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           afsd [-afsdb] [-backuptree]
                [-biods <number of bkg I/O daemons (aix vm)>]
                [-blocks <1024 byte blocks in cache>]
                [-cachedir <cache directory>]
                [-chunksize <log(2) of chunk size>]
                [-confdir <configuration directory>]
                [-daemons <number of daemons to use>]
                [-dcache <number of dcache entries>] [-debug]
                [-dynroot] [-dynroot-sparse] [-enable_peer_stats]
                [-enable_process_stats] [-fakestat] [-fakestat-all]
                [-files <files in cache>]
                [-files_per_subdir <log(2) of files per dir> ]
                [-help] [-logfile <Place to keep the CM log>]
                [-mem_alloc_sleep] [-memcache]
                [-mountdir <mount location>] [-nomount]
                [-prealloc <number of 'small' preallocated blocks>]
                [-rmtsys] [-rootvol <name of AFS root volume>]
                [-rxbind] [-rxmaxmtu value for maximum MTU ]
                [-rxpck value for rx_extraPackets ]
                [-settime] [-shutdown]
                [-splitcache <RW/RO ratio>]
                [-stat <number of stat entries>] [-verbose]
                [-volumes <number of volume entries>]


           The afsd command initializes the Cache Manager on an AFS client machine
           by transferring AFS-related configuration information into kernel
           memory and starting several daemons. afsd.fuse is an experimental
           variant that initializes a FUSE-based Cache Manager instead of one
           based on a kernel module.
           The afsd command performs the following actions:
           ?   Sets a field in kernel memory that defines the machine's cell
               membership. Some Cache Manager-internal operations and system calls
               consult this field to learn which cell to execute in. (The AFS
               command interpreters refer to the /etc/openafs/ThisCell file
               instead.) This information is transferred into the kernel from the
               /etc/openafs/ThisCell file and cannot be changed until the afsd
               program runs again.
           ?   Places in kernel memory the names and Internet addresses of the
               database server machines in the local cell and (optionally) foreign
               cells. The appearance of a cell's database server machines in this
               list enables the Cache Manager to contact them and to access files
               in the cell. Omission of a cell from this list, or incorrect
               information about its database server machines, prevents the Cache
           ?   Determines which volume to mount at the root of the AFS file tree.
               The default is the volume "root.afs"; use the -rootvol argument to
               override it. Although the base (read/write) form of the volume name
               is the appropriate value, the Cache Manager has a bias for
               accessing the read-only version of the volume (by convention,
               "root.afs.readonly") if it is available.
           ?   Configures the cache on disk (the default) or in machine memory if
               the -memcache argument is provided. In the latter case, the afsd
               program allocates space in machine memory for caching, and the
               Cache Manager uses no disk space for caching even if the machine
               has a disk.
           ?   Defines the name of the local disk directory devoted to caching,
               when the -memcache argument is not used. If necessary, the afsd
               program creates the directory (its parent directory must already
               exist). It does not remove the directory that formerly served this
               function, if one exists.
               The second field in the /etc/openafs/cacheinfo file is the source
               for this name. The standard value is /usr/vice/cache. Use the
               -cachedir argument to override the value in the cacheinfo file.
           ?   Sets the size of the cache. The default source for the value is the
               third field in the /etc/openafs/cacheinfo file, which specifies a
               number of kilobytes.
               For a memory cache, the following arguments to the afsd command
               override the value in the cacheinfo file:
               ?   The -blocks argument, to specify a different number of kilobyte
               ?   The -dcache and -chunksize arguments together, to set both the
                   number of dcache entries and the chunk size (see below for
                   definition of these parameters). In this case, the afsd program
                   derives cache size by multiplying the two values. Using this
                   combination is not recommended, as it requires the issuer to
                   perform the calculation beforehand to determine the resulting
                   cache size.
               ?   The -dcache argument by itself. In this case, the afsd program
                   derives cache size by multiplying the value specified by the
                   -dcache argument by the default memory cache chunk size of
                   eight kilobytes. Using this argument is not recommended, as it
                   requires the issuer to perform the calculation beforehand to
                   determine the resulting cache size.
               For satisfactory memory cache performance, the specified value must
               leave enough memory free to accommodate all other processes and
               commands that can run on the machine. If the value exceeds the
               amount of memory available, the afsd program exits without
               an error message on the standard output stream, because the cache
               implementation itself requires a small amount of disk space and
               overfilling the partition can cause the client machine to panic.
               To change the size of a disk cache after initialization without
               rebooting, use the fs setcachesize command; the setting persists
               until the afsd command runs again or the fs setcachesize command is
               reissued. The fs setcachesize command does not work for memory
           ?   Sets the size of each cache chunk, and by implication the amount of
               data that the Cache Manager requests at a time from the File Server
               (how much data per fetch RPC, since AFS uses partial file
               For a disk cache, a chunk is a Vn file and this parameter sets the
               maximum size to which each one can expand.  For a memory cache,
               each chunk is a collection of contiguous memory blocks. The default
               for a disk cache is between 256 KB and 1 MB depending on the size
               of the cache. The default for a memory cache is 8 KB.
               To override the default chunk size for either type of cache, use
               the -chunksize argument to provide an integer to be used as an
               exponent of two; see OPTIONS for details. For a memory cache, if
               total cache size divided by chunk size leaves a remainder, the afsd
               program rounds down the number of dcache entries, resulting in a
               slightly smaller cache.
           ?   Sets the number of chunks in the cache. For a memory cache, the
               number of chunks is equal to the cache size divided by the chunk
               size.  For a disk cache, the number of chunks (Vn files) is set to
               the largest of the following unless the -files argument is used to
               set the value explicitly:
               ?   100
               ?   1.5 times the result of dividing cache size by chunk size
                   (cachesize/chunksize * 1.5)
               ?   The result of dividing cachesize by 10 KB (cachesize/10240)
           ?   Sets the number of dcache entries allocated in machine memory for
               storing information about the chunks in the cache.
               For a disk cache, the /usr/vice/cache/CacheItems file contains one
               entry for each Vn file. By default, one half the number of these
               entries (but not more that 2,000) are duplicated as dcache entries
               in machine memory for quicker access.
               For a memory cache, there is no CacheItems file so all information
               about cache chunks must be in memory as dcache entries.  Thus,
               there is no default number of dcache entries for a memory cache;
               based on the size of the cache. Use the -stat argument to override
               the default.
           ?   If the -settime option is specified, then it randomly selects a
               file server machine in the local cell as the source for the correct
               time. Every five minutes thereafter, the local clock is adjusted
               (if necessary) to match the file server machine's clock. This is
               not enabled by default.  It is recommended, instead, that the
               Network Time Protocol Daemon be used to synchronize the time.
           In addition to setting cache configuration parameters, the afsd program
           starts the following daemons. (On most system types, these daemons
           appear as nameless entries in the output of the UNIX ps command.)
           ?   One callback daemon, which handles callbacks. It also responds to
               the File Server's periodic probes, which check that the client
               machine is still alive.
           ?   One maintenance daemon, which performs the following tasks:
               ?   Garbage collects obsolete data (for example, expired tokens)
                   from kernel memory.
               ?   Synchronizes files.
               ?   Refreshes information from read-only volumes once per hour.
               ?   Does delayed writes for NFS clients if the machine is running
                   the NFS/AFS Translator.
           ?   One cache-truncation daemon, which flushes the cache when free
               space is required, by writing cached data and status information to
               the File Server.
           ?   One server connection daemon, which sends a probe to the File
               Server every few minutes to check that it is still accessible. If
               the -settime option is set, it also synchronizes the machine's
               clock with the clock on a randomly-chosen file server machine.
               There is always one server connection daemon.
           ?   One or more background daemons that improve performance by pre-
               fetching files and performing background (delayed) writes of saved
               data into AFS.
               The default number of background daemons is two, enough to service
               at least five simultaneous users of the machine. To increase the
               number, use the -daemons argument. A value greater than six is not
               generally necessary.
           ?   On some system types, one Rx listener daemon, which listens for
               incoming RPCs.
               ?   If neither argument is used, there are five VM daemons.
           afsd.fuse is a variant of afsd that, instead of initializing a Cache
           Manager implemented as a kernel module, initializes a FUSE-based AFS
           client.  FUSE (Filesystem in USErspace) is a Linux-only mechanism for
           providing a file system through a purely user-space daemon without a
           kernel module component.  afsd.fuse takes all of the same options as
           This command does not use the syntax conventions of the AFS command
           suites. Provide the command name and all option names in full.


           Before using the -shutdown parameter, use the standard UNIX umount
           command to unmount the AFS root directory (by convention, /afs).  On
           Linux, unloading the AFS kernel module and then loading it again before
           restarting AFS after -shutdown is recommended.
           AFS has for years had difficulties with being stopped and restarted
           without an intervening reboot.  While most of these issues have been
           ironed out, stopping and restarting AFS is not recommended unless
           necessary and rebooting before restarting AFS is still the safest
           course of action. This does not apply to Linux; it should be safe to
           restart the AFS client on Linux without rebooting.
           In contrast to many client-server applications, not all communication
           is initiated by the client. When the AFS client opens a file, it
           registers a callback with the AFS server. If the file changes, the
           server notifies the client that the file has changed and that all
           cached copies should be discarded. In order to enable full
           functionality on the AFS client, including all command-line utilities,
           the following UDP ports must be open on an firewalls between the client
           and the server:
              fileserver      7000/udp
              cachemanager    7001/udp (OpenAFS client. Arla uses 4711/udp)
              ptserver        7002/udp
              vlserver        7003/udp
              kaserver        7004/udp (not needed with Kerberos v5)
              volserver       7005/udp
              reserved        7006/udp (for future use)
              bosserver       7007/udp
           Clients will also need to be able to contact your Kerberos KDC to
           authenticate.  If you are using kaserver and klog, you need to allow
           inbound and outbound UDP on ports >1024 (probably 1024<port<2048 would
           suffice depending on the number of simultaneous klogs).
           Be sure to set the UDP timeouts on the firewall to be at least twenty
           minutes for the best callback performance.
               in RFC 1183.
               Prefer backup volumes for mountpoints in backup volumes. This
               option means that the AFS client will prefer to resolve mount
               points to backup volumes when a parent of the current volume is a
               backup volume. This is similar to the standard behaviour of
               preferring read-only volumes over read-write volumes when the
               parent volume is a read-only volume.
           -biods <number of I/O daemons>
               Sets the number of VM daemons dedicated to performing I/O
               operations on a machine running a version of AIX with virtual
               memory (VM) integration.  If both this argument and the -daemons
               argument are omitted, the default is five. If this argument is
               omitted but the -daemons argument is provided, the number of VM
               daemons is set to twice the value of the -daemons argument.
           -blocks <blocks in cache>
               Specifies the number of kilobyte blocks to be made available for
               caching in the machine's cache directory (for a disk cache) or
               memory (for a memory cache), overriding the default defined in the
               third field of the /etc/openafs/cacheinfo file. For a disk cache,
               the value cannot exceed 95% of the space available in the cache
               partition. If using a memory cache, do not combine this argument
               with the -dcache argument, since doing so can possibly result in a
               chunk size that is not an exponent of 2.
           -cachedir <cache directory>
               Names the local disk directory to be used as the cache. This value
               overrides the default defined in the second field of the
               /etc/openafs/cacheinfo file.
           -chunksize <chunk size>
               Sets the size of each cache chunk. The integer provided, which must
               be from the range 0 to 30, is used as an exponent on the number 2.
               If not supplied, a default chunksize will be determined based on
               the cache type and cache size, and will range from 13 (8KB) for
               memory cache and 18 to 20 (256 KB to 1MB) for disk cache. A value
               of 0 or less, or greater than 30, sets chunk size to the
               appropriate default. Values less than 10 (which sets chunk size to
               a 1 KB) are not recommended.  Combining this argument with the
               -dcache argument is not recommended because it requires that the
               issuer calculate the cache size that results.
               -chunksize is an important option when tuning for performance.
               Setting this option to larger values can increase performance when
               dealing with large files.
           -confdir <configuration directory>
               Names a directory other than the /etc/openafs directory from which
               to fetch the cacheinfo, ThisCell, and CellServDB configuration
           -dcache <number of dcache entries>
               Sets the number of dcache entries in memory, which are used to
               store information about cache chunks. For a disk cache, this
               overrides the default, which is 50% of the number of Vn files
               (cache chunks). For a memory cache, this argument effectively sets
               the number of cache chunks, but its use is not recommended, because
               it requires the issuer to calculate the resulting total cache size
               (derived by multiplying this value by the chunk size). Do not
               combine this argument with the -blocks argument, since doing so can
               possibly result in a chunk size that is not an exponent of 2.
               Generates a highly detailed trace of the afsd program's actions on
               the standard output stream. The information is useful mostly for
               debugging purposes.
               The standard behaviour of the AFS client without the -dynroot
               option is to mount the root.afs volume from the default cell on the
               /afs path. The /afs folder and root.afs volume traditionally shows
               the folders for ThisCell and other cells as configured by the AFS
               cell administrator.
               The -dynroot option changes this. Using this option, the AFS client
               does not mount the root.afs volume on /afs. Instead it uses the
               contents of the CellServDB file to populate the listing of cells in
               /afs. This is known as a DYNamic ROOT. A cell is not contacted
               until the path /afs/cellname if accessed. This functions similarly
               to an automounter.  The main advantage of using -dynroot is that
               the AFS client will start properly even without network access,
               whereas the client not using -dynroot will freeze upon startup if
               cannot contact the default cell specified in ThisCell and mount the
               root.afs volume. Dynamic root mode is also sometimes called
               travelling mode because it works well for laptops which don't
               always have network connectivity.
               Two advantages of not using dynroot are that listing /afs will
               usually be faster because the contents of /afs are limited to what
               the AFS administrator decides and that symbolic links are
               traditionally created by the AFS administrator to provide a short
               name for the cell (i.e. is aliased to
               cellname).  However, with dynroot, the local system administrator
               can limit the default contents of /afs by installing a stripped-
               down CellServDB file, and if dynroot is in effect, the CellAlias
               file can be used to provide shortname for common AFS cells which
               provides equivalent functionality to the most commonly used
               symbolic links.
               In addition to operating in the manner described for dynroot above,
               cells other than the local cell are not shown by default until a
               lookup occurs. Cell aliases as set in the CellAliases file are
               all connections to other machines. To display or otherwise access
               the records, use the Rx Monitoring API.
               Return fake values for stat calls on cross-cell mounts. This option
               makes an "ls -l" of /afs much faster since each cell isn't
               contacted, and this and the -fakestat-all options are useful on Mac
               OS X so that the Finder program doesn't try to contact every AFS
               cell the system knows about.
               Note that, for the purposes of -fakestat, local cellular mounts
               count as "cross-cell" mounts. That is, if the local cell is
               "localcell", a mount for "localcell:root.cell" will count as a
               "cross-cell" mount and so stat calls for it will be faked with
               -fakestat. In practice, local cellular mounts are rare and
               generally discouraged, so this should not generally make a
               Return fake values for stat calls on all mounts, not just cross-
               cell mounts. This and the -fakestat options are useful on Mac OS X
               so that the Finder program doesn't hang when browsing AFS
           -files <files in cache>
               Specifies the number of Vn files to create in the cache directory
               for a disk cache, overriding the default that is calculated as
               described in DESCRIPTION. Each Vn file accommodates a chunk of
               data, and can grow to a maximum size of 64 KB by default. Do not
               combine this argument with the -memcache argument.
           -files_per_subdir <files per cache subdirectory>
               Limits the number of cache files in each subdirectory of the cache
               directory. The value of the option should be the base-two log of
               the number of cache files per cache subdirectory (so 10 for 1024
               files, 14 for 16384 files, and so forth).
               Prints the online help for this command. All other valid options
               are ignored.
           -logfile <log file location>
               This option is obsolete and no longer has any effect.
               This option is obsolete and no longer has any effect.
               Initializes a memory cache rather than a disk cache. Do not combine
               this flag with the -files argument.
           -mountdir <mount location>
               at random by checking the time on the server machine every five
               minutes.  This is the recommended behavior; instead of the AFS
               Cache Manager, the Network Time Protocol Daemon should be used to
               synchronize the system time.
           -prealloc <number of preallocated blocks>
               Specifies the number of pieces of memory to preallocate for the
               Cache Manager's internal use. The default initial value is 400, but
               the Cache Manager dynamically allocates more memory as it needs it.
               Initializes an additional daemon to execute AFS-specific system
               calls on behalf of NFS client machines. Use this flag only if the
               machine is an NFS/AFS translator machine serving users of NFS
               client machines who execute AFS commands.
           -rootvol <name of AFS root volume>
               Names the read/write volume corresponding to the root directory for
               the AFS file tree (which is usually the /afs directory). This value
               overrides the default of the "root.afs" volume. This option is
               ignored if -dynroot is given.
               Bind the Rx socket (one interface only).
           -rxmaxmtu <value for maximum MTU>
               Set a limit for the largest maximum transfer unit (network packet
               size) that the AFS client on this machine will be willing to
               transmit. This switch can be used where an artificial limit on the
               network precludes packets as large as the discoverable MTU from
               being transmitted successfully.
           -rxpck <value for rx_extraPackets>
               Set rx_extraPackets to this value. This sets the number of extra Rx
               packet structures that are available to handle Rx connections. This
               value should be increased if the "rxdebug -port 7001
               -rxstats" command shows no free Rx packets. Increasing this value
               may improve OpenAFS client performance in some circumstances.
               Enable native AFS time synchronization. This option is the opposite
               of -nosettime and cannot be used with the -nosettime option.
               Shuts down the Cache Manager. Before calling afsd with this option,
               unmount the AFS file system with umount.
           -splitcache <RW/RO Ratio>
               This allows the user to set a certain percentage of the AFS cache
               be reserved for read/write content and the rest to be reserved for
               read-only content. The ratio should be written as a fraction.  For
               example, "-splitcache 75/25" devotes 75% of your cache space to
               volume location information. The default value is 200.
               By default, dynamic vcache overrides the -stat option by using the
               value of -stat (or the default) as the initial size of the stat (or
               vcache) pool and increases the pool dynamically as needed on
               supported platforms. This flag will disable this new functionality
               and honor the '-stat' setting.
               Has no effect on the operation of the Cache Manager. The behavior
               it affected in previous versions of the Cache Manager, to perform
               synchronous writes to the File Server, is now the default behavior.
               To perform asynchronous writes in certain cases, use the fs
               storebehind command.


           The afsd command is normally included in the machine's AFS
           initialization file, rather than typed at the command shell prompt. For
           most disk caches, the appropriate form is
              % /etc/openafs/afsd
           The following command is appropriate when enabling a machine to act as
           an NFS/AFS Translator machine serving more than five users.
              % /etc/openafs/afsd -daemons 4 -rmtsys
           The following command initializes a memory cache and sets chunk size to
           16 KB (2^14).
              % /etc/openafs/afsd -memcache -chunksize 14


           The issuer must be logged in as the local superuser root.


           fs_newcell(1), afs_cache(5), CellServDB(5), cacheinfo(5)
           RFC 5864 <> RFC 1183


           IBM Corporation 2000. <> All Rights Reserved.
           This documentation is covered by the IBM Public License Version 1.0.
           It was converted from HTML to POD by software written by Chas Williams
           and Russ Allbery, based on work by Alf Wachsmann and Elizabeth Cassell.

    OpenAFS 2012-03-26 AFSD(8)


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