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    Command:

    X

    
    
    

    SYNOPSIS

           The  X  Window System is a network transparent window system which runs
           on a wide range of computing and graphics machines.  It should be rela-
           tively straightforward to build the X.Org Foundation software distribu-
           tion on most ANSI C and POSIX compliant systems.  Commercial  implemen-
           tations are also available for a wide range of platforms.
    
           The  X.Org  Foundation  requests  that the following names be used when
           referring to this software:
    
                                              X
                                       X Window System
                                        X Version 11
                                 X Window System, Version 11
                                             X11
    
           X Window System is a trademark of The Open Group.
    
    
    

    DESCRIPTION

           X Window System servers run on computers  with  bitmap  displays.   The
           server distributes user input to and accepts output requests from vari-
           ous client programs through a variety of different interprocess  commu-
           nication  channels.   Although  the  most common case is for the client
           programs to be running on the same machine as the server,  clients  can
           be  run transparently from other machines (including machines with dif-
           ferent architectures and operating systems) as well.
    
           X supports overlapping hierarchical subwindows and  text  and  graphics
           operations, on both monochrome and color displays.  For a full explana-
           tion of the functions that are available, see the Xlib - C  Language  X
           Interface  manual,  the  X  Window System Protocol specification, the X
           Toolkit Intrinsics - C Language Interface manual, and  various  toolkit
           documents.
    
           The number of programs that use X is quite large.  Programs provided in
           the core X.Org Foundation distribution include:  a  terminal  emulator,
           xterm;  a  window manager, twm; a display manager, xdm; a console redi-
           rect program, xconsole; a mail interface, xmh; a bitmap editor, bitmap;
           resource  listing/manipulation  tools,  appres, editres; access control
           programs, xauth, xhost, and iceauth; user preference setting  programs,
           xrdb, xcmsdb, xset, xsetroot, xstdcmap, and xmodmap; clocks, xclock and
           oclock; a font displayer, xfd; utilities for listing information  about
           fonts, windows, and displays, xlsfonts, xwininfo, xlsclients, xdpyinfo,
           xlsatoms, and xprop; screen image manipulation  utilities,  xwd,  xwud,
           and  xmag; a performance measurement utility, x11perf; a font compiler,
           bdftopcf; a font server and related utilities, xfs, fsinfo,  fslsfonts,
           fstobdf;  a display server and related utilities, Xserver, rgb, mkfont-
           dir; a clipboard manager, xclipboard; keyboard description compiler and
           related  utilities,  xkbcomp, setxkbmap xkbprint, xkbbell, xkbevd, xkb-
           vleds, and xkbwatch; a utility to terminate clients, xkill; a  firewall
           security  proxy,  xfwp;  a  proxy manager to control them, proxymngr; a
           utility to find proxies, xfindproxy; web  browser  plug-ins,  libxrx.so
           Display Manager
                   If you want to always have X running on your display, your site
                   administrator  can set your machine up to use a Display Manager
                   such as xdm, gdm, or kdm.  This program is typically started by
                   the  system  at  boot time and takes care of keeping the server
                   running and getting users logged in.  If you are running one of
                   these  display  managers, you will normally see a window on the
                   screen welcoming you to the system and asking  for  your  login
                   information.  Simply type them in as you would at a normal ter-
                   minal.  If you make a mistake, the display manager will display
                   an error message and ask you to try again.  After you have suc-
                   cessfully logged in, the display manager will start up  your  X
                   environment.  The documentation for the display manager you use
                   can provide more details.
    
           xinit (run manually from the shell)
                   Sites that support more than one window system might choose  to
                   use the xinit program for starting X manually.  If this is true
                   for your machine, your site administrator  will  probably  have
                   provided a program named "x11", "startx", or "xstart" that will
                   do site-specific initialization  (such  as  loading  convenient
                   default  resources,  running  a  window  manager,  displaying a
                   clock, and starting several terminal emulators) in a nice  way.
                   If  not,  you  can build such a script using the xinit program.
                   This utility simply runs one user-specified  program  to  start
                   the  server,  runs another to start up any desired clients, and
                   then waits for either to finish.  Since either or both  of  the
                   user-specified  programs may be a shell script, this gives sub-
                   stantial flexibility at the expense of a nice  interface.   For
                   this reason, xinit is not intended for end users.
    
    
    

    DISPLAY NAMES

           From  the  user's perspective, every X server has a display name of the
           form:
    
                             hostname:displaynumber.screennumber
    
           This information is used by the application to determine how it  should
           connect  to  the  server  and which screen it should use by default (on
           displays with multiple monitors):
    
           hostname
                   The hostname specifies the name of the  machine  to  which  the
                   display is physically connected.  If the hostname is not given,
                   the most efficient way of communicating to a server on the same
                   machine will be used.
    
           displaynumber
                   The  phrase  "display" is usually used to refer to a collection
                   of monitors that share a common set of input devices (keyboard,
                   mouse,  tablet, etc.).  Most workstations tend to only have one
                   display.  Larger, multi-user systems, however, frequently  have
                   given, screen 0 will be used.
    
           On POSIX systems, the default display name is stored  in  your  DISPLAY
           environment  variable.  This variable is set automatically by the xterm
           terminal emulator.  However, when you log into  another  machine  on  a
           network,  you may need to set DISPLAY by hand to point to your display.
           For example,
    
               % setenv DISPLAY myws:0
               $ DISPLAY=myws:0; export DISPLAY
           The ssh program can be used to start an X program on a remote  machine;
           it automatically sets the DISPLAY variable correctly.
    
           Finally,  most X programs accept a command line option of -display dis-
           playname to temporarily override the contents of DISPLAY.  This is most
           commonly used to pop windows on another person's screen or as part of a
           "remote shell" command to start an xterm pointing back to your display.
           For example,
    
               % xeyes -display joesws:0 -geometry 1000x1000+0+0
               % rsh big xterm -display myws:0 -ls </dev/null &
    
           X  servers  listen for connections on a variety of different communica-
           tions channels (network byte  streams,  shared  memory,  etc.).   Since
           there  can be more than one way of contacting a given server, The host-
           name part of the display name is used to determine the type of  channel
           (also  called  a transport layer) to be used.  X servers generally sup-
           port the following types of connections:
    
           local
                   The hostname part of the  display  name  should  be  the  empty
                   string.   For  example:   :0, :1, and :0.1.  The most efficient
                   local transport will be chosen.
    
           TCPIP
                   The hostname part of the display  name  should  be  the  server
                   machine's  hostname or IP address.  Full Internet names, abbre-
                   viated names,  IPv4  addresses,  and  IPv6  addresses  are  all
                   allowed.     For    example:    x.org:0,    expo:0,    [::1]:0,
                   198.112.45.11:0, bigmachine:1, and hydra:0.1.
    
    
    

    ACCESS CONTROL

           An X server can use several types of access control.   Mechanisms  pro-
           vided in Release 7 are:
               Host Access                   Simple host-based access control.
               MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1            Shared plain-text "cookies".
               XDM-AUTHORIZATION-1           Secure DES based private-keys.
               SUN-DES-1                     Based on Sun's secure rpc system.
               Server Interpreted            Server-dependent methods of access control
    
           Xdm  initializes  access  control for the server and also places autho-
           all of the machines by means of a network file system, you never really
           have  to  worry  about authorization files, the system should work cor-
           rectly by default.  Otherwise, as the authorization files are  machine-
           independent,  you  can  simply copy the files to share them.  To manage
           authorization files, use xauth.  This program  allows  you  to  extract
           records  and  insert  them  into other files.  Using this, you can send
           authorization to remote machines when you login, if the remote  machine
           does  not  share a common home directory with your local machine.  Note
           that authorization information transmitted ''in the clear''  through  a
           network  file system or using ftp or rcp can be ''stolen'' by a network
           eavesdropper, and as such may  enable  unauthorized  access.   In  many
           environments,  this  level  of security is not a concern, but if it is,
           you need to know the exact semantics of  the  particular  authorization
           data to know if this is actually a problem.
    
           For  more  information  on  access control, see the Xsecurity(7) manual
           page.
    
    
    

    GEOMETRY SPECIFICATIONS

           One of the advantages of using window systems instead of hardwired ter-
           minals is that applications don't have to be restricted to a particular
           size or location on the screen.  Although the layout of  windows  on  a
           display  is  controlled  by the window manager that the user is running
           (described below), most X programs accept a command  line  argument  of
           the  form  -geometry WIDTHxHEIGHT+XOFF+YOFF (where WIDTH, HEIGHT, XOFF,
           and YOFF are numbers) for specifying a preferred size and location  for
           this application's main window.
    
           The  WIDTH  and  HEIGHT parts of the geometry specification are usually
           measured in either pixels or characters, depending on the  application.
           The  XOFF and YOFF parts are measured in pixels and are used to specify
           the distance of the window from the left or right and  top  and  bottom
           edges  of the screen, respectively.  Both types of offsets are measured
           from the indicated edge of the screen to the corresponding edge of  the
           window.  The X offset may be specified in the following ways:
    
           +XOFF   The left edge of the window is to be placed XOFF pixels in from
                   the left edge of the screen (i.e., the X coordinate of the win-
                   dow's  origin  will  be  XOFF).  XOFF may be negative, in which
                   case the window's left edge will be off the screen.
    
           -XOFF   The right edge of the window is to be  placed  XOFF  pixels  in
                   from  the  right  edge of the screen.  XOFF may be negative, in
                   which case the window's right edge will be off the screen.
    
           The Y offset has similar meanings:
    
           +YOFF   The top edge of the window is to be YOFF pixels below  the  top
                   edge of the screen (i.e., the Y coordinate of the window's ori-
                   gin will be YOFF).  YOFF may be negative,  in  which  case  the
                   window's top edge will be off the screen.
    
           +0-0    lower left hand corner.
    
           In the following examples, a terminal emulator is placed in roughly the
           center of the screen and a load average monitor, mailbox, and clock are
           placed in the upper right hand corner:
    
               xterm -fn 6x10 -geometry 80x24+30+200 &
               xclock -geometry 48x48-0+0 &
               xload -geometry 48x48-96+0 &
               xbiff -geometry 48x48-48+0 &
    
    
    

    WINDOW MANAGERS

           The  layout  of windows on the screen is controlled by special programs
           called window managers.  Although many window managers will honor geom-
           etry specifications as given, others may choose to ignore them (requir-
           ing the user to explicitly draw the window's region on the screen  with
           the pointer, for example).
    
           Since  window  managers are regular (albeit complex) client programs, a
           variety of different user interfaces can be built.  The  X.Org  Founda-
           tion  distribution comes with a window manager named twm which supports
           overlapping windows,  popup  menus,  point-and-click  or  click-to-type
           input models, title bars, nice icons (and an icon manager for those who
           don't like separate icon windows).
    
           See the user-contributed software in the X.Org Foundation  distribution
           for other popular window managers.
    
    
    

    FONT NAMES

           Collections  of  characters  for  displaying  text and symbols in X are
           known as fonts.  A font typically contains images that share  a  common
           appearance  and  look  nice together (for example, a single size, bold-
           ness, slant, and character set).  Similarly, collections of fonts  that
           are  based  on  a  common  type face (the variations are usually called
           roman, bold, italic, bold italic, oblique, and bold oblique) are called
           families.
    
           Fonts  come  in  various  sizes.  The X server supports scalable fonts,
           meaning it is possible to create a font of arbitrary size from a single
           source  for  the  font.  The server supports scaling from outline fonts
           and bitmap fonts.  Scaling from outline fonts usually produces signifi-
           cantly better results than scaling from bitmap fonts.
    
           An  X  server can obtain fonts from individual files stored in directo-
           ries in the file system, or from one or more font servers,  or  from  a
           mixtures  of  directories  and  font  servers.   The list of places the
           server looks when trying to find a font is controlled by its font path.
           Although  most  installations  will  choose to have the server start up
           with all of the commonly used font directories in the  font  path,  the
           font  path  can be changed at any time with the xset program.  However,
           it is important to  remember  that  the  directory  names  are  on  the
    
           The xfontsel and xlsfonts programs can be used to  browse  through  the
           fonts available on a server.  Font names tend to be fairly long as they
           contain all of the information needed to uniquely  identify  individual
           fonts.   However,  the  X server supports wildcarding of font names, so
           the full specification
    
               -adobe-courier-medium-r-normal--10-100-75-75-m-60-iso8859-1
    
           might be abbreviated as:
    
               -*-courier-medium-r-normal--*-100-*-*-*-*-iso8859-1
    
           Because the shell also has special meanings for  *  and  ?,  wildcarded
           font names should be quoted:
    
               % xlsfonts -fn '-*-courier-medium-r-normal--*-100-*-*-*-*-*-*'
    
           The  xlsfonts program can be used to list all of the fonts that match a
           given pattern.  With no arguments, it lists all available fonts.   This
           will  usually  list the same font at many different sizes.  To see just
           the base scalable font names, try using one of the following patterns:
    
               -*-*-*-*-*-*-0-0-0-0-*-0-*-*
               -*-*-*-*-*-*-0-0-75-75-*-0-*-*
               -*-*-*-*-*-*-0-0-100-100-*-0-*-*
    
           To convert one of the resulting names into a font at a  specific  size,
           replace  one  of  the  first two zeros with a nonzero value.  The field
           containing the first zero is for the pixel size; replace it with a spe-
           cific height in pixels to name a font at that size.  Alternatively, the
           field containing the second zero is for the point size; replace it with
           a  specific size in decipoints (there are 722.7 decipoints to the inch)
           to name a font at that size.  The last zero is an average width  field,
           measured in tenths of pixels; some servers will anamorphically scale if
           this value is specified.
    
    
    

    FONT SERVER NAMES

           One of the following forms can be used  to  name  a  font  server  that
           accepts TCP connections:
    
               tcp/hostname:port
               tcp/hostname:port/cataloguelist
    
           The  hostname  specifies  the  name (or decimal numeric address) of the
           machine on which the font server is running.  The port is  the  decimal
           TCP  port  on  which the font server is listening for connections.  The
           cataloguelist specifies a list of catalogue names, with '+' as a  sepa-
           rator.
    
           Examples: tcp/x.org:7100, tcp/198.112.45.11:7100/all.
    
    
    

    COLOR NAMES

           Most applications provide ways of tailoring (usually through  resources
           or  command  line arguments) the colors of various elements in the text
           and graphics they display.  A color  can  be  specified  either  by  an
           abstract color name, or by a numerical color specification.  The numer-
           ical specification can identify  a  color  in  either  device-dependent
           (RGB) or device-independent terms.  Color strings are case-insensitive.
    
           X supports the use of abstract color names, for example, "red", "blue".
           A  value  for  this  abstract name is obtained by searching one or more
           color name databases.  Xlib first searches  zero  or  more  client-side
           databases;  the  number,  location,  and  content of these databases is
           implementation dependent.  If the name  is  not  found,  the  color  is
           looked  up  in the X server's database.  The text form of this database
           is commonly stored in the file usr/share/X11/rgb.txt.
    
           A numerical color specification consists of a color space  name  and  a
           set of values in the following syntax:
    
               <color_space_name>:<value>/.../<value>
    
           An  RGB Device specification is identified by the prefix "rgb:" and has
           the following syntax:
    
               rgb:<red>/<green>/<blue>
    
                   <red>, <green>, <blue> := h | hh | hhh | hhhh
                   h := single hexadecimal digits
           Note that h indicates the value scaled in 4 bits, hh the  value  scaled
           in  8  bits, hhh the value scaled in 12 bits, and hhhh the value scaled
           in 16 bits, respectively.  These values are passed directly  to  the  X
           server, and are assumed to be gamma corrected.
    
           The eight primary colors can be represented as:
    
               black                rgb:0/0/0
               red                  rgb:ffff/0/0
               green                rgb:0/ffff/0
               blue                 rgb:0/0/ffff
               yellow               rgb:ffff/ffff/0
               magenta              rgb:ffff/0/ffff
               cyan                 rgb:0/ffff/ffff
               white                rgb:ffff/ffff/ffff
    
           For  backward  compatibility,  an  older  syntax for RGB Device is sup-
           ported, but its continued use is not encouraged.  The syntax is an ini-
           tial  sharp  sign character followed by a numeric specification, in one
           of the following formats:
    
               #RGB                      (4 bits each)
               #RRGGBB                   (8 bits each)
               #RRRGGGBBB                (12 bits each)
    
           full intensity, 0.5 half intensity, and so on.  These  values  will  be
           gamma  corrected  by Xlib before being sent to the X server.  The input
           format for these values is an optional sign, a string of numbers possi-
           bly containing a decimal point, and an optional exponent field contain-
           ing an E or e followed by a possibly signed integer string.
    
           The standard device-independent string specifications have the  follow-
           ing syntax:
    
               CIEXYZ:<X>/<Y>/<Z>             (none, 1, none)
               CIEuvY:<u>/<v>/<Y>             (~.6, ~.6, 1)
               CIExyY:<x>/<y>/<Y>             (~.75, ~.85, 1)
               CIELab:<L>/<a>/<b>             (100, none, none)
               CIELuv:<L>/<u>/<v>             (100, none, none)
               TekHVC:<H>/<V>/<C>             (360, 100, 100)
    
           All  of  the  values  (C, H, V, X, Y, Z, a, b, u, v, y, x) are floating
           point values.  Some of the values are constrained to  be  between  zero
           and  some upper bound; the upper bounds are given in parentheses above.
           The syntax for these values is an optional '+' or '-' sign, a string of
           digits  possibly  containing  a decimal point, and an optional exponent
           field consisting of an 'E' or 'e' followed by an optional  '+'  or  '-'
           followed by a string of digits.
    
           For  more  information on device independent color, see the Xlib refer-
           ence manual.
    
    
    

    KEYBOARDS

           The X keyboard model is broken into two layers:  server-specific  codes
           (called  keycodes)  which represent the physical keys, and server-inde-
           pendent symbols (called keysyms) which represent the letters  or  words
           that  appear  on  the keys.  Two tables are kept in the server for con-
           verting keycodes to keysyms:
    
           modifier list
                   Some keys (such as Shift, Control, and Caps Lock) are known  as
                   modifier  and  are  used  to  select different symbols that are
                   attached to a single key (such as Shift-a generates  a  capital
                   A, and Control-l generates a control character ^L).  The server
                   keeps a list of keycodes corresponding to the various  modifier
                   keys.  Whenever a key is pressed or released, the server gener-
                   ates an event that contains the keycode of the indicated key as
                   well  as  a  mask that specifies which of the modifier keys are
                   currently pressed.  Most servers set up this list to  initially
                   contain  the various shift, control, and shift lock keys on the
                   keyboard.
    
           keymap table
                   Applications translate event keycodes and modifier  masks  into
                   keysyms  using  a  keysym table which contains one row for each
                   keycode and one column for various modifier states.  This table
                   is initialized by the server to correspond to normal typewriter
    
           Switching between groups is controlled by the keysym named MODE SWITCH,
           by  attaching that keysym to some key and attaching that key to any one
           of the modifiers Mod1  through  Mod5.   This  modifier  is  called  the
           ''group  modifier.''   Group  1 is used when the group modifier is off,
           and Group 2 is used when the group modifier is on.
    
           Within a group, the modifier state determines which keysym to use.  The
           first  keysym  is  used when the Shift and Lock modifiers are off.  The
           second keysym is used when the Shift modifier is on, when the Lock mod-
           ifier  is on and the second keysym is uppercase alphabetic, or when the
           Lock modifier is on and is interpreted as ShiftLock.   Otherwise,  when
           the  Lock  modifier  is on and is interpreted as CapsLock, the state of
           the Shift modifier is applied first to select a  keysym;  but  if  that
           keysym is lowercase alphabetic, then the corresponding uppercase keysym
           is used instead.
    
    
    

    OPTIONS

           Most X programs attempt to use the same names for command line  options
           and  arguments.  All applications written with the X Toolkit Intrinsics
           automatically accept the following options:
    
           -display display
                   This option specifies the name of the X server to use.
    
           -geometry geometry
                   This option specifies the initial size and location of the win-
                   dow.
    
           -bg color, -background color
                   Either  option  specifies the color to use for the window back-
                   ground.
    
           -bd color, -bordercolor color
                   Either option specifies the color to use for the window border.
    
           -bw number, -borderwidth number
                   Either  option specifies the width in pixels of the window bor-
                   der.
    
           -fg color, -foreground color
                   Either option specifies the color to use for text or  graphics.
    
           -fn font, -font font
                   Either option specifies the font to use for displaying text.
    
           -iconic
                   This  option  indicates  that  the  user  would prefer that the
                   application's windows initially not be visible as if  the  win-
                   dows had be immediately iconified by the user.  Window managers
                   may choose not to honor the application's request.
    
           -name
                   reverse video.  This is used to  override  any  defaults  since
                   reverse video doesn't always work properly.
    
           -selectionTimeout
                   This  option specifies the timeout in milliseconds within which
                   two communicating applications must respond to one another  for
                   a selection request.
    
           -synchronous
                   This  option  indicates that requests to the X server should be
                   sent synchronously, instead of asynchronously.  Since Xlib nor-
                   mally buffers requests to the server, errors do not necessarily
                   get reported immediately after they occur.  This  option  turns
                   off  the buffering so that the application can be debugged.  It
                   should never be used with a working program.
    
           -title string
                   This option specifies the title to be  used  for  this  window.
                   This  information is sometimes used by a window manager to pro-
                   vide some sort of header identifying the window.
    
           -xnllanguage language[_territory][.codeset]
                   This option specifies the language, territory, and codeset  for
                   use in resolving resource and other filenames.
    
           -xrm resourcestring
                   This option specifies a resource name and value to override any
                   defaults.  It is also very useful for  setting  resources  that
                   don't have explicit command line arguments.
    
    
    

    RESOURCES

           To make the tailoring of applications to personal preferences easier, X
           provides a mechanism for storing default values for  program  resources
           (e.g.  background  color,  window title, etc.) that is used by programs
           that use toolkits based on the  X  Toolkit  Intrinsics  library  libXt.
           (Programs using the common Gtk+ and Qt toolkits use other configuration
           mechanisms.)  Resources are specified as strings that are read in  from
           various  places  when  an  application  is run.  Program components are
           named in a hierarchical fashion, with each node in the hierarchy  iden-
           tified  by a class and an instance name.  At the top level is the class
           and instance name of the application itself.  By convention, the  class
           name  of the application is the same as the program name, but with  the
           first letter capitalized (e.g. Bitmap or Emacs) although some  programs
           that  begin with the letter ''x'' also capitalize the second letter for
           historical reasons.
    
           The precise syntax for resources is:
    
           ResourceLine      = Comment | IncludeFile | ResourceSpec | <empty line>
           Comment           = "!" {<any character except null or newline>}
           IncludeFile       = "#" WhiteSpace "include" WhiteSpace FileName WhiteSpace
           FileName          = <valid filename for operating system>
           IncludeFile  lines  are interpreted by replacing the line with the con-
           tents of the specified file.  The word "include" must be in  lowercase.
           The  filename  is  interpreted relative to the directory of the file in
           which the line occurs (for example, if the filename contains no  direc-
           tory or contains a relative directory specification).
    
           If a ResourceName contains a contiguous sequence of two or more Binding
           characters, the sequence will be replaced with single "." character  if
           the  sequence contains only "." characters, otherwise the sequence will
           be replaced with a single "*" character.
    
           A resource database never contains more than  one  entry  for  a  given
           ResourceName.  If a resource file contains multiple lines with the same
           ResourceName, the last line in the file is used.
    
           Any whitespace character before  or  after  the  name  or  colon  in  a
           ResourceSpec  are  ignored.  To allow a Value to begin with whitespace,
           the two-character sequence ''\space'' (backslash followed by space)  is
           recognized  and  replaced  by  a space character, and the two-character
           sequence ''\tab'' (backslash followed by horizontal tab) is  recognized
           and  replaced  by a horizontal tab character.  To allow a Value to con-
           tain embedded newline characters, the two-character sequence ''\n''  is
           recognized and replaced by a newline character.  To allow a Value to be
           broken across multiple lines in a text file, the two-character sequence
           ''\newline''  (backslash followed by newline) is recognized and removed
           from the value.  To allow a Value to contain arbitrary character codes,
           the four-character sequence ''\nnn'', where each n is a digit character
           in the range of ''0''-''7'', is recognized and replaced with  a  single
           byte that contains the octal value specified by the sequence.  Finally,
           the two-character sequence ''\\'' is recognized  and  replaced  with  a
           single backslash.
    
           When  an  application looks for the value of a resource, it specifies a
           complete path in the hierarchy, with both  class  and  instance  names.
           However,  resource  values are usually given with only partially speci-
           fied names and classes, using pattern matching constructs.  An asterisk
           (*) is a loose binding and is used to represent any number of interven-
           ing components, including none.  A period (.) is a tight binding and is
           used  to separate immediately adjacent components.  A question mark (?)
           is used to match any single component name or class.  A database  entry
           cannot  end  in  a  loose binding; the final component (which cannot be
           "?") must be specified.  The lookup  algorithm  searches  the  resource
           database for the entry that most closely matches (is most specific for)
           the full name and class being queried.  When  more  than  one  database
           entry  matches  the  full  name and class, precedence rules are used to
           select just one.
    
           The full name and class are scanned from left to  right  (from  highest
           level  in  the  hierarchy to lowest), one component at a time.  At each
           level, the corresponding component  and/or  binding  of  each  matching
           entry  is  determined,  and  these matching components and bindings are
           compared according to precedence rules.  Each of the rules  is  applied
    
           Programs based on the X Toolkit Intrinsics obtain  resources  from  the
           following  sources (other programs usually support some subset of these
           sources):
    
           RESOURCE_MANAGER root window property
                   Any global resources that should be available to clients on all
                   machines  should  be stored in the RESOURCE_MANAGER property on
                   the root window of the first screen  using  the  xrdb  program.
                   This  is  frequently  taken  care  of when the user starts up X
                   through the display manager or xinit.
    
           SCREEN_RESOURCES root window property
                   Any resources specific to a given  screen  (e.g.  colors)  that
                   should be available to clients on all machines should be stored
                   in the SCREEN_RESOURCES property on the  root  window  of  that
                   screen.  The xrdb program will sort resources automatically and
                   place them in RESOURCE_MANAGER or SCREEN_RESOURCES,  as  appro-
                   priate.
    
           application-specific files
                   Directories  named by the environment variable XUSERFILESEARCH-
                   PATH or the environment variable  XAPPLRESDIR  (which  names  a
                   single  directory  and should end with a '/' on POSIX systems),
                   plus  directories  in   a   standard   place   (usually   under
                   /usr/share/X11/,  but  this  can  be overridden with the XFILE-
                   SEARCHPATH environment variable) are searched for for  applica-
                   tion-specific  resources.   For  example,  application  default
                   resources are  usually  kept  in  /usr/share/X11/app-defaults/.
                   See  the X Toolkit Intrinsics - C Language Interface manual for
                   details.
    
           XENVIRONMENT
                   Any user- and machine-specific resources may  be  specified  by
                   setting  the XENVIRONMENT environment variable to the name of a
                   resource file to be loaded by all applications.  If this  vari-
                   able  is not defined, a file named $HOME/.Xdefaults-hostname is
                   looked for instead, where hostname is  the  name  of  the  host
                   where the application is executing.
    
           -xrm resourcestring
                   Resources  can  also  be  specified from the command line.  The
                   resourcestring is a single resource name  and  value  as  shown
                   above.  Note that if the string contains characters interpreted
                   by the shell (e.g., asterisk), they must be quoted.  Any number
                   of -xrm arguments may be given on the command line.
    
           Program  resources  are  organized  into groups called classes, so that
           collections  of  individual  resources  (each  of  which   are   called
           instances) can be set all at once.  By convention, the instance name of
           a resource begins with a lowercase letter and class name with an  upper
           case  letter.   Multiple word resources are concatenated with the first
           borderColor (class BorderColor)
                   This resource specifies the color to use for the window border.
    
           Most applications using the X Toolkit Intrinsics also have the resource
           foreground (class Foreground), specifying the color to use for text and
           graphics within the window.
    
           By combining class and instance specifications, application preferences
           can be set quickly and easily.  Users of color displays will frequently
           want to set Background and Foreground classes to  particular  defaults.
           Specific  color  instances  such as text cursors can then be overridden
           without having to define all of the related resources.  For example,
    
               bitmap*Dashed:  off
               XTerm*cursorColor:  gold
               XTerm*multiScroll:  on
               XTerm*jumpScroll:  on
               XTerm*reverseWrap:  on
               XTerm*curses:  on
               XTerm*Font:  6x10
               XTerm*scrollBar: on
               XTerm*scrollbar*thickness: 5
               XTerm*multiClickTime: 500
               XTerm*charClass:  33:48,37:48,45-47:48,64:48
               XTerm*cutNewline: off
               XTerm*cutToBeginningOfLine: off
               XTerm*titeInhibit:  on
               XTerm*ttyModes:  intr ^c erase ^? kill ^u
               XLoad*Background: gold
               XLoad*Foreground: red
               XLoad*highlight: black
               XLoad*borderWidth: 0
               emacs*Geometry:  80x65-0-0
               emacs*Background:  rgb:5b/76/86
               emacs*Foreground:  white
               emacs*Cursor:  white
               emacs*BorderColor:  white
               emacs*Font:  6x10
               xmag*geometry: -0-0
               xmag*borderColor:  white
    
           If these resources were stored in a file  called  .Xresources  in  your
           home  directory,  they  could be added to any existing resources in the
           server with the following command:
    
               % xrdb -merge $HOME/.Xresources
    
           This is frequently how user-friendly startup  scripts  merge  user-spe-
           cific  defaults  into any site-wide defaults.  All sites are encouraged
           to set up convenient ways of automatically loading resources.  See  the
           Xlib manual section Resource Manager Functions for more information.
    
           LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, LANG
                  The  first non-empty value among these three determines the cur-
                  rent locale's facet for character handling,  and  in  particular
                  the   default   text   encoding.  See  locale(7),  setlocale(3),
                  locale(1).
    
           XMODIFIERS
                  This variable can  be  set  to  contain  additional  information
                  important  for  the  current  locale  setting.  Typically set to
                  @im=<input-method> to enable  a  particular  input  method.  See
                  XSetLocaleModifiers(3).
    
           XLOCALEDIR
                  This  must point to a directory containing the locale.alias file
                  and Compose and XLC_LOCALE file hierarchies for all locales. The
                  default value is /usr/share/X11/locale.
    
           XENVIRONMENT
                  This must point to a file containing X resources. The default is
                  $HOME/.Xdefaults-<hostname>.  Unlike  $HOME/.Xresources,  it  is
                  consulted each time an X application starts.
    
           XFILESEARCHPATH
                  This  must  contain  a  colon  separated list of path templates,
                  where libXt will search for resource files.  The  default  value
                  consists of
    
                      /usr/etc/X11/%L/%T/%N%C%S:\
                      /usr/etc/X11/%l/%T/%N%C%S:\
                      /usr/etc/X11/%T/%N%C%S:\
                      /usr/etc/X11/%L/%T/%N%S:\
                      /usr/etc/X11/%l/%T/%N%S:\
                      /usr/etc/X11/%T/%N%S:\
                      /usr/share/X11/%L/%T/%N%C%S:\
                      /usr/share/X11/%l/%T/%N%C%S:\
                      /usr/share/X11/%T/%N%C%S:\
                      /usr/share/X11/%L/%T/%N%S:\
                      /usr/share/X11/%l/%T/%N%S:\
                      /usr/share/X11/%T/%N%S:\
                      /usr/lib/X11/%L/%T/%N%C%S:\
                      /usr/lib/X11/%l/%T/%N%C%S:\
                      /usr/lib/X11/%T/%N%C%S:\
                      /usr/lib/X11/%L/%T/%N%S:\
                      /usr/lib/X11/%l/%T/%N%S:\
                      /usr/lib/X11/%T/%N%S
    
                  A path template is transformed to a pathname by substituting:
    
                      %D => the implementation-specific default path
                      %N => name (basename) being searched for
                      %T => type (dirname) being searched for
                      %S => suffix being searched for
                      $XAPPLRESDIR/%N%C:\
                      $HOME/%N%C:\
                      $XAPPLRESDIR/%L/%N:\
                      $XAPPLRESDIR/%l/%N:\
                      $XAPPLRESDIR/%N:\
                      $HOME/%N
    
                  $XAPPLRESDIR defaults to $HOME, see below.
    
                  A path template is transformed to a pathname by substituting:
    
                      %D => the implementation-specific default path
                      %N => name (basename) being searched for
                      %T => type (dirname) being searched for
                      %S => suffix being searched for
                      %C => value of the resource "customization"
                            (class "Customization")
                      %L => the locale name
                      %l => the locale's language (part before '_')
                      %t => the locale's territory (part after '_' but before '.')
                      %c => the locale's encoding (part after '.')
    
           XAPPLRESDIR
                  This  must  point  to a base directory where the user stores his
                  application dependent  resource  files.  The  default  value  is
                  $HOME. Only used if XUSERFILESEARCHPATH is not set.
    
           XKEYSYMDB
                  This  must point to a file containing nonstandard keysym defini-
                  tions.  The default value is /usr/share/X11/XKeysymDB.
    
           XCMSDB This must point to a color name database file. The default value
                  is
                   /usr/lib/X11/Xcms.txt.
    
           RESOURCE_NAME
                  This  serves  as  main identifier for resources belonging to the
                  program being executed. It defaults to the basename of  pathname
                  of the program.
    
           SESSION_MANAGER
                  Denotes the session manager to which the application should con-
                  nect. See xsm(1), rstart(1).
    
           XF86BIGFONT_DISABLE
                  Setting  this  variable  to  a  non-empty  value  disables   the
                  XFree86-Bigfont  extension.  This  extension  is  a mechanism to
                  reduce the memory consumption of big fonts by use of shared mem-
                  ory.
    
           XKB_FORCE
           XKB_DISABLE
           The  following  is a collection of sample command lines for some of the
           more frequently used commands.  For more information  on  a  particular
           command, please refer to that command's manual page.
    
               %  xrdb $HOME/.Xresources
               %  xmodmap -e "keysym BackSpace = Delete"
               %  mkfontdir /usr/local/lib/X11/otherfonts
               %  xset fp+ /usr/local/lib/X11/otherfonts
               %  xmodmap $HOME/.keymap.km
               %  xsetroot -solid 'rgbi:.8/.8/.8'
               %  xset b 100 400 c 50 s 1800 r on
               %  xset q
               %  twm
               %  xmag
               %  xclock -geometry 48x48-0+0 -bg blue -fg white
               %  xeyes -geometry 48x48-48+0
               %  xbiff -update 20
               %  xlsfonts '*helvetica*'
               %  xwininfo -root
               %  xdpyinfo -display joesworkstation:0
               %  xhost -joesworkstation
               %  xrefresh
               %  xwd | xwud
               %  bitmap companylogo.bm 32x32
               %  xcalc -bg blue -fg magenta
               %  xterm -geometry 80x66-0-0 -name myxterm $*
    
    
    

    DIAGNOSTICS

           A  wide  variety of error messages are generated from various programs.
           The default error handler in Xlib (also used  by  many  toolkits)  uses
           standard  resources to construct diagnostic messages when errors occur.
           The   defaults   for   these   messages   are   usually    stored    in
           usr/share/X11/XErrorDB.   If  this  file is not present, error messages
           will be rather terse and cryptic.
    
           When the X Toolkit  Intrinsics  encounter  errors  converting  resource
           strings  to the appropriate internal format, no error messages are usu-
           ally printed.  This is convenient when it is desirable to have one  set
           of  resources  across a variety of displays (e.g. color vs. monochrome,
           lots of fonts vs. very few, etc.), although it can  pose  problems  for
           trying to determine why an application might be failing.  This behavior
           can be overridden by the setting the StringConversionWarnings resource.
    
           To  force  the  X  Toolkit Intrinsics to always print string conversion
           error messages, the following resource should be  placed  in  the  file
           that gets loaded onto the RESOURCE_MANAGER property using the xrdb pro-
           gram (frequently called .Xresources or .Xres in the user's home  direc-
           tory):
    
               *StringConversionWarnings: on
    
           To  have conversion messages printed for just a particular application,
           xrx(1),  xset(1),  xsetroot(1),  xsm(1), xstdcmap(1), xterm(1), xwd(1),
           xwininfo(1),  xwud(1).   Xserver(1),   Xorg(1),   Xdmx(1),   Xephyr(1),
           Xnest(1),  Xquartz(1),  Xvfb(1), Xvnc(1), XWin(1).  Xlib - C Language X
           Interface, and X Toolkit Intrinsics - C Language Interface
    
    
    

    TRADEMARKS

           X Window System is a trademark of The Open Group.
    
    
    

    AUTHORS

           A cast of thousands, literally.  Releases 6.7 and later are brought  to
           you  by  the  X.Org  Foundation.  The names of all people who made it a
           reality will be found in the individual documents and source files.
    
           Releases 6.6 and 6.5 were done by The X.Org  Group.   Release  6.4  was
           done  by The X Project Team.  The Release 6.3 distribution was from The
           X Consortium, Inc.  The staff members at the X  Consortium  responsible
           for that release were: Donna Converse (emeritus), Stephen Gildea (emer-
           itus), Kaleb Keithley, Matt Landau (emeritus),  Ralph  Mor  (emeritus),
           Janet  O'Halloran, Bob Scheifler, Ralph Swick, Dave Wiggins (emeritus),
           and Reed Augliere.
    
           The X Window System standard was originally developed at the Laboratory
           for  Computer Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and
           all rights thereto were assigned to the  X  Consortium  on  January  1,
           1994.   X  Consortium, Inc. closed its doors on December 31, 1996.  All
           rights to the X Window System have been assigned to The Open Group.
    
    
    

    X Version 11 xorg-docs 1.6 X(7)

    
    
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