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    Command:

    ar

    
    
    

    SYNOPSIS

           ar [--plugin name] [-X32_64] [-]p[mod [relpos] [count]] archive
           [member...]
    
    
    

    DESCRIPTION

           The GNU ar program creates, modifies, and extracts from archives.  An
           archive is a single file holding a collection of other files in a
           structure that makes it possible to retrieve the original individual
           files (called members of the archive).
    
           The original files' contents, mode (permissions), timestamp, owner, and
           group are preserved in the archive, and can be restored on extraction.
    
           GNU ar can maintain archives whose members have names of any length;
           however, depending on how ar is configured on your system, a limit on
           member-name length may be imposed for compatibility with archive
           formats maintained with other tools.  If it exists, the limit is often
           15 characters (typical of formats related to a.out) or 16 characters
           (typical of formats related to coff).
    
           ar is considered a binary utility because archives of this sort are
           most often used as libraries holding commonly needed subroutines.
    
           ar creates an index to the symbols defined in relocatable object
           modules in the archive when you specify the modifier s.  Once created,
           this index is updated in the archive whenever ar makes a change to its
           contents (save for the q update operation).  An archive with such an
           index speeds up linking to the library, and allows routines in the
           library to call each other without regard to their placement in the
           archive.
    
           You may use nm -s or nm --print-armap to list this index table.  If an
           archive lacks the table, another form of ar called ranlib can be used
           to add just the table.
    
           GNU ar can optionally create a thin archive, which contains a symbol
           index and references to the original copies of the member files of the
           archives.  Such an archive is useful for building libraries for use
           within a local build, where the relocatable objects are expected to
           remain available, and copying the contents of each object would only
           waste time and space.  Thin archives are also flattened, so that adding
           one or more archives to a thin archive will add the elements of the
           nested archive individually.  The paths to the elements of the archive
           are stored relative to the archive itself.
    
           GNU ar is designed to be compatible with two different facilities.  You
           can control its activity using command-line options, like the different
           varieties of ar on Unix systems; or, if you specify the single command-
           line option -M, you can control it with a script supplied via standard
           input, like the MRI "librarian" program.
    
    
    

    OPTIONS

    
           m   Use this operation to move members in an archive.
    
               The ordering of members in an archive can make a difference in how
               programs are linked using the library, if a symbol is defined in
               more than one member.
    
               If no modifiers are used with "m", any members you name in the
               member arguments are moved to the end of the archive; you can use
               the a, b, or i modifiers to move them to a specified place instead.
    
           p   Print the specified members of the archive, to the standard output
               file.  If the v modifier is specified, show the member name before
               copying its contents to standard output.
    
               If you specify no member arguments, all the files in the archive
               are printed.
    
           q   Quick append; Historically, add the files member... to the end of
               archive, without checking for replacement.
    
               The modifiers a, b, and i do not affect this operation; new members
               are always placed at the end of the archive.
    
               The modifier v makes ar list each file as it is appended.
    
               Since the point of this operation is speed, the archive's symbol
               table index is not updated, even if it already existed; you can use
               ar s or ranlib explicitly to update the symbol table index.
    
               However, too many different systems assume quick append rebuilds
               the index, so GNU ar implements q as a synonym for r.
    
           r   Insert the files member... into archive (with replacement). This
               operation differs from q in that any previously existing members
               are deleted if their names match those being added.
    
               If one of the files named in member... does not exist, ar displays
               an error message, and leaves undisturbed any existing members of
               the archive matching that name.
    
               By default, new members are added at the end of the file; but you
               may use one of the modifiers a, b, or i to request placement
               relative to some existing member.
    
               The modifier v used with this operation elicits a line of output
               for each file inserted, along with one of the letters a or r to
               indicate whether the file was appended (no old member deleted) or
               replaced.
    
           t   Display a table listing the contents of archive, or those of the
               files listed in member... that are present in the archive.
               it extracts it.
    
               If you do not specify a member, all files in the archive are
               extracted.
    
               Files cannot be extracted from a thin archive.
    
           A number of modifiers (mod) may immediately follow the p keyletter, to
           specify variations on an operation's behavior:
    
           a   Add new files after an existing member of the archive.  If you use
               the modifier a, the name of an existing archive member must be
               present as the relpos argument, before the archive specification.
    
           b   Add new files before an existing member of the archive.  If you use
               the modifier b, the name of an existing archive member must be
               present as the relpos argument, before the archive specification.
               (same as i).
    
           c   Create the archive.  The specified archive is always created if it
               did not exist, when you request an update.  But a warning is issued
               unless you specify in advance that you expect to create it, by
               using this modifier.
    
           D   Operate in deterministic mode.  When adding files and the archive
               index use zero for UIDs, GIDs, timestamps, and use consistent file
               modes for all files.  When this option is used, if ar is used with
               identical options and identical input files, multiple runs will
               create identical output files regardless of the input files'
               owners, groups, file modes, or modification times.
    
           f   Truncate names in the archive.  GNU ar will normally permit file
               names of any length.  This will cause it to create archives which
               are not compatible with the native ar program on some systems.  If
               this is a concern, the f modifier may be used to truncate file
               names when putting them in the archive.
    
           i   Insert new files before an existing member of the archive.  If you
               use the modifier i, the name of an existing archive member must be
               present as the relpos argument, before the archive specification.
               (same as b).
    
           l   This modifier is accepted but not used.
    
           N   Uses the count parameter.  This is used if there are multiple
               entries in the archive with the same name.  Extract or delete
               instance count of the given name from the archive.
    
           o   Preserve the original dates of members when extracting them.  If
               you do not specify this modifier, files extracted from the archive
               are stamped with the time of extraction.
    
               can not be used with the linker.  In order to build a symbol table,
               you must omit the S modifier on the last execution of ar, or you
               must run ranlib on the archive.
    
           T   Make the specified archive a thin archive.  If it already exists
               and is a regular archive, the existing members must be present in
               the same directory as archive.
    
           u   Normally, ar r... inserts all files listed into the archive.  If
               you would like to insert only those of the files you list that are
               newer than existing members of the same names, use this modifier.
               The u modifier is allowed only for the operation r (replace).  In
               particular, the combination qu is not allowed, since checking the
               timestamps would lose any speed advantage from the operation q.
    
           v   This modifier requests the verbose version of an operation.  Many
               operations display additional information, such as filenames
               processed, when the modifier v is appended.
    
           V   This modifier shows the version number of ar.
    
           ar ignores an initial option spelt -X32_64, for compatibility with AIX.
           The behaviour produced by this option is the default for GNU ar.  ar
           does not support any of the other -X options; in particular, it does
           not support -X32 which is the default for AIX ar.
    
           The optional command line switch --plugin name causes ar to load the
           plugin called name which adds support for more file formats.  This
           option is only available if the toolchain has been built with plugin
           support enabled.
    
           @file
               Read command-line options from file.  The options read are inserted
               in place of the original @file option.  If file does not exist, or
               cannot be read, then the option will be treated literally, and not
               removed.
    
               Options in file are separated by whitespace.  A whitespace
               character may be included in an option by surrounding the entire
               option in either single or double quotes.  Any character (including
               a backslash) may be included by prefixing the character to be
               included with a backslash.  The file may itself contain additional
               @file options; any such options will be processed recursively.
    
    
    

    SEE ALSO

           nm(1), ranlib(1), and the Info entries for binutils.
    
    
    

    COPYRIGHT

           Copyright (c) 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999,
           2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 Free
           Software Foundation, Inc.
    
    
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