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           adjtimex [option]...


           This program gives you raw access to the kernel time variables.  Anyone
           may print out the time variables, but only the superuser may change
           Your computer has two clocks - the "hardware clock" that runs all the
           time, and the system clock that runs only while the computer is on.
           Normally, "hwclock --hctosys" should be run at startup to initialize
           the system clock.  The system clock has much better precision (approxi-
           mately 1 usec), but the hardware clock probably has better long-term
           stability.  There are three basic strategies for managing these clocks.
           For a machine connected to the Internet, or equipped with a precision
           oscillator or radio clock, the best way is to regulate the system clock
           with ntpd(8).  The kernel will automatically update the hardware clock
           every eleven minutes.
           In addition, hwclock(8) can be used to approximately correct for a con-
           stant drift in the hardware clock.  In this case, "hwclock --adjust" is
           run occasionally. hwclock notes how long it has been since the last
           adjustment, and nudges the hardware clock forward or back by the appro-
           priate amount.  The user needs to set the time with "hwclock --set"
           several times over the course of a few days so hwclock can estimate the
           drift rate.  During that time, ntpd should not be running, or else
           hwclock will conclude the hardware clock does not drift at all.  After
           you have run "hwclock --set" for the last time, it's okay to start
           ntpd.  Then, "hwclock --systohc" should be run when the machine is shut
           down.  (To see why, suppose the machine runs for a week with ntpd, is
           shut down for a day, is restarted, and "hwclock --adjust" is run by a
           startup script.  It should only correct for one day's worth of drift.
           However, it has no way of knowing that ntpd has been adjusting the
           hardware clock, so it bases its adjustment on the last time hwclock was
           For a standalone or intermittently connected machine, where it's not
           possible to run ntpd, you may use adjtimex instead to correct the sys-
           tem clock for systematic drift.
           There are several ways to estimate the drift rate.  If your computer
           can be connected to the net, you might run ntpd for at least several
           hours and run "adjtimex --print" to learn what values of tick and freq
           it settled on.  Alternately, you could estimate values using as a ref-
           erence the CMOS clock (see the --compare and --adjust switches),
           another host (see --host and --review), or some other source of time
           (see --watch and --review).  You could then add a line to rc.local
           invoking adjtimex, or configure /etc/init.d/adjtimex or
           /etc/default/adjtimex, to set those parameters each time you reboot.


                  -c[count] --compare[=count] -i tim --interval tim -l file
                  --logfile file -h timeserver --host timeserver -w --watch
                  -r[file] --review[=file] -u --utc -d --directisa -n
           Informative Output
                  --help -v --version -V --verbose
           -p, --print
                  Print the current values of the kernel time variables.  NOTE:
                  The time is "raw", and may be off by up to one timer tick (10
                  msec).  "status" gives the value of the time_status variable in
                  the kernel.  For Linux 1.0 and 1.2 kernels, the value is as
                        0   clock is synchronized (so the kernel should
                            periodically set the CMOS clock to match the
                            system clock)
                        1   inserting a leap second at midnight
                        2   deleting a leap second at midnight
                        3   leap second in progress
                        4   leap second has occurred
                        5   clock not externally synchronized (so the
                            kernel should leave the CMOS clock alone)
                  For Linux kernels 2.0 through 2.6, the value is a sum of these:
                        1   PLL updates enabled
                        2   PPS freq discipline enabled
                        4   PPS time discipline enabled
                        8   frequency-lock mode enabled
                       16   inserting leap second
                       32   deleting leap second
                       64   clock unsynchronized
                      128   holding frequency
                      256   PPS signal present
                      512   PPS signal jitter exceeded
                     1024   PPS signal wander exceeded
                     2048   PPS signal calibration error
                     4096   clock hardware fault
           -t val, --tick val
                  Set the number of microseconds that should be added to the
                  system time for each kernel tick interrupt.  For a kernel with
                  USER_HZ=100, there are supposed to be 100 ticks per second, so
                  val should be close to 10000.  Increasing val by 1 speeds up the
                  system clock by about 100 ppm, or 8.64 sec/day.  tick must be in
                  the range 900000/USER_HZ...1100000/USER_HZ.  If val is rejected
                  by the kernel, adjtimex will determine the acceptable range
                  through trial and error and print it.  (After completing the
                  search, it will restore the original value.)
           -f newfreq, --frequency newfreq
                  Set the system clock frequency offset to newfreq.  newfreq can
                  be negative or positive, and gives a much finer adjustment than
           -o adj, --offset adj
                  Add a time offset of adj usec.  The kernel code adjusts the time
                  gradually by adj, notes how long it has been since the last time
                  offset, and then adjusts the frequency offset to correct for the
                  apparent drift.  adj must be in the range -512000...512000.
           -S status, --status status
                  Set kernel system clock status register to value status. Look
                  here above at the --print switch section for the meaning of
                  status, depending on your kernel.
           -R, --reset
                  Reset clock status after setting a clock parameter.  For early
                  Linux kernels, using the adjtimex(2) system call to set any time
                  parameter the kernel think the clock is synchronized with an
                  external time source, so it sets the kernel variable time_status
                  to TIME_OK.  Thereafter, at 11 minute intervals, it will adjust
                  the CMOS clock to match.  We prevent this "eleven minute mode"
                  by setting the clock, because that has the side effect of
                  resetting time_status to TIME_BAD.  We try not to actually
                  change the clock setting.  Kernel versions 2.0.40 and later
                  apparently don't need this.  If your kernel does require it, use
                  this option with: -t -T -t -e -m -f -s -o -c -r.
           -m val, --maxerror val
                  Set maximum error (usec).
           -e val, --esterror val
                  Set estimated error (usec).  The maximum and estimated error are
                  not used by the kernel.  They are merely made available to user
                  processes via the adjtimex(2) system call.
           -T val, --timeconstant val
                  Set phase locked loop (PLL) time constant.  val determines the
                  bandwidth or "stiffness" of the PLL.  The effective PLL time
                  constant will be a multiple of (2^val).  For room-temperature
                  quartz oscillators, David Mills recommends the value 2, which
                  corresponds to a PLL time constant of about 900 sec and a
                  maximum update interval of about 64 sec.  The maximum update
                  interval scales directly with the time constant, so that at the
                  maximum time constant of 6, the update interval can be as large
                  as 1024 sec.
                  Values of val between zero and 2 give quick convergence; values
                  between 2 and 6 can be used to reduce network load, but at a
                  modest cost in accuracy.
           -c[count], --compare[=count]
                  Periodically compare the system clock with the CMOS clock.
                  After the first two calls, print values for tick and frequency
                  offset that would bring the system clock into approximate
           -a[count], --adjust[=count]
                  By itself, same as --compare, except the recommended values are
                  actually installed after every third comparison.  With --review,
                  the tick and frequency are set to the least-squares estimates.
                  (In the latter case, any count value is ignored.)
                  Override the sanity check that prevents changing the clock rate
                  by more than 500 ppm.
           -i tim, --interval tim
                  Set the interval in seconds between clock comparisons for the
                  --compare and --adjust options.
           -u, --utc
                  The CMOS clock is set to UTC (universal time) rather than local
           -d, --directisa
                  To read the CMOS clock accurately, adjtimex usually accesses the
                  clock via the /dev/rtc device driver of the kernel, and makes
                  use of its CMOS update-ended interrupt to detect the beginning
                  of seconds. It will also try /dev/rtc0 (for udev), /dev/misc/rtc
                  (for the obsolete devfs) and possibly others.  When the /dev/rtc
                  driver is absent, or when the interrupt is not available,
                  adjtimex can sometimes automatically fallback to a direct access
                  method. This method detects the start of seconds by polling the
                  update-in-progress (UIP) flag of the CMOS clock. You can force
                  this direct access to the CMOS chip with the --directisa switch.
                  Note that the /dev/rtc interrupt method is more accurate, less
                  sensible to perturbations due to system load, cleaner, cheaper,
                  and is generally better than the direct access method. It is
                  advisable to not use the --directisa switch, unless the CMOS
                  chip or the motherboard don't properly provide the necessary
           -n, --nointerrupt
                  Force immediate use of busywait access method, without first
                  waiting for the interrupt timeout.
           -l[file], --log[=file]
                  Save the current values of the system and CMOS clocks, and
                  optionally a reference time, to file (default
                  /var/log/clocks.log).  The reference time is taken from a
                  network timeserver (see the --host switch) or supplied by the
                  user (see the --watch switch).
           -h timeserver, --host timeserver
                  Use ntpdate to query the given timeserver for the current time.
                  This will fail if timeserver is not running a Network Time
                  Protocol (NTP) server, or if that server is not synchronized.
           -V, --verbose
                  Increase verbosity.
           --help Print the program options.
           -v, --version
                  Print the program version.


           If your system clock gained 8 seconds in 24 hours, you could set the
           tick to 9999, and then it would lose 0.64 seconds a day (that is, 1
           tick unit = 8.64 seconds per day).  To correct the rest of the error,
           you could set the frequency offset to (2^16)*0.64/.0864 = 485452.
           Thus, putting the following in rc.local would approximately correct the
           system clock:
                adjtimex  --tick 9999  --freq 485452


           adjtimex adjusts only the system clock -- the one that runs while the
           computer is powered up.  To set or regulate the CMOS clock, see


           Steven S. Dick <ssd at>, Jim Van Zandt <jrv at


           date(1L), gettimeofday(2), settimeofday(2), hwclock(8), ntpdate(8),
           ntpd(8), /usr/src/linux/include/linux/timex.h,
           /usr/src/linux/include/linux/sched.h, /usr/src/linux/kernel/time.c,
                                    March 11, 2009                     ADJTIMEX(8)

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