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  [-?]  [-h] [-help] [-newcert] [-newreq] [-newreq-nodes] [-newca]
           [-xsign] [-sign] [-signreq] [-signcert] [-verify] [files]


           The script is a perl script that supplies the relevant command
           line arguments to the openssl command for some common certificate
           operations.  It is intended to simplify the process of certificate
           creation and management by the use of some simple options.


           ?, -h, -help
               prints a usage message.
               creates a new self signed certificate. The private key and
               certificate are written to the file "newreq.pem".
               creates a new certificate request. The private key and request are
               written to the file "newreq.pem".
               is like -newreq except that the private key will not be encrypted.
               creates a new CA hierarchy for use with the ca program (or the
               -signcert and -xsign options). The user is prompted to enter the
               filename of the CA certificates (which should also contain the
               private key) or by hitting ENTER details of the CA will be prompted
               for. The relevant files and directories are created in a directory
               called "demoCA" in the current directory.
               create a PKCS#12 file containing the user certificate, private key
               and CA certificate. It expects the user certificate and private key
               to be in the file "newcert.pem" and the CA certificate to be in the
               file demoCA/cacert.pem, it creates a file "newcert.p12". This
               command can thus be called after the -sign option. The PKCS#12 file
               can be imported directly into a browser.  If there is an additional
               argument on the command line it will be used as the "friendly name"
               for the certificate (which is typically displayed in the browser
               list box), otherwise the name "My Certificate" is used.
           -sign, -signreq, -xsign
               calls the ca program to sign a certificate request. It expects the
               request to be in the file "newreq.pem". The new certificate is
               written to the file "newcert.pem" except in the case of the -xsign
               option when it is written to standard output.
               this option is the same as the -signreq option except it uses the
               one or more optional certificate file names for use with the
               -verify command.


           Create a CA hierarchy:
           Complete certificate creation example: create a CA, create a request,
           sign the request and finally create a PKCS#12 file containing it.
   -pkcs12 "My Test Certificate"


           Although the creates RSA CAs and requests it is still possible to
           use it with DSA certificates and requests using the req(1) command
           directly. The following example shows the steps that would typically be
           Create some DSA parameters:
            openssl dsaparam -out dsap.pem 1024
           Create a DSA CA certificate and private key:
            openssl req -x509 -newkey dsa:dsap.pem -keyout cacert.pem -out cacert.pem
           Create the CA directories and files:
           enter cacert.pem when prompted for the CA file name.
           Create a DSA certificate request and private key (a different set of
           parameters can optionally be created first):
            openssl req -out newreq.pem -newkey dsa:dsap.pem
           Sign the request:


           Most of the filenames mentioned can be modified by editing the
           If the demoCA directory already exists then the -newca command will not
           overwrite it and will do nothing. This can happen if a previous call
           using the -newca option terminated abnormally. To get the correct
           openssl command directly.


           The variable OPENSSL_CONF if defined allows an alternative
           configuration file location to be specified, it should contain the full
           path to the configuration file, not just its directory.


           x509(1), ca(1), req(1), pkcs12(1), config(5)

    1.0.1 2005-05-03 CA.PL(1SSL)


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