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           apt-get [-sqdyfmubV] [-o= config_string ] [-c= config_file ]
                   [-t= target_release] [-a= default_architecture] {update |
                   upgrade | dselect-upgrade | dist-upgrade |
                   install pkg [ { =pkg_version_number | /target_release } ] ...
                   | remove pkg...  | purge pkg...  |
                   source pkg [ { =pkg_version_number | /target_release } ] ...  |
                   build-dep pkg...  | check | clean | autoclean | autoremove |
                   {-v | --version} | {-h | --help}}


           apt-get is the command-line tool for handling packages, and may be
           considered the user's "back-end" to other tools using the APT library.
           Several "front-end" interfaces exist, such as dselect(1), aptitude(8),
           synaptic(8) and wajig(1).
           Unless the -h, or --help option is given, one of the commands below
           must be present.
               update is used to resynchronize the package index files from their
               sources. The indexes of available packages are fetched from the
               location(s) specified in /etc/apt/sources.list. For example, when
               using a Debian archive, this command retrieves and scans the
               Packages.gz files, so that information about new and updated
               packages is available. An update should always be performed before
               an upgrade or dist-upgrade. Please be aware that the overall
               progress meter will be incorrect as the size of the package files
               cannot be known in advance.
               upgrade is used to install the newest versions of all packages
               currently installed on the system from the sources enumerated in
               /etc/apt/sources.list. Packages currently installed with new
               versions available are retrieved and upgraded; under no
               circumstances are currently installed packages removed, or packages
               not already installed retrieved and installed. New versions of
               currently installed packages that cannot be upgraded without
               changing the install status of another package will be left at
               their current version. An update must be performed first so that
               apt-get knows that new versions of packages are available.
               dselect-upgrade is used in conjunction with the traditional Debian
               packaging front-end, dselect(1).  dselect-upgrade follows the
               changes made by dselect(1) to the Status field of available
               packages, and performs the actions necessary to realize that state
               (for instance, the removal of old and the installation of new
               dist-upgrade in addition to performing the function of upgrade,
               libc6_1.9.6-2.deb). All packages required by the package(s)
               specified for installation will also be retrieved and installed.
               The /etc/apt/sources.list file is used to locate the desired
               packages. If a hyphen is appended to the package name (with no
               intervening space), the identified package will be removed if it is
               installed. Similarly a plus sign can be used to designate a package
               to install. These latter features may be used to override decisions
               made by apt-get's conflict resolution system.
               A specific version of a package can be selected for installation by
               following the package name with an equals and the version of the
               package to select. This will cause that version to be located and
               selected for install. Alternatively a specific distribution can be
               selected by following the package name with a slash and the version
               of the distribution or the Archive name (stable, testing,
               Both of the version selection mechanisms can downgrade packages and
               must be used with care.
               This is also the target to use if you want to upgrade one or more
               already-installed packages without upgrading every package you have
               on your system. Unlike the "upgrade" target, which installs the
               newest version of all currently installed packages, "install" will
               install the newest version of only the package(s) specified. Simply
               provide the name of the package(s) you wish to upgrade, and if a
               newer version is available, it (and its dependencies, as described
               above) will be downloaded and installed.
               Finally, the apt_preferences(5) mechanism allows you to create an
               alternative installation policy for individual packages.
               If no package matches the given expression and the expression
               contains one of '.', '?' or '*' then it is assumed to be a POSIX
               regular expression, and it is applied to all package names in the
               database. Any matches are then installed (or removed). Note that
               matching is done by substring so 'lo.*' matches 'how-lo' and
               'lowest'. If this is undesired, anchor the regular expression with
               a '^' or '$' character, or create a more specific regular
               remove is identical to install except that packages are removed
               instead of installed. Note the removing a package leaves its
               configuration files in system. If a plus sign is appended to the
               package name (with no intervening space), the identified package
               will be installed instead of removed.
               purge is identical to remove except that packages are removed and
               purged (any configuration files are deleted too).
               If the --compile option is specified then the package will be
               compiled to a binary .deb using dpkg-buildpackage for the
               architecture as defined by the --host-architecture option. If
               --download-only is specified then the source package will not be
               A specific source version can be retrieved by postfixing the source
               name with an equals and then the version to fetch, similar to the
               mechanism used for the package files. This enables exact matching
               of the source package name and version, implicitly enabling the
               APT::Get::Only-Source option.
               Note that source packages are not tracked like binary packages,
               they exist only in the current directory and are similar to
               downloading source tar balls.
               build-dep causes apt-get to install/remove packages in an attempt
               to satisfy the build dependencies for a source package. By default
               the dependencies are satisfied to build the package natively. If
               desired a host-architecture can be specified with the
               --host-architecture option instead.
               check is a diagnostic tool; it updates the package cache and checks
               for broken dependencies.
               download will download the given binary package into the current
               clean clears out the local repository of retrieved package files.
               It removes everything but the lock file from
               /var/cache/apt/archives/ and /var/cache/apt/archives/partial/. When
               APT is used as a dselect(1) method, clean is run automatically.
               Those who do not use dselect will likely want to run apt-get clean
               from time to time to free up disk space.
               Like clean, autoclean clears out the local repository of retrieved
               package files. The difference is that it only removes package files
               that can no longer be downloaded, and are largely useless. This
               allows a cache to be maintained over a long period without it
               growing out of control. The configuration option
               APT::Clean-Installed will prevent installed packages from being
               erased if it is set to off.
               autoremove is used to remove packages that were automatically
               installed to satisfy dependencies for other packages and are now no
           options you can override the config file by using something like
           -f-,--no-f, -f=no or several other variations.
               Do not consider recommended packages as a dependency for
               installing. Configuration Item: APT::Install-Recommends.
               Consider suggested packages as a dependency for installing.
               Configuration Item: APT::Install-Suggests.
           -d, --download-only
               Download only; package files are only retrieved, not unpacked or
               installed. Configuration Item: APT::Get::Download-Only.
           -f, --fix-broken
               Fix; attempt to correct a system with broken dependencies in place.
               This option, when used with install/remove, can omit any packages
               to permit APT to deduce a likely solution. If packages are
               specified, these have to completely correct the problem. The option
               is sometimes necessary when running APT for the first time; APT
               itself does not allow broken package dependencies to exist on a
               system. It is possible that a system's dependency structure can be
               so corrupt as to require manual intervention (which usually means
               using dselect(1) or dpkg --remove to eliminate some of the
               offending packages). Use of this option together with -m may
               produce an error in some situations. Configuration Item:
           -m, --ignore-missing, --fix-missing
               Ignore missing packages; If packages cannot be retrieved or fail
               the integrity check after retrieval (corrupted package files), hold
               back those packages and handle the result. Use of this option
               together with -f may produce an error in some situations. If a
               package is selected for installation (particularly if it is
               mentioned on the command line) and it could not be downloaded then
               it will be silently held back. Configuration Item:
               Disables downloading of packages. This is best used with
               --ignore-missing to force APT to use only the .debs it has already
               downloaded. Configuration Item: APT::Get::Download.
           -q, --quiet
               Quiet; produces output suitable for logging, omitting progress
               indicators. More q's will produce more quiet up to a maximum of 2.
               You can also use -q=# to set the quiet level, overriding the
               configuration file. Note that quiet level 2 implies -y, you should
               never use -qq without a no-action modifier such as -d, --print-uris
               or -s as APT may decided to do something you did not expect.
               Configuration Item: quiet.
               operation, Configure (Conf), Remove (Remv), Unpack (Inst). Square
               brackets indicate broken packages and empty set of square brackets
               meaning breaks that are of no consequence (rare).
           -y, --yes, --assume-yes
               Automatic yes to prompts; assume "yes" as answer to all prompts and
               run non-interactively. If an undesirable situation, such as
               changing a held package, trying to install a unauthenticated
               package or removing an essential package occurs then apt-get will
               abort. Configuration Item: APT::Get::Assume-Yes.
               Automatic "no" to all prompts. Configuration Item:
           -u, --show-upgraded
               Show upgraded packages; Print out a list of all packages that are
               to be upgraded. Configuration Item: APT::Get::Show-Upgraded.
           -V, --verbose-versions
               Show full versions for upgraded and installed packages.
               Configuration Item: APT::Get::Show-Versions.
           -a, --host-architecture
               This option controls the architecture packages are built for by
               apt-get source --compile and how cross-builddependencies are
               satisfied. By default is it not set which means that the host
               architecture is the same as the build architecture (which is
               defined by APT::Architecture). Configuration Item:
           -b, --compile, --build
               Compile source packages after downloading them. Configuration Item:
               Ignore package Holds; This causes apt-get to ignore a hold placed
               on a package. This may be useful in conjunction with dist-upgrade
               to override a large number of undesired holds. Configuration Item:
               Do not upgrade packages; When used in conjunction with install,
               no-upgrade will prevent packages on the command line from being
               upgraded if they are already installed. Configuration Item:
               Do not install new packages; When used in conjunction with install,
               only-upgrade will prevent packages on the command line from being
               upgraded if they are not already installed. Configuration Item:
               command the MD5 and size are not included, and it is up to the user
               to decompress any compressed files. Configuration Item:
               Use purge instead of remove for anything that would be removed. An
               asterisk ("*") will be displayed next to packages which are
               scheduled to be purged.  remove --purge is equivalent to the purge
               command. Configuration Item: APT::Get::Purge.
               Re-Install packages that are already installed and at the newest
               version. Configuration Item: APT::Get::ReInstall.
               This option defaults to on, use --no-list-cleanup to turn it off.
               When on apt-get will automatically manage the contents of
               /var/lib/apt/lists to ensure that obsolete files are erased. The
               only reason to turn it off is if you frequently change your source
               list. Configuration Item: APT::Get::List-Cleanup.
           -t, --target-release, --default-release
               This option controls the default input to the policy engine, it
               creates a default pin at priority 990 using the specified release
               string. This overrides the general settings in
               /etc/apt/preferences. Specifically pinned packages are not affected
               by the value of this option. In short, this option lets you have
               simple control over which distribution packages will be retrieved
               from. Some common examples might be -t '2.1*', -t unstable or -t
               sid. Configuration Item: APT::Default-Release; see also the
               apt_preferences(5) manual page.
               Only perform operations that are 'trivial'. Logically this can be
               considered related to --assume-yes, where --assume-yes will answer
               yes to any prompt, --trivial-only will answer no. Configuration
               Item: APT::Get::Trivial-Only.
               If any packages are to be removed apt-get immediately aborts
               without prompting. Configuration Item: APT::Get::Remove.
               If the command is either install or remove, then this option acts
               like running autoremove command, removing the unused dependency
               packages. Configuration Item: APT::Get::AutomaticRemove.
               Only has meaning for the source and build-dep commands. Indicates
               that the given source names are not to be mapped through the binary
               table. This means that if this option is specified, these commands
               will only accept source package names as arguments, rather than
               it. This is useful for tools like pbuilder. Configuration Item:
           -h, --help
               Show a short usage summary.
           -v, --version
               Show the program version.
           -c, --config-file
               Configuration File; Specify a configuration file to use. The
               program will read the default configuration file and then this
               configuration file. If configuration settings need to be set before
               the default configuration files are parsed specify a file with the
               APT_CONFIG environment variable. See apt.conf(5) for syntax
           -o, --option
               Set a Configuration Option; This will set an arbitrary
               configuration option. The syntax is -o Foo::Bar=bar.  -o and
               --option can be used multiple times to set different options.


               Locations to fetch packages from. Configuration Item:
               File fragments for locations to fetch packages from. Configuration
               Item: Dir::Etc::SourceParts.
               APT configuration file. Configuration Item: Dir::Etc::Main.
               APT configuration file fragments. Configuration Item:
               Version preferences file. This is where you would specify
               "pinning", i.e. a preference to get certain packages from a
               separate source or from a different version of a distribution.
               Configuration Item: Dir::Etc::Preferences.
               File fragments for the version preferences. Configuration Item:
               Storage area for retrieved package files. Configuration Item:
           apt.conf(5), apt-config(8), apt-secure(8), The APT User's guide in
           /usr/share/doc/apt-doc/, apt_preferences(5), the APT Howto.


           apt-get returns zero on normal operation, decimal 100 on error.


           Jason Gunthorpe


           APT team
           QA Page[3]


           APT bug page[4]. If you wish to report a bug in APT, please see
           /usr/share/doc/debian/bug-reporting.txt or the reportbug(1) command.


           Jason Gunthorpe
           APT team


            3. QA Page
            4. APT bug page

    Linux 08 November 2008 APT-GET(8)


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