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    Command:

    aptitude

    
    
    

    SYNOPSIS

           aptitude [<options>...] {autoclean | clean | forget-new | keep-all |
                    update}
    
           aptitude [<options>...] {full-upgrade | safe-upgrade} [<packages>...]
    
           aptitude [<options>...] {build-dep | build-depends | changelog |
                    download | forbid-version | hold | install | markauto | purge
                    | reinstall | remove | show | unhold | unmarkauto | versions}
                    <packages>...
    
           aptitude extract-cache-subset <output-directory> <packages>...
    
           aptitude [<options>...] search <patterns>...
    
           aptitude [<options>...] {add-user-tag | remove-user-tag} <tag>
                    <packages>...
    
           aptitude [<options>...] {why | why-not} [<patterns>...] <package>
    
           aptitude [-S <fname>] [--autoclean-on-startup | --clean-on-startup | -i
                    | -u]
    
           aptitude help
    
    
    

    DESCRIPTION

           aptitude is a text-based interface to the Debian GNU/Linux package
           system.
    
           It allows the user to view the list of packages and to perform package
           management tasks such as installing, upgrading, and removing packages.
           Actions may be performed from a visual interface or from the
           command-line.
    
    
    

    COMMAND-LINE ACTIONS

           The first argument which does not begin with a hyphen ("-") is
           considered to be an action that the program should perform. If an
           action is not specified on the command-line, aptitude will start up in
           visual mode.
    
           The following actions are available:
    
           install
               Install one or more packages. The packages should be listed after
               the "install" command; if a package name contains a tilde character
               ("~") or a question mark ("?"), it will be treated as a search
               pattern and every package matching the pattern will be installed
               (see the section "Search Patterns" in the aptitude reference
               manual).
    
               To select a particular version of the package, append "=<version>"
               to the package name: for instance, "aptitude install apt=0.3.1".
               <package>+M
                   Install <package> and immediately mark it as automatically
                   installed (note that if nothing depends on <package>, this will
                   cause it to be immediately removed).
    
               <package>-
                   Remove <package>.
    
               <package>_
                   Purge <package>: remove it and all its associated configuration
                   and data files.
    
               <package>=
                   Place <package> on hold: cancel any active installation,
                   upgrade, or removal, and prevent this package from being
                   automatically upgraded in the future.
    
               <package>:
                   Keep <package> at its current version: cancel any installation,
                   removal, or upgrade. Unlike "hold" (above) this does not
                   prevent automatic upgrades in the future.
    
               <package>&&M
                   Mark <package> as having been automatically installed.
    
               <package>&&m
                   Mark <package> as having been manually installed.
    
               As a special case, "install" with no arguments will act on any
               stored/pending actions.
    
                   Note
                   Once you enter Y at the final confirmation prompt, the
                   "install" command will modify aptitude's stored information
                   about what actions to perform. Therefore, if you issue (e.g.)
                   the command "aptitude install foo bar" and then abort the
                   installation once aptitude has started downloading and
                   installing packages, you will need to run "aptitude remove foo
                   bar" to cancel that order.
    
           remove, purge, hold, unhold, keep, reinstall
               These commands are the same as "install", but apply the named
               action to all packages given on the command line for which it is
               not overridden. The difference between hold and keep is that hold
               will cause a package to be ignored by future safe-upgrade or
               full-upgrade commands, while keep merely cancels any scheduled
               actions on the package.  unhold will allow a package to be upgraded
               by future safe-upgrade or full-upgrade commands, without otherwise
               altering its state.
    
               For instance, "aptitude remove '~ndeity'" will remove all packages
               whose name contains "deity".
               be a source package, in which case the build dependencies of that
               source package are installed; otherwise, binary packages are found
               in the same way as for the "install" command, and the
               build-dependencies of the source packages that build those binary
               packages are satisfied.
    
               If the command-line parameter --arch-only is present, only
               architecture-dependent build dependencies (i.e., not
               Build-Depends-Indep or Build-Conflicts-Indep) will be obeyed.
    
           forbid-version
               Forbid a package from being upgraded to a particular version. This
               will prevent aptitude from automatically upgrading to this version,
               but will allow automatic upgrades to future versions. By default,
               aptitude will select the version to which the package would
               normally be upgraded; you may override this selection by appending
               "=<version>" to the package name: for instance, "aptitude
               forbid-version vim=1.2.3.broken-4".
    
               This command is useful for avoiding broken versions of packages
               without having to set and clear manual holds. If you decide you
               really want the forbidden version after all, "install package..."
               will remove the ban.  --schedule-only here can be used to just
               remove the ban without installing anything.
    
           update
               Updates the list of available packages from the apt sources (this
               is equivalent to "apt-get update")
    
           safe-upgrade
               Upgrades installed packages to their most recent version. Installed
               packages will not be removed unless they are unused (see the
               section "Managing Automatically Installed Packages" in the aptitude
               reference manual). Packages which are not currently installed may
               be installed to resolve dependencies unless the --no-new-installs
               command-line option is supplied.
    
               If no <package>s are listed on the command line, aptitude will
               attempt to upgrade every package that can be upgraded. Otherwise,
               aptitude will attempt to upgrade only the packages which it is
               instructed to upgrade. The <package>s can be extended with suffixes
               in the same manner as arguments to aptitude install, so you can
               also give additional instructions to aptitude here; for instance,
               aptitude safe-upgrade bash dash- will attempt to upgrade the bash
               package and remove the dash package.
    
               It is sometimes necessary to remove one package in order to upgrade
               another; this command is not able to upgrade packages in such
               situations. Use the full-upgrade command to upgrade as many
               packages as possible.
    
           full-upgrade
    
                   Note
                   This command was originally named dist-upgrade for historical
                   reasons, and aptitude still recognizes dist-upgrade as a
                   synonym for full-upgrade.
    
           keep-all
               Cancels all scheduled actions on all packages; any packages whose
               sticky state indicates an installation, removal, or upgrade will
               have this sticky state cleared.
    
           forget-new
               Forgets all internal information about what packages are "new"
               (equivalent to pressing "f" when in visual mode).
    
           search
               Searches for packages matching one of the patterns supplied on the
               command line. All packages which match any of the given patterns
               will be displayed; for instance, "aptitude search '~N' edit" will
               list all "new" packages and all packages whose name contains
               "edit". For more information on search patterns, see the section
               "Search Patterns" in the aptitude reference manual.
    
                   Note
                   In the example above, "aptitude search '~N' edit" has two
                   arguments after search and thus is searching for two patterns:
                   "~N" and "edit". As described in the search pattern reference,
                   a single pattern composed of two sub-patterns separated by a
                   space (such as "~N edit") matches only if both patterns match.
                   Thus, the command "aptitude search '~N edit'" will only show
                   "new" packages whose name contains "edit".
               Unless you pass the -F option, the output of aptitude search will
               look something like this:
    
                   i   apt                             - Advanced front-end for dpkg
                   pi  apt-build                       - frontend to apt to build, optimize and in
                   cp  apt-file                        - APT package searching utility -- command-
                   ihA raptor-utils                    - Raptor RDF Parser utilities
    
               Each search result is listed on a separate line. The first
               character of each line indicates the current state of the package:
               the most common states are p, meaning that no trace of the package
               exists on the system, c, meaning that the package was deleted but
               its configuration files remain on the system, i, meaning that the
               package is installed, and v, meaning that the package is virtual.
               The second character indicates the stored action (if any; otherwise
               a blank space is displayed) to be performed on the package, with
               the most common actions being i, meaning that the package will be
               installed, d, meaning that the package will be deleted, and p,
               meaning that the package and its configuration files will be
               removed. If the third character is A, the package was automatically
               installed.
               present on the command-line), information about all versions of the
               package is displayed. Otherwise, information about the "candidate
               version" (the version that "aptitude install" would download) is
               displayed.
    
               You can display information about a different version of the
               package by appending =<version> to the package name; you can
               display the version from a particular archive or release by
               appending /<archive> or /<release> to the package name: for
               instance, /unstable or /sid. If either of these is present, then
               only the version you request will be displayed, regardless of the
               verbosity level.
    
               If the verbosity level is 1 or greater, the package's architecture,
               compressed size, filename, and md5sum fields will be displayed. If
               the verbosity level is 2 or greater, the select version or versions
               will be displayed once for each archive in which they are found.
    
           versions
               Displays the versions of the packages listed on the command-line.
    
                   $ aptitude versions wesnoth
                   p   1:1.4.5-1                                                             100
                   p   1:1.6.5-1                                    unstable                 500
                   p   1:1.7.14-1                                   experimental             1
    
               Each version is listed on a separate line. The leftmost three
               characters indicate the current state, planned state (if any), and
               whether the package was automatically installed; for more
               information on their meanings, see the documentation of aptitude
               search. To the right of the version number you can find the
               releases from which the version is available, and the pin priority
               of the version.
    
               If a package name contains a tilde character ("~") or a question
               mark ("?"), it will be treated as a search pattern and all matching
               versions will be displayed (see the section "Search Patterns" in
               the aptitude reference manual). This means that, for instance,
               aptitude versions '~i' will display all the versions that are
               currently installed on the system and nothing else, not even other
               versions of the same packages.
    
                   $ aptitude versions '~nexim4-daemon-light'
                   Package exim4-daemon-light:
                   i   4.71-3                                                                100
                   p   4.71-4                                       unstable                 500
    
                   Package exim4-daemon-light-dbg:
                   p   4.71-4                                       unstable                 500
    
               If the input is a search pattern, or if more than one package's
               versions are to be displayed, aptitude will automatically group the
                   p   4.71-4                                       unstable                 500
                   p   4.71-4                                       unstable                 500
    
               In addition to the above options, the information printed for each
               version can be controlled by the command-line option -F. The order
               in which versions are displayed can be controlled by the
               command-line option --sort. To prevent aptitude from formatting the
               output into columns, use --disable-columns.
    
           add-user-tag, remove-user-tag
               Adds a user tag to or removes a user tag from the selected group of
               packages. If a package name contains a tilde ("~") or question mark
               ("?"), it is treated as a search pattern and the tag is added to or
               removed from all the packages that match the pattern (see the
               section "Search Patterns" in the aptitude reference manual).
    
               User tags are arbitrary strings associated with a package. They can
               be used with the ?user-tag(<tag>) search term, which will select
               all the packages that have a user tag matching <tag>.
    
           why, why-not
               Explains the reason that a particular package should or cannot be
               installed on the system.
    
               This command searches for packages that require or conflict with
               the given package. It displays a sequence of dependencies leading
               to the target package, along with a note indicating the installed
               state of each package in the dependency chain:
    
                   $ aptitude why kdepim
                   i   nautilus-data Recommends nautilus
                   i A nautilus      Recommends desktop-base (>= 0.2)
                   i A desktop-base  Suggests   gnome | kde | xfce4 | wmaker
                   p   kde           Depends    kdepim (>= 4:3.4.3)
    
               The command why finds a dependency chain that installs the package
               named on the command line, as above. Note that the dependency that
               aptitude produced in this case is only a suggestion. This is
               because no package currently installed on this computer depends on
               or recommends the kdepim package; if a stronger dependency were
               available, aptitude would have displayed it.
    
               In contrast, why-not finds a dependency chain leading to a conflict
               with the target package:
    
                   $ aptitude why-not textopo
                   i   ocaml-core          Depends   ocamlweb
                   i A ocamlweb            Depends   tetex-extra | texlive-latex-extra
                   i A texlive-latex-extra Conflicts textopo
    
               If one or more <pattern>s are present, then aptitude will begin its
               search at these patterns; that is, the first package in the chain
                   instance, if A requires B, C requires D, and B and C conflict,
                   "aptitude why-not D" will not produce the answer "A depends on
                   B, B conflicts with C, and D depends on C".
               By default aptitude outputs only the "most installed, strongest,
               tightest, shortest" dependency chain. That is, it looks for a chain
               that only contains packages which are installed or will be
               installed; it looks for the strongest possible dependencies under
               that restriction; it looks for chains that avoid ORed dependencies
               and Provides; and it looks for the shortest dependency chain
               meeting those criteria. These rules are progressively weakened
               until a match is found.
    
               If the verbosity level is 1 or more, then all the explanations
               aptitude can find will be displayed, in inverse order of relevance.
               If the verbosity level is 2 or more, a truly excessive amount of
               debugging information will be printed to standard output.
    
               This command returns 0 if successful, 1 if no explanation could be
               constructed, and -1 if an error occurred.
    
           clean
               Removes all previously downloaded .deb files from the package cache
               directory (usually /var/cache/apt/archives).
    
           autoclean
               Removes any cached packages which can no longer be downloaded. This
               allows you to prevent a cache from growing out of control over time
               without completely emptying it.
    
           changelog
               Downloads and displays the Debian changelog for each of the given
               source or binary packages.
    
               By default, the changelog for the version which would be installed
               with "aptitude install" is downloaded. You can select a particular
               version of a package by appending =<version> to the package name;
               you can select the version from a particular archive or release by
               appending /<archive> or /<release> to the package name (for
               instance, /unstable or /sid).
    
           download
               Downloads the .deb file for the given package to the current
               directory. If a package name contains a tilde character ("~") or a
               question mark ("?"), it will be treated as a search pattern and all
               the matching packages will be downloaded (see the section "Search
               Patterns" in the aptitude reference manual).
    
               By default, the version which would be installed with "aptitude
               install" is downloaded. You can select a particular version of a
               package by appending =<version> to the package name; you can select
               the version from a particular archive or release by appending
               /<archive> or /<release> to the package name (for instance:
    
           help
               Displays a brief summary of the available commands and options.
    
    
    

    OPTIONS

           The following options may be used to modify the behavior of the actions
           described above. Note that while all options will be accepted for all
           commands, some options don't apply to particular commands and will be
           ignored by those commands.
    
           --add-user-tag <tag>
               For full-upgrade, safe-upgrade, forbid-version, hold, install,
               keep-all, markauto, unmarkauto, purge, reinstall, remove, unhold,
               and unmarkauto: add the user tag <tag> to all packages that are
               installed, removed, or upgraded by this command as if with the
               add-user-tag command.
    
           --add-user-tag-to <tag>,<pattern>
               For full-upgrade, safe-upgrade forbid-version, hold, install,
               keep-all, markauto, unmarkauto, purge, reinstall, remove, unhold,
               and unmarkauto: add the user tag <tag> to all packages that match
               <pattern> as if with the add-user-tag command. The pattern is a
               search pattern as described in the section "Search Patterns" in the
               aptitude reference manual.
    
               For instance, aptitude safe-upgrade --add-user-tag-to
               "new-installs,?action(install)" will add the tag new-installs to
               all the packages installed by the safe-upgrade command.
    
           --allow-new-upgrades
               When the safe resolver is being used (i.e., --safe-resolver was
               passed, the action is safe-upgrade, or
               Aptitude::Always-Use-Safe-Resolver is set to true), allow the
               dependency resolver to install upgrades for packages regardless of
               the value of Aptitude::Safe-Resolver::No-New-Upgrades.
    
           --allow-new-installs
               Allow the safe-upgrade command to install new packages; when the
               safe resolver is being used (i.e., --safe-resolver was passed, the
               action is safe-upgrade, or Aptitude::Always-Use-Safe-Resolver is
               set to true), allow the dependency resolver to install new
               packages. This option takes effect regardless of the value of
               Aptitude::Safe-Resolver::No-New-Installs.
    
           --allow-untrusted
               Install packages from untrusted sources without prompting. You
               should only use this if you know what you are doing, as it could
               easily compromise your system's security.
    
           --disable-columns
               This option causes aptitude search and aptitude version to output
               their results without any special formatting. In particular:
                   libdbix-fulltextsearch-perl 0.73-10
    
               As in the above example, --disable-columns is often useful in
               combination with a custom display format set using the command-line
               option -F.
    
               This corresponds to the configuration option
               Aptitude::CmdLine::Disable-Columns.
    
           -D, --show-deps
               For commands that will install or remove packages (install,
               full-upgrade, etc), show brief explanations of automatic
               installations and removals.
    
               This corresponds to the configuration option
               Aptitude::CmdLine::Show-Deps.
    
           -d, --download-only
               Download packages to the package cache as necessary, but do not
               install or remove anything. By default, the package cache is stored
               in /var/cache/apt/archives.
    
               This corresponds to the configuration option
               Aptitude::CmdLine::Download-Only.
    
           -F <format>, --display-format <format>
               Specify the format which should be used to display output from the
               search and version commands. For instance, passing "%p %V %v" for
               <format> will display a package's name, followed by its currently
               installed version and its available version (see the section
               "Customizing how packages are displayed" in the aptitude reference
               manual for more information).
    
               The command-line option --disable-columns is often useful in
               combination with -F.
    
               For search, this corresponds to the configuration option
               Aptitude::CmdLine::Package-Display-Format; for versions, this
               corresponds to the configuration option
               Aptitude::CmdLine::Version-Display-Format.
    
           -f
               Try hard to fix the dependencies of broken packages, even if it
               means ignoring the actions requested on the command line.
    
               This corresponds to the configuration item
               Aptitude::CmdLine::Fix-Broken.
    
           --full-resolver
               When package dependency problems are encountered, use the default
               "full" resolver to solve them. Unlike the "safe" resolver activated
               by --safe-resolver, the full resolver will happily remove packages
                   ("stable", "unstable", etc). If a package occurs in several
                   archives, it will be displayed in each of them.
    
               ?    auto to group versions by their package unless there is
                   exactly one argument and it is not a search pattern.
    
               ?    none to display all the versions in a single list without any
                   grouping.
    
               ?    package to group versions by their package.
    
               ?    source-package to group versions by their source package.
    
               ?    source-version to group versions by their source package and
                   source version.
    
               This corresponds to the configuration option
               Aptitude::CmdLine::Versions-Group-By.
    
           -h, --help
               Display a brief help message. Identical to the help action.
    
           --log-file=<file>
               If <file> is a nonempty string, log messages will be written to it,
               except that if <file> is "-", the messages will be written to
               standard output instead. If this option appears multiple times, the
               last occurrence is the one that will take effect.
    
               This does not affect the log of installations that aptitude has
               performed (/var/log/aptitude); the log messages written using this
               configuration include internal program events, errors, and
               debugging messages. See the command-line option --log-level to get
               more control over what gets logged.
    
               This corresponds to the configuration option
               Aptitude::Logging::File.
    
           --log-level=<level>, --log-level=<category>:<level>
    
               --log-level=<level> causes aptitude to only log messages whose
               level is <level> or higher. For instance, setting the log level to
               error will cause only messages at the log levels error and fatal to
               be displayed; all others will be hidden. Valid log levels (in
               descending order) are off, fatal, error, warn, info, debug, and
               trace. The default log level is warn.
    
               --log-level=<category>:<level> causes messages in <category> to
               only be logged if their level is <level> or higher.
    
               --log-level may appear multiple times on the command line; the most
               This corresponds to the configuration group
               Aptitude::Logging::Levels.
    
           --log-resolver
               Set some standard log levels related to the resolver, to produce
               logging output suitable for processing with automated tools. This
               is equivalent to the command-line options
               --log-level=aptitude.resolver.search:trace
               --log-level=aptitude.resolver.search.tiers:info.
    
           --no-new-installs
               Prevent safe-upgrade from installing any new packages; when the
               safe resolver is being used (i.e., --safe-resolver was passed or
               Aptitude::Always-Use-Safe-Resolver is set to true), forbid the
               dependency resolver from installing new packages. This option takes
               effect regardless of the value of
               Aptitude::Safe-Resolver::No-New-Installs.
    
               This mimics the historical behavior of apt-get upgrade.
    
           --no-new-upgrades
               When the safe resolver is being used (i.e., --safe-resolver was
               passed or Aptitude::Always-Use-Safe-Resolver is set to true),
               forbid the dependency resolver from installing upgrades for
               packages regardless of the value of
               Aptitude::Safe-Resolver::No-New-Upgrades.
    
           --no-show-resolver-actions
               Do not display the actions performed by the "safe" resolver,
               overriding any configuration option or earlier
               --show-resolver-actions.
    
           -O <order>, --sort <order>
               Specify the order in which output from the search and versions
               commands should be displayed. For instance, passing "installsize"
               for <order> will list packages in order according to their size
               when installed (see the section "Customizing how packages are
               sorted" in the aptitude reference manual for more information).
    
               The default sort order is name,version.
    
           -o <key>=<value>
               Set a configuration file option directly; for instance, use -o
               Aptitude::Log=/tmp/my-log to log aptitude's actions to /tmp/my-log.
               For more information on configuration file options, see the section
               "Configuration file reference" in the aptitude reference manual.
    
           -P, --prompt
               Always display a prompt before downloading, installing or removing
               packages, even when no actions other than those explicitly
               requested will be performed.
    
               Aptitude::Purge-Unused.
    
           -q[=<n>], --quiet[=<n>]
               Suppress all incremental progress indicators, thus making the
               output loggable. This may be supplied multiple times to make the
               program quieter, but unlike apt-get, aptitude does not enable -y
               when -q is supplied more than once.
    
               The optional =<n> may be used to directly set the amount of
               quietness (for instance, to override a setting in
               /etc/apt/apt.conf); it causes the program to behave as if -q had
               been passed exactly <n> times.
    
           -R, --without-recommends
               Do not treat recommendations as dependencies when installing new
               packages (this overrides settings in /etc/apt/apt.conf and
               ~/.aptitude/config). Packages previously installed due to
               recommendations will not be removed.
    
               This corresponds to the pair of configuration options
               Apt::Install-Recommends and Apt::AutoRemove::InstallRecommends.
    
           -r, --with-recommends
               Treat recommendations as dependencies when installing new packages
               (this overrides settings in /etc/apt/apt.conf and
               ~/.aptitude/config).
    
               This corresponds to the configuration option
               Apt::Install-Recommends
    
           --remove-user-tag <tag>
               For full-upgrade, safe-upgrade forbid-version, hold, install,
               keep-all, markauto, unmarkauto, purge, reinstall, remove, unhold,
               and unmarkauto: remove the user tag <tag> from all packages that
               are installed, removed, or upgraded by this command as if with the
               add-user-tag command.
    
           --remove-user-tag-from <tag>,<pattern>
               For full-upgrade, safe-upgrade forbid-version, hold, install,
               keep-all, markauto, unmarkauto, purge, reinstall, remove, unhold,
               and unmarkauto: remove the user tag <tag> from all packages that
               match <pattern> as if with the remove-user-tag command. The pattern
               is a search pattern as described in the section "Search Patterns"
               in the aptitude reference manual.
    
               For instance, aptitude safe-upgrade --remove-user-tag-from
               "not-upgraded,?action(upgrade)" will remove the not-upgraded tag
               from all packages that the safe-upgrade command is able to upgrade.
    
           -s, --simulate
               In command-line mode, print the actions that would normally be
               performed, but don't actually perform them. This does not require
    
               This option is equivalent to setting the configuration variable
               Aptitude::Always-Use-Safe-Resolver to true.
    
           --schedule-only
               For commands that modify package states, schedule operations to be
               performed in the future, but don't perform them. You can execute
               scheduled actions by running aptitude install with no arguments.
               This is equivalent to making the corresponding selections in visual
               mode, then exiting the program normally.
    
               For instance, aptitude --schedule-only install evolution will
               schedule the evolution package for later installation.
    
           --show-package-names <when>
               Controls when the versions command shows package names. The
               following settings are allowed:
    
               ?    always: display package names every time that aptitude
                   versions runs.
    
               ?    auto: display package names when aptitude versions runs if the
                   output is not grouped by package, and either there is a
                   pattern-matching argument or there is more than one argument.
    
               ?    never: never display package names in the output of aptitude
                   versions.
    
               This option corresponds to the configuration item
               Aptitude::CmdLine::Versions-Show-Package-Names.
    
           --show-resolver-actions
               Display the actions performed by the "safe" resolver and by
               safe-upgrade.
    
               When executing the command safe-upgrade or when the option
               --safe-resolver is present, aptitude will display a summary of the
               actions performed by the resolver before printing the installation
               preview. This is equivalent to the configuration option
               Aptitude::Safe-Resolver::Show-Resolver-Actions.
    
           --show-summary[=<MODE>]
               Changes the behavior of "aptitude why" to summarize each dependency
               chain that it outputs, rather than displaying it in long form. If
               this option is present and <MODE> is not "no-summary", chains that
               contain Suggests dependencies will not be displayed: combine
               --show-summary with -v to see a summary of all the reasons for the
               target package to be installed.
    
               <MODE> can be any one of the following:
    
                   dependencies leading to the target package, including the
                   target version of each dependency.
    
               This option corresponds to the configuration item
               Aptitude::CmdLine::Show-Summary; if --show-summary is present on
               the command-line, it will override Aptitude::CmdLine::Show-Summary.
    
               Example 10. Usage of --show-summary
    
               --show-summary used with -v to display all the reasons a package is
               installed:
    
                   $ aptitude -v --show-summary why foomatic-db
                   Packages requiring foomatic-db:
                     cupsys-driver-gutenprint
                     foomatic-db-engine
                     foomatic-db-gutenprint
                     foomatic-db-hpijs
                     foomatic-filters-ppds
                     foomatic-gui
                     kde
                     printconf
                     wine
    
                   $ aptitude -v --show-summary=first-package-and-type why foomatic-db
                   Packages requiring foomatic-db:
                     [Depends] cupsys-driver-gutenprint
                     [Depends] foomatic-db-engine
                     [Depends] foomatic-db-gutenprint
                     [Depends] foomatic-db-hpijs
                     [Depends] foomatic-filters-ppds
                     [Depends] foomatic-gui
                     [Depends] kde
                     [Depends] printconf
                     [Depends] wine
    
                   $ aptitude -v --show-summary=all-packages why foomatic-db
                   Packages requiring foomatic-db:
                     cupsys-driver-gutenprint D: cups-driver-gutenprint D: cups R: foomatic-filters R: foomatic-db-engine D: foomatic-db
                     foomatic-filters-ppds D: foomatic-filters R: foomatic-db-engine D: foomatic-db
                     kde D: kdeadmin R: system-config-printer-kde D: system-config-printer R: hal-cups-utils D: cups R: foomatic-filters R: foomatic-db-engine D: foomatic-db
                     wine D: libwine-print D: cups-bsd R: cups R: foomatic-filters R: foomatic-db-engine D: foomatic-db
                     foomatic-db-engine D: foomatic-db
                     foomatic-db-gutenprint D: foomatic-db
                     foomatic-db-hpijs D: foomatic-db
                     foomatic-gui D: python-foomatic D: foomatic-db-engine D: foomatic-db
                     printconf D: foomatic-db
    
                   $ aptitude -v --show-summary=all-packages-with-dep-versions why foomatic-db
                   Packages requiring foomatic-db:
                     cupsys-driver-gutenprint D: cups-driver-gutenprint (>= 5.0.2-4) D: cups (>= 1.3.0) R: foomatic-filters (>= 4.0) R: foomatic-db-engine (>= 4.0) D: foomatic-db (>= 20090301)
                     foomatic-filters-ppds D: foomatic-filters R: foomatic-db-engine (>= 4.0) D: foomatic-db (>= 20090301)
                     aptitude-gtk D: libglib2.0-0 R: libglib2.0-data
    
           -t <release>, --target-release <release>
               Set the release from which packages should be installed. For
               instance, "aptitude -t experimental ..."  will install packages
               from the experimental distribution unless you specify otherwise.
               For the command-line actions "changelog", "download", and "show",
               this is equivalent to appending /<release> to each package named on
               the command-line; for other commands, this will affect the default
               candidate version of packages according to the rules described in
               apt_preferences(5).
    
               This corresponds to the configuration item APT::Default-Release.
    
           -V, --show-versions
               Show which versions of packages will be installed.
    
               This corresponds to the configuration option
               Aptitude::CmdLine::Show-Versions.
    
           -v, --verbose
               Causes some commands (for instance, show) to display extra
               information. This may be supplied multiple times to get more and
               more information.
    
               This corresponds to the configuration option
               Aptitude::CmdLine::Verbose.
    
           --version
               Display the version of aptitude and some information about how it
               was compiled.
    
           --visual-preview
               When installing or removing packages from the command line, instead
               of displaying the usual prompt, start up the visual interface and
               display its preview screen.
    
           -W, --show-why
               In the preview displayed before packages are installed or removed,
               show which manually installed package requires each automatically
               installed package. For instance:
    
                   $ aptitude --show-why install mediawiki
                   ...
                   The following NEW packages will be installed:
                     libapache2-mod-php5{a} (for mediawiki)  mediawiki  php5{a} (for mediawiki)
                     php5-cli{a} (for mediawiki)  php5-common{a} (for mediawiki)
                     php5-mysql{a} (for mediawiki)
    
               When combined with -v or a non-zero value for
               Aptitude::CmdLine::Verbose, this displays the entire chain of
               dependencies that lead each package to be installed. For instance:
    
           -w <width>, --width <width>
               Specify the display width which should be used for output from the
               search command (by default, the terminal width is used).
    
               This corresponds to the configuration option
               Aptitude::CmdLine::Package-Display-Width
    
           -y, --assume-yes
               When a yes/no prompt would be presented, assume that the user
               entered "yes". In particular, suppresses the prompt that appears
               when installing, upgrading, or removing packages. Prompts for
               "dangerous" actions, such as removing essential packages, will
               still be displayed. This option overrides -P.
    
               This corresponds to the configuration option
               Aptitude::CmdLine::Assume-Yes.
    
           -Z
               Show how much disk space will be used or freed by the individual
               packages being installed, upgraded, or removed.
    
               This corresponds to the configuration option
               Aptitude::CmdLine::Show-Size-Changes.
    
           The following options apply to the visual mode of the program, but are
           primarily for internal use; you generally won't need to use them
           yourself.
    
           --autoclean-on-startup
               Deletes old downloaded files when the program starts (equivalent to
               starting the program and immediately selecting Actions -> Clean
               obsolete files). You cannot use this option and
               "--autoclean-on-startup", "-i", or "-u" at the same time.
    
           --clean-on-startup
               Cleans the package cache when the program starts (equivalent to
               starting the program and immediately selecting Actions -> Clean
               package cache). You cannot use this option and
               "--autoclean-on-startup", "-i", or "-u" at the same time.
    
           -i
               Displays a download preview when the program starts (equivalent to
               starting the program and immediately pressing "g"). You cannot use
               this option and "--autoclean-on-startup", "--clean-on-startup", or
               "-u" at the same time.
    
           -S <fname>
               Loads the extended state information from <fname> instead of the
               standard state file.
    
           -u
               set, it defaults to more.
    
           TMP
               If TMPDIR is unset, aptitude will store its temporary files in TMP
               if that variable is set. Otherwise, it will store them in /tmp.
    
           TMPDIR
    
               aptitude will store its temporary files in the directory indicated
               by this environment variable. If TMPDIR is not set, then TMP will
               be used; if TMP is also unset, then aptitude will use /tmp.
    
    
    

    FILES

           /var/lib/aptitude/pkgstates
               The file in which stored package states and some package flags are
               stored.
    
           /etc/apt/apt.conf, /etc/apt/apt.conf.d/*, ~/.aptitude/config
               The configuration files for aptitude.  ~/.aptitude/config overrides
               /etc/apt/apt.conf. See apt.conf(5) for documentation of the format
               and contents of these files.
    
    
    

    SEE ALSO

           apt-get(8), apt(8), /usr/share/doc/aptitude/html/<lang>/index.html from
           the package aptitude-doc-<lang>
    
    
    

    AUTHOR

           Daniel Burrows <dburrows@debian.org>
               Author.
    
    
    

    COPYRIGHT

           Copyright 2004-2011 Daniel Burrows.
    
           This manual page is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
           modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as
           published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the
           License, or (at your option) any later version.
    
           This manual page is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
           WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
           MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU
           General Public License for more details.
    
           You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
           with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
           51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
    
    
    

    aptitude 0.6.5 02/16/2012 APTITUDE(8)

    
    
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