembling files in directory old, record debugging
               information describing them as in new instead.
    
           --defsym sym=value
               Define the symbol sym to be value before assembling the input file.
               value must be an integer constant.  As in C, a leading 0x indicates
               a hexadecimal value, and a leading 0 indicates an octal value.  The
               value of the symbol can be overridden inside a source file via the
               use of a ".set" pseudo-op.
    
           -f  "fast"---skip whitespace and comment preprocessing (assume source
               is compiler output).
    
           -g
           --gen-debug
               Generate debugging information for each assembler source line using
               whichever debug format is preferred by the target.  This currently
               means either STABS, ECOFF or DWARF2.
    
           --gstabs
               Generate stabs debugging information for each assembler line.  This
               may help debugging assembler code, if the debugger can handle it.
    
           --gstabs+
               Generate stabs debugging information for each assembler line, with
               GNU extensions that probably only gdb can handle, and that could
               make other debuggers crash or refuse to read your program.  This
               may help debugging assembler code.  Currently the only GNU
               extension is the location of the current working directory at
               assembling time.
    
           --gdwarf-2
           -J  Don't warn about signed overflow.
    
           -K  Issue warnings when difference tables altered for long
               displacements.
    
           -L
           --keep-locals
               Keep (in the symbol table) local symbols.  These symbols start with
               system-specific local label prefixes, typically .L for ELF systems
               or L for traditional a.out systems.
    
           --listing-lhs-width=number
               Set the maximum width, in words, of the output data column for an
               assembler listing to number.
    
           --listing-lhs-width2=number
               Set the maximum width, in words, of the output data column for
               continuation lines in an assembler listing to number.
    
           --listing-rhs-width=number
               Set the maximum width of an input source line, as displayed in a
               listing, to number bytes.
    
           --listing-cont-lines=number
               Set the maximum number of lines printed in a listing for a single
               line of input to number + 1.
    
           -o objfile
               Name the object-file output from as objfile.
    
           -R  Fold the data section into the text section.
    
               Set the default size of GAS's hash tables to a prime number close
               to number.  Increasing this value can reduce the length of time it
               takes the assembler to perform its tasks, at the expense of
               increasing the assembler's memory requirements.  Similarly reducing
               this value can reduce the memory requirements at the expense of
               speed.
    
           --reduce-memory-overheads
               This option reduces GAS's memory requirements, at the expense of
               making the assembly processes slower.  Currently this switch is a
               synonym for --hash-size=4051, but in the future it may have other
               effects as well.
    
           --statistics
               Print the maximum space (in bytes) and total time (in seconds) used
               by assembly.
    
           --strip-local-absolute
               Remove local absolute symbols from the outgoing symbol table.
    
           --fatal-warnings
               Treat warnings as errors.
    
           --warn
               Don't suppress warning messages or treat them as errors.
    
           -w  Ignored.
    
           -x  Ignored.
    
           -Z  Generate an object file even after errors.
    
           -- | files ...
               Standard input, or source files to assemble.
    
           The following options are available when as is configured for an ARC
           processor.
    
           -marc[5|6|7|8]
               This option selects the core processor variant.
    
           -EB | -EL
               Select either big-endian (-EB) or little-endian (-EL) output.
    
           The following options are available when as is configured for the ARM
           processor family.
    
           -mcpu=processor[+extension...]
               Specify which ARM processor variant is the target.
    
           -march=architecture[+extension...]
               Specify which ARM architecture variant is used by the target.
    
           -mfpu=floating-point-format
               Select which Floating Point architecture is the target.
    
           -mfloat-abi=abi
               Select which floating point ABI is in use.
    
           -mthumb
               Enable Thumb only instruction decoding.
    
           -mapcs-32 | -mapcs-26 | -mapcs-float | -mapcs-reentrant
               Select which procedure calling convention is in use.
    
           -EB | -EL
               Select either big-endian (-EB) or little-endian (-EL) output.
    
           -mthumb-interwork
               Specify that the code has been generated with interworking between
               Thumb and ARM code in mind.
    
           -n  Warn when nops are generated.
    
           -N  Warn when a nop after a 32-bit multiply instruction is generated.
    
           The following options are available when as is configured for the Intel
           80960 processor.
    
           -ACA | -ACA_A | -ACB | -ACC | -AKA | -AKB | -AKC | -AMC
               Specify which variant of the 960 architecture is the target.
    
           -b  Add code to collect statistics about branches taken.
    
           -no-relax
               Do not alter compare-and-branch instructions for long
               displacements; error if necessary.
    
           The following options are available when as is configured for the
           Ubicom IP2K series.
    
           -mip2022ext
               Specifies that the extended IP2022 instructions are allowed.
    
           -mip2022
               Restores the default behaviour, which restricts the permitted
               instructions to just the basic IP2022 ones.
    
           The following options are available when as is configured for the
           Renesas M32C and M16C processors.
    
           -m32c
               Assemble M32C instructions.
    
           -m16c
               Assemble M16C instructions (the default).
    
           -relax
               Enable support for link-time relaxations.
    
           -h-tick-hex
               Support H'00 style hex constants in addition to 0x00 style.
    
           The following options are available when as is configured for the
           Renesas M32R (formerly Mitsubishi M32R) series.
    
           --m32rx
               Specify which processor in the M32R family is the target.  The
               default is normally the M32R, but this option changes it to the
               M32RX.
    
           --warn-explicit-parallel-conflicts or --Wp
               Produce warning messages when questionable parallel constructs are
               encountered.
               Specify what processor in the 68000 family is the target.  The
               default is normally the 68020, but this can be changed at
               configuration time.
    
           -m68881 | -m68882 | -mno-68881 | -mno-68882
               The target machine does (or does not) have a floating-point
               coprocessor.  The default is to assume a coprocessor for 68020,
               68030, and cpu32.  Although the basic 68000 is not compatible with
               the 68881, a combination of the two can be specified, since it's
               possible to do emulation of the coprocessor instructions with the
               main processor.
    
           -m68851 | -mno-68851
               The target machine does (or does not) have a memory-management unit
               coprocessor.  The default is to assume an MMU for 68020 and up.
    
           For details about the PDP-11 machine dependent features options, see
           PDP-11-Options.
    
           -mpic | -mno-pic
               Generate position-independent (or position-dependent) code.  The
               default is -mpic.
    
           -mall
           -mall-extensions
               Enable all instruction set extensions.  This is the default.
    
           -mno-extensions
               Disable all instruction set extensions.
    
           -mextension | -mno-extension
               Enable (or disable) a particular instruction set extension.
    
           -mcpu
               Enable the instruction set extensions supported by a particular
               CPU, and disable all other extensions.
    
           -mmachine
               Enable the instruction set extensions supported by a particular
               machine model, and disable all other extensions.
    
           The following options are available when as is configured for a
           picoJava processor.
    
           -mb Generate "big endian" format output.
    
           -ml Generate "little endian" format output.
    
           The following options are available when as is configured for the
           Motorola 68HC11 or 68HC12 series.
    
           -m68hc11 | -m68hc12 | -m68hcs12
    
           --force-long-branches
               Relative branches are turned into absolute ones. This concerns
               conditional branches, unconditional branches and branches to a sub
               routine.
    
           -S | --short-branches
               Do not turn relative branches into absolute ones when the offset is
               out of range.
    
           --strict-direct-mode
               Do not turn the direct addressing mode into extended addressing
               mode when the instruction does not support direct addressing mode.
    
           --print-insn-syntax
               Print the syntax of instruction in case of error.
    
           --print-opcodes
               print the list of instructions with syntax and then exit.
    
           --generate-example
               print an example of instruction for each possible instruction and
               then exit.  This option is only useful for testing as.
    
           The following options are available when as is configured for the SPARC
           architecture:
    
           -Av6 | -Av7 | -Av8 | -Asparclet | -Asparclite
           -Av8plus | -Av8plusa | -Av9 | -Av9a
               Explicitly select a variant of the SPARC architecture.
    
               -Av8plus and -Av8plusa select a 32 bit environment.  -Av9 and -Av9a
               select a 64 bit environment.
    
               -Av8plusa and -Av9a enable the SPARC V9 instruction set with
               UltraSPARC extensions.
    
           -xarch=v8plus | -xarch=v8plusa
               For compatibility with the Solaris v9 assembler.  These options are
               equivalent to -Av8plus and -Av8plusa, respectively.
    
           -bump
               Warn when the assembler switches to another architecture.
    
           The following options are available when as is configured for the 'c54x
           architecture.
    
           -mfar-mode
               Enable extended addressing mode.  All addresses and relocations
               will assume extended addressing (usually 23 bits).
    
           -mcpu=CPU_VERSION
    
           -EB Generate "big endian" format output.
    
           -EL Generate "little endian" format output.
    
           -mips1
           -mips2
           -mips3
           -mips4
           -mips5
           -mips32
           -mips32r2
           -mips64
           -mips64r2
               Generate code for a particular MIPS Instruction Set Architecture
               level.  -mips1 is an alias for -march=r3000, -mips2 is an alias for
               -march=r6000, -mips3 is an alias for -march=r4000 and -mips4 is an
               alias for -march=r8000.  -mips5, -mips32, -mips32r2, -mips64, and
               -mips64r2 correspond to generic MIPS V, MIPS32, MIPS32 Release 2,
               MIPS64, and MIPS64 Release 2 ISA processors, respectively.
    
           -march=CPU
               Generate code for a particular MIPS cpu.
    
           -mtune=cpu
               Schedule and tune for a particular MIPS cpu.
    
           -mfix7000
           -mno-fix7000
               Cause nops to be inserted if the read of the destination register
               of an mfhi or mflo instruction occurs in the following two
               instructions.
    
           -mdebug
           -no-mdebug
               Cause stabs-style debugging output to go into an ECOFF-style
               .mdebug section instead of the standard ELF .stabs sections.
    
           -mpdr
           -mno-pdr
               Control generation of ".pdr" sections.
    
           -mgp32
           -mfp32
               The register sizes are normally inferred from the ISA and ABI, but
               these flags force a certain group of registers to be treated as 32
               bits wide at all times.  -mgp32 controls the size of general-
               purpose registers and -mfp32 controls the size of floating-point
               registers.
    
           -mips16
           -no-mips16
               turns off this option.
    
           -mdmx
           -no-mdmx
               Generate code for the MDMX Application Specific Extension.  This
               tells the assembler to accept MDMX instructions.  -no-mdmx turns
               off this option.
    
           -mdsp
           -mno-dsp
               Generate code for the DSP Release 1 Application Specific Extension.
               This tells the assembler to accept DSP Release 1 instructions.
               -mno-dsp turns off this option.
    
           -mdspr2
           -mno-dspr2
               Generate code for the DSP Release 2 Application Specific Extension.
               This option implies -mdsp.  This tells the assembler to accept DSP
               Release 2 instructions.  -mno-dspr2 turns off this option.
    
           -mmt
           -mno-mt
               Generate code for the MT Application Specific Extension.  This
               tells the assembler to accept MT instructions.  -mno-mt turns off
               this option.
    
           --construct-floats
           --no-construct-floats
               The --no-construct-floats option disables the construction of
               double width floating point constants by loading the two halves of
               the value into the two single width floating point registers that
               make up the double width register.  By default --construct-floats
               is selected, allowing construction of these floating point
               constants.
    
           --emulation=name
               This option causes as to emulate as configured for some other
               target, in all respects, including output format (choosing between
               ELF and ECOFF only), handling of pseudo-opcodes which may generate
               debugging information or store symbol table information, and
               default endianness.  The available configuration names are:
               mipsecoff, mipself, mipslecoff, mipsbecoff, mipslelf, mipsbelf.
               The first two do not alter the default endianness from that of the
               primary target for which the assembler was configured; the others
               change the default to little- or big-endian as indicated by the b
               or l in the name.  Using -EB or -EL will override the endianness
               selection in any case.
    
               This option is currently supported only when the primary target as
               is configured for is a MIPS ELF or ECOFF target.  Furthermore, the
               primary target or others specified with --enable-targets=... at
               configuration time must include support for the other format, if
    
           --no-break
               Control how to deal with multiplication overflow and division by
               zero.  --trap or --no-break (which are synonyms) take a trap
               exception (and only work for Instruction Set Architecture level 2
               and higher); --break or --no-trap (also synonyms, and the default)
               take a break exception.
    
           -n  When this option is used, as will issue a warning every time it
               generates a nop instruction from a macro.
    
           The following options are available when as is configured for an MCore
           processor.
    
           -jsri2bsr
           -nojsri2bsr
               Enable or disable the JSRI to BSR transformation.  By default this
               is enabled.  The command line option -nojsri2bsr can be used to
               disable it.
    
           -sifilter
           -nosifilter
               Enable or disable the silicon filter behaviour.  By default this is
               disabled.  The default can be overridden by the -sifilter command
               line option.
    
           -relax
               Alter jump instructions for long displacements.
    
           -mcpu=[210|340]
               Select the cpu type on the target hardware.  This controls which
               instructions can be assembled.
    
           -EB Assemble for a big endian target.
    
           -EL Assemble for a little endian target.
    
           See the info pages for documentation of the MMIX-specific options.
    
           The following options are available when as is configured for the s390
           processor family.
    
           -m31
           -m64
               Select the word size, either 31/32 bits or 64 bits.
    
           -mesa
           -mzarch
               Select the architecture mode, either the Enterprise System
               Architecture (esa) or the z/Architecture mode (zarch).
    
           -march=processor
               Specify which s390 processor variant is the target, g6, g6, z900,
               With --text-section-literals, literal pools are interspersed in the
               text section.  The default is --no-text-section-literals, which
               places literals in a separate section in the output file.  These
               options only affect literals referenced via PC-relative "L32R"
               instructions; literals for absolute mode "L32R" instructions are
               handled separately.
    
           --absolute-literals | --no-absolute-literals
               Indicate to the assembler whether "L32R" instructions use absolute
               or PC-relative addressing.  The default is to assume absolute
               addressing if the Xtensa processor includes the absolute "L32R"
               addressing option.  Otherwise, only the PC-relative "L32R" mode can
               be used.
    
           --target-align | --no-target-align
               Enable or disable automatic alignment to reduce branch penalties at
               the expense of some code density.  The default is --target-align.
    
           --longcalls | --no-longcalls
               Enable or disable transformation of call instructions to allow
               calls across a greater range of addresses.  The default is
               --no-longcalls.
    
           --transform | --no-transform
               Enable or disable all assembler transformations of Xtensa
               instructions.  The default is --transform; --no-transform should be
               used only in the rare cases when the instructions must be exactly
               as specified in the assembly source.
    
           --rename-section oldname=newname
               When generating output sections, rename the oldname section to
               newname.
    
           The following options are available when as is configured for a Z80
           family processor.
    
           -z80
               Assemble for Z80 processor.
    
           -r800
               Assemble for R800 processor.
    
           -ignore-undocumented-instructions
           -Wnud
               Assemble undocumented Z80 instructions that also work on R800
               without warning.
    
           -ignore-unportable-instructions
           -Wnup
               Assemble all undocumented Z80 instructions without warning.
    
           -warn-undocumented-instructions
           -Fup
               Treat undocumented Z80 instructions that do not work on R800 as
               errors.
    
    
    

    SEE ALSO

           gcc(1), ld(1), and the Info entries for binutils and ld.
    
    
    

    COPYRIGHT

           Copyright (c) 1991, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 2000, 2001, 2002,
           2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
    
           Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
           under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or
           any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
           Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover
           Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU
           Free Documentation License".
    
    
    

    binutils-2.20.51.0.2 2015-07-23 AS(1)

    
    
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