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    Command:

    Xserver

    
    
    

    SYNOPSIS

           X [option ...]
    
    
    

    DESCRIPTION

           X  is  the  generic name for the X Window System display server.  It is
           frequently a link or a copy of the appropriate server binary for  driv-
           ing the most frequently used server on a given machine.
    
    
    

    STARTING THE SERVER

           The  X  server  is  usually  started from the X Display Manager program
           xdm(1) or a similar display manager program.  This utility is run  from
           the  system  boot  files  and takes care of keeping the server running,
           prompting for usernames and passwords, and starting up  the  user  ses-
           sions.
    
           Installations  that run more than one window system may need to use the
           xinit(1) utility instead of a display manager.  However, xinit is to be
           considered  a tool for building startup scripts and is not intended for
           use by end users.  Site administrators are strongly urged to use a dis-
           play manager, or build other interfaces for novice users.
    
           The  X  server  may  also  be started directly by the user, though this
           method is usually reserved for testing and is not recommended for  nor-
           mal  operation.   On some platforms, the user must have special permis-
           sion to start the X server, often because  access  to  certain  devices
           (e.g. /dev/mouse) is restricted.
    
           When  the  X server starts up, it typically takes over the display.  If
           you are running on a workstation whose console is the display, you  may
           not be able to log into the console while the server is running.
    
    
    

    OPTIONS

           Many X servers have device-specific command line options.  See the man-
           ual pages for the individual  servers  for  more  details;  a  list  of
           server-specific manual pages is provided in the SEE ALSO section below.
    
           All of the X servers accept the command line options  described  below.
           Some  X  servers  may have alternative ways of providing the parameters
           described here, but the values provided via the  command  line  options
           should override values specified via other mechanisms.
    
           :displaynumber
                   The  X server runs as the given displaynumber, which by default
                   is 0.  If multiple X servers are to  run  simultaneously  on  a
                   host,  each must have a unique display number.  See the DISPLAY
                   NAMES section of the X(7) manual page to learn how  to  specify
                   which display number clients should try to use.
    
           -a number
                   sets  pointer  acceleration  (i.e.  the  ratio  of  how much is
                   reported to how much the user actually moved the pointer).
    
           -auth authorization-file
                   specifies  a  file which contains a collection of authorization
                   records used to authenticate access.  See also the  xdm(1)  and
                   Xsecurity(7) manual pages.
    
           -br     sets  the  default  root  window  to solid black instead of the
                   standard root weave  pattern.    This  is  the  default  unless
                   -retro or -wr is specified.
    
           -bs     disables backing store support on all screens.
    
           -c      turns off key-click.
    
           c volume
                   sets key-click volume (allowable range: 0-100).
    
           -cc class
                   sets  the  visual  class  for the root window of color screens.
                   The class numbers are as specified  in  the  X  protocol.   Not
                   obeyed by all servers.
    
           -core   causes the server to generate a core dump on fatal errors.
    
           -deferglyphs whichfonts
                   specifies  the  types  of  fonts  for  which  the server should
                   attempt to use deferred glyph loading.  whichfonts can  be  all
                   (all fonts), none (no fonts), or 16 (16 bit fonts only).
    
           -dpi resolution
                   sets  the  resolution for all screens, in dots per inch.  To be
                   used when the server cannot determine the screen  size(s)  from
                   the hardware.
    
           dpms    enables  DPMS  (display  power management services), where sup-
                   ported.  The default state is platform and  configuration  spe-
                   cific.
    
           -dpms   disables DPMS (display power management services).  The default
                   state is platform and configuration specific.
    
           -extensionextensionName
                   disables named extension.   If an  unknown  extension  name  is
                   specified, a list of accepted extension names is printed.
    
           +extensionextensionName
                   enables  named  extension.    If  an  unknown extension name is
                   specified, a list of accepted extension names is printed.
    
           -f volume
                   sets feep (bell) volume (allowable range: 0-100).
    
           -fc cursorFont
    
           -maxbigreqsize size
                   sets the maximum big request to size MB.
    
           -nocursor
                   disable the display of the pointer cursor.
    
           -nolisten trans-type
                   disables a transport type.  For example, TCP/IP connections can
                   be disabled with -nolisten tcp.  This option may be issued mul-
                   tiple  times to disable listening to different transport types.
    
           -noreset
                   prevents a server reset when  the  last  client  connection  is
                   closed.   This  overrides  a  previous  -terminate command line
                   option.
    
           -p minutes
                   sets screen-saver pattern cycle time in minutes.
    
           -pn     permits the server to continue running if it fails to establish
                   all  of its well-known sockets (connection points for clients),
                   but establishes at least one.  This option is set by default.
    
           -nopn   causes the server to exit if it fails to establish all  of  its
                   well-known sockets (connection points for clients).
    
           -r      turns off auto-repeat.
    
           r       turns on auto-repeat.
    
           -retro  starts the stipple with the classic stipple and cursor visible.
                   The default is to start with a black root window, and  to  sup-
                   press display of the cursor until the first time an application
                   calls XDefineCursor().  For the Xorg server, this also sets the
                   default  for  the DontZap option to FALSE.  For kdrive servers,
                   this implies -zap.
    
           -s minutes
                   sets screen-saver timeout time in minutes.
    
           -su     disables save under support on all screens.
    
           -t number
                   sets pointer acceleration threshold in pixels (i.e.  after  how
                   many pixels pointer acceleration should take effect).
    
           -terminate
                   causes the server to terminate at server reset, instead of con-
                   tinuing to run.  This overrides  a  previous  -noreset  command
                   line option.
    
                   apply to all windows.  Although all mapped  windows  will  have
                   backing  store,  the  backing store attribute value reported by
                   the server for a window will be the last value established by a
                   client.   If it has never been set by a client, the server will
                   report the default value, NotUseful.  This behavior is required
                   by  the  X  protocol,  which  allows  the  server to exceed the
                   client's backing store expectations but does not provide a  way
                   to tell the client that it is doing so.
    
           -wr     sets  the  default  root  window  to solid white instead of the
                   standard root weave pattern.
    
           -x extension
                   loads the specified extension at init.  This  is  a  no-op  for
                   most implementations.
    
           [+-]xinerama
                   enables(+)  or disables(-) the XINERAMA extension.  The default
                   state is platform and configuration specific.
    
    
    

    SERVER DEPENDENT OPTIONS

           Some X servers accept the following options:
    
           -ld kilobytes
                   sets the data space limit of the server to the specified number
                   of  kilobytes.  A value of zero makes the data size as large as
                   possible.  The default value of -1 leaves the data space  limit
                   unchanged.
    
           -lf files
                   sets the number-of-open-files limit of the server to the speci-
                   fied number.  A value of zero makes the limit as large as  pos-
                   sible.  The default value of -1 leaves the limit unchanged.
    
           -ls kilobytes
                   sets  the stack space limit of the server to the specified num-
                   ber of kilobytes.  A value of zero  makes  the  stack  size  as
                   large  as  possible.   The default value of -1 leaves the stack
                   space limit unchanged.
    
           -render default|mono|gray|color sets the color allocation  policy  that
                   will be used by the render extension.
    
                   default selects  the  default  policy  defined  for the display
                           depth of the X server.
    
                   mono    don't use any color cell.
    
                   gray    use a gray map of 13  color  cells  for  the  X  render
                           extension.
    
                   color   use  a  color  cube of at most 4*4*4 colors (that is 64
    
           -query hostname
                   enables  XDMCP  and  sends Query packets to the specified host-
                   name.
    
           -broadcast
                   enable XDMCP and broadcasts BroadcastQuery packets to the  net-
                   work.   The first responding display manager will be chosen for
                   the session.
    
           -multicast [address [hop count]]
                   Enable XDMCP and multicast BroadcastQuery packets to the   net-
                   work.   The  first responding display manager is chosen for the
                   session.  If an address is specified, the multicast is sent  to
                   that  address.   If  no  address is specified, the multicast is
                   sent to the default XDMCP IPv6 multicast group.  If a hop count
                   is  specified, it is used as the maximum hop count for the mul-
                   ticast.  If no hop count is specified, the multicast is set  to
                   a  maximum of 1 hop, to prevent the multicast from being routed
                   beyond the local network.
    
           -indirect hostname
                   enables XDMCP and send IndirectQuery packets to  the  specified
                   hostname.
    
           -port port-number
                   uses  the  specified  port-number for XDMCP packets, instead of
                   the default.  This option must be specified before any  -query,
                   -broadcast, -multicast, or -indirect options.
    
           -from local-address
                   specifies the local address to connect from (useful if the con-
                   necting host has  multiple  network  interfaces).   The  local-
                   address  may  be  expressed  in any form acceptable to the host
                   platform's gethostbyname(3) implementation.
    
           -once   causes the server to terminate (rather  than  reset)  when  the
                   XDMCP session ends.
    
           -class display-class
                   XDMCP  has  an  additional  display  qualifier used in resource
                   lookup for display-specific options.   This  option  sets  that
                   value,  by  default  it is "MIT-Unspecified" (not a very useful
                   value).
    
           -cookie xdm-auth-bits
                   When testing XDM-AUTHENTICATION-1,  a  private  key  is  shared
                   between the server and the manager.  This option sets the value
                   of that private data (not that it is very private, being on the
                   command line!).
    
           -displayID display-id
                   Yet  another  XDMCP specific value, this one allows the display
                   base  directory  for keyboard layout files.  This option is not
                   available for setuid X servers (i.e., when the X server's  real
                   and effective uids are different).
    
           -ardelay milliseconds
                   sets  the autorepeat delay (length of time in milliseconds that
                   a key must be depressed before autorepeat starts).
    
           -arinterval milliseconds
                   sets the autorepeat interval (length of  time  in  milliseconds
                   that should elapse between autorepeat-generated keystrokes).
    
           -xkbmap filename
                   loads keyboard description in filename on server startup.
    
    
    

    NETWORK CONNECTIONS

           The  X server supports client connections via a platform-dependent sub-
           set of the following transport types: TCPIP, Unix Domain sockets,  DEC-
           net,  and several varieties of SVR4 local connections.  See the DISPLAY
           NAMES section of the X(7) manual page to learn  how  to  specify  which
           transport type clients should try to use.
    
    
    

    GRANTING ACCESS

           The  X  server  implements a platform-dependent subset of the following
           authorization protocols: MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1, XDM-AUTHORIZATION-1,  XDM-
           AUTHORIZATION-2,  SUN-DES-1,  and MIT-KERBEROS-5.  See the Xsecurity(7)
           manual page for information on the operation of these protocols.
    
           Authorization data required by the above protocols  is  passed  to  the
           server  in  a  private  file  named with the -auth command line option.
           Each time the server is about to accept the first  connection  after  a
           reset  (or  when  the server is starting), it reads this file.  If this
           file contains any authorization records, the local host is not automat-
           ically allowed access to the server, and only clients which send one of
           the authorization records contained in the file in the connection setup
           information  will  be  allowed  access.   See the Xau manual page for a
           description of the binary format of this file.  See xauth(1) for  main-
           tenance of this file, and distribution of its contents to remote hosts.
    
           The X server also uses a host-based access control  list  for  deciding
           whether  or  not  to  accept  connections  from clients on a particular
           machine.  If no other authorization mechanism is being used, this  list
           initially  consists  of the host on which the server is running as well
           as any machines listed in the file /etc/Xn.hosts, where n is  the  dis-
           play number of the server.  Each line of the file should contain either
           an Internet hostname (e.g. expo.lcs.mit.edu) or a  DECnet  hostname  in
           double  colon  format  (e.g.  hydra::) or a complete name in the format
           family:name as described in the xhost(1) manual page.  There should  be
           no leading or trailing spaces on any lines.  For example:
    
                   joesworkstation
                   corporate.company.com
    
           server  will  deny  the  connection.   See xfwp(1) for more information
           about this proxy.
    
           The X protocol intrinsically does not have any notion of window  opera-
           tion  permissions or place any restrictions on what a client can do; if
           a program can connect to a display, it has full run of the  screen.   X
           servers that support the SECURITY extension fare better because clients
           can be designated untrusted via the authorization they use to  connect;
           see  the xauth(1) manual page for details.  Restrictions are imposed on
           untrusted clients that curtail the mischief they can do.  See the SECU-
           RITY extension specification for a complete list of these restrictions.
    
           Sites that have better authentication and authorization  systems  might
           wish  to  make use of the hooks in the libraries and the server to pro-
           vide additional security models.
    
    
    

    SIGNALS

           The X server attaches special meaning to the following signals:
    
           SIGHUP  This signal causes the server to  close  all  existing  connec-
                   tions,  free  all  resources,  and restore all defaults.  It is
                   sent by the display  manager  whenever  the  main  user's  main
                   application (usually an xterm or window manager) exits to force
                   the server to clean up and prepare for the next user.
    
           SIGTERM This signal causes the server to exit cleanly.
    
           SIGUSR1 This signal is used quite differently from either of the above.
                   When  the  server  starts, it checks to see if it has inherited
                   SIGUSR1 as SIG_IGN instead of the usual SIG_DFL.  In this case,
                   the  server  sends a SIGUSR1 to its parent process after it has
                   set up the various connection schemes.  Xdm uses  this  feature
                   to recognize when connecting to the server is possible.
    
    
    

    FONTS

           The  X  server  can  obtain  fonts  from  directories  and/or from font
           servers.  The list of directories and font servers the  X  server  uses
           when trying to open a font is controlled by the font path.
    
           The             default             font             path            is
           /usr/share/fonts/X11/misc,/usr/share/fonts/X11/cyril-
           lic,/usr/share/fonts/X11/100dpi/:unscaled,/usr/share/fonts/X11/75dpi/:unscaled,/usr/share/fonts/X11/Type1,/usr/share/fonts/X11/100dpi,/usr/share/fonts/X11/75dpi,/var/lib/defoma/x-
           ttcidfont-conf.d/dirs/TrueType,built-ins .
    
           A special kind of directory can be specified using the catalogue:  pre-
           fix.  Directories  specified  this way can contain symlinks pointing to
           the real font directories. See the FONTPATH.D section for details.
    
           The font path can be set with the -fp option or by  xset(1)  after  the
           server has started.
    
    
    

    FONTPATH.D

               misc:unscaled:pri=10 -> /usr/share/X11/fonts/misc
               type1:pri=40 -> /usr/share/X11/fonts/Type1
               type1:pri=50 -> /usr/share/fonts/default/Type1
    
           This  will  add  /usr/share/X11/fonts/misc  as  the  first FPE with the
           attribute the attribute unscaled etc. This is  functionally  equivalent
           to setting the following font path:
    
               /usr/share/X11/fonts/misc:unscaled,
               /usr/share/X11/fonts/75dpi:unscaled,
               /usr/share/X11/fonts/Type1,
               /usr/share/fonts/default/Type1,
               /usr/share/fonts/default/ghostscript
    
    
    

    FILES

           /etc/Xn.hosts                 Initial  access  control list for display
                                         number n
    
           /usr/share/fonts/X11/misc,/usr/share/fonts/X11/75dpi,/usr/share/fonts/X11/100dpi
                                         Bitmap font directories
    
           /usr/share/fonts/X11/TTF,/usr/share/fonts/X11/Type1
                                         Outline font directories
    
           /tmp/.X11-unix/Xn             Unix domain socket for display number n
    
           /usr/adm/Xnmsgs               Error log file for display  number  n  if
                                         run from init(8)
    
           /usr/lib/X11/xdm/xdm-errors   Default  error  log file if the server is
                                         run from xdm(1)
    
    
    

    SEE ALSO

           General information: X(7)
    
           Protocols: X Window System Protocol, The X  Font  Service  Protocol,  X
           Display Manager Control Protocol
    
           Fonts:  bdftopcf(1), mkfontdir(1), mkfontscale(1), xfs(1), xlsfonts(1),
           xfontsel(1), xfd(1), X Logical Font Description Conventions
    
           Keyboards: xkeyboard-config(7)
    
           Security: Xsecurity(7), xauth(1), Xau(1),  xdm(1),  xhost(1),  xfwp(1),
           Security Extension Specification
    
           Starting the server: startx(1), xdm(1), xinit(1)
    
           Controlling  the  server  once started: xset(1), xsetroot(1), xhost(1),
           xinput(1), xrandr(1)
    
    
    
    

    X Version 11 xorg-server 1.11.3 XSERVER(1)

    
    
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